Calendar overview 1703
Tsar Peter I founds Saint Petersburg
as a fortress in the war against the Swedes .
Francis II. Rákóczi
sits at the head
of a revolt
against the Habsburg
rule in Hungary .
|siege of Thorn ends with the conquest of the city by the Swedes under Charles XII.|
|1703 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1151/52 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1695/96 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1108/09 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2246/47 (southern Buddhism); 2245/46 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1065/66 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4036/37 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1114/15 (turn of the year 16/17 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5463/64 (September 10-11)|
|Coptic calendar||1419/20 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2013/14 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2014/15 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1759/60 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Spanish Succession
- The Holy Roman Empire as a whole as well as numerous imperial estates such as Kurbrandenburg , Braunschweig , Hessen-Kassel , Mecklenburg-Schwerin , the Franconian , the Swabian , the Lower Rhine-Westphalian and the Upper Rhine Empire are joined in 1701 between Emperor Leopold I , the Netherlands and England closed Hague Grand Alliance against France in the war of Spanish succession in. Even Savoy changes sides during the year.
- February: Bavarian diversion in the War of the Spanish Succession : The Bavarian Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel conquers the Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg .
- March 17 : The imperial army corps under the Austrian general Hermann Otto II of Limburg-Styrum , to which Franconian district troops have joined, conquers the Bavarian fortress of Neumarkt .
- March 26th : The imperial army corps under General Styrum liberates Velburg in the Electoral Palatinate from Bavaria.
- March 28 : The War of the Spanish Succession leads to the battle of Schmidmühlen . The Bavarian army was finally able to prevail against the imperial ones, but could not use this victory because the Bavarians had to turn back to the threats to their southern territory. As a result, most of the Upper Palatinate remains occupied by imperial troops and the direct threat to the Frankish imperial circle has been eliminated for the time being.
- May 6th : Bonn , held by the French, is conquered by imperial troops after a long bombardment.
- May 16 : An "eternal alliance" is concluded between Portugal and England , whereby Portugal joins the Great Alliance on the condition that Archduke Charles comes to the Iberian Peninsula and starts war there himself.
- May 18th : German and English troops take Cologne , which has been occupied by French troops.
- May 22nd : A French fleet squadron attacks 100 Dutch ships carrying a large load of salt near Lisbon .
- May 24th : The Kurdish army suffers a heavy defeat against imperial troops in the battle of Krottensee .
- June 19 : Bavarian troops who invaded Tyrol during the so-called " Bavarian hype " lay siege to Kufstein . Fires broke out in the suburbs, spreading to the city itself, destroying it and reaching the powder store of the fortress , which was considered impregnable . The enormous powder stocks explode and Kufstein has to surrender on June 20th . On the same day the Tyroleans surrender in Wörgl , two days later Rattenberg is captured and Innsbruck evacuated on June 25 without a fight.
- July 26th : After the victory at the Pontlatzer Bridge and the Brenner Pass , the Tyrolean rural population expelled the Bavarian Elector Maximilian II Emanuel from North Tyrol and thus prevented the planned march of the Bavarian Army, allied with France, on Vienna during the War of the Spanish Succession. This success with minor own losses is the signal for the uprising of the Tyroleans against the Bavarians, and Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel can just flee from Innsbruck. He withdrew to Bavaria via Seefeld in Tirol .
- September 5th : Imperial troops under the command of Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden-Baden surprisingly occupy the neutral Free Augsburg . In this way the Danube can be bypassed and the Electorate of Bavaria can be threatened directly from the west.
- September 20 : Near Höchstädt on the Danube in Bavaria, a battle takes place (see First Battle of Höchstädt ) between the imperial imperial troops on the one hand and French-Bavarian troops on the other. The Austrian Count Styrum owes it to the fact that the 6000-strong Prussian rearguard under Prince Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau was able to reach the protective Nördlingen with the remaining army .
- November 15 : In the battle of the Speyerbach during the siege of Landau, the French under their general Camille d'Hostun de la Baume, duc de Tallard , prevailed over a Hessian-Dutch relief army for the besieged Landau fortress . Their victory immediately leads to the surrender of the fortress.
- November: Duke Viktor Amadeus II of Savoy changes sides in the War of the Spanish Succession. Previously an ally of the Bourbons , he is now on the side of the Grand Alliance .
Great Northern War
- March 18 : Swedish troops under the command of Major General Adam Lewenhaupt defeat Russian troops under Gregor Anton Oginski in the Battle of Saladen in the Great Northern War .
- March: The Swedish King Charles XII. sets out with his army towards Warsaw , which he reaches at the beginning of April. King August II of Poland, who is also Elector of Saxony, left Dresden around the same time for Thorn and Marienburg in order to begin a new campaign against the Swedes.
- May 1st : The Swedes of Charles XII. beat the Saxons under Adam Heinrich von Steinau in the battle of Pultusk . Charles XII. then moves northwards towards the strong fortress Thorn to destroy the last remnants of the demoralized Saxon army .
- May 1 : The garrison of the Swedish fortress Nyenschantz at the mouth of the Neva in the Gulf of Finland surrenders after a week of siege by the Russian army under the command of General Field Marshal Boris Sheremetyev with the help of the newly established Russian Navy .
- May 18 : A Russian galley command (30 ships) under Tsar Peter I and Alexander Danilowitsch Menshikov captured two ships of a Swedish naval squadron under Vice Admiral Numers in a sea battle at the mouth of the Neva . Traditionally, the battle is considered to be the first naval battle of the Russian fleet and May 18 has been the date of birth of the Baltic fleet since then .
- May: A Russian infantry command under Major General Nikolai von Werdin occupies the Swedish fortress of Jambur (Russia) and the Swedish fortress of Koporje (Russia).
- May 26th : In the Great Northern War , a Swedish army reaches the Vistula near Thorn and begins to siege the city . It is defended by a Saxon garrison of the troops of Augustus the Strong .
- May 27 : The laying of the foundation stone of the Peter and Paul Fortress on the Neva by Peter I is considered the foundation date for the city of Saint Petersburg .
- July 7th : The Russian army defeats a Swedish command under General Abraham Kronhjort north of St. Petersburg.
- July 13 : The Battle of Systerbäck ends with a victory for Russian units over Swedish units.
- October 14th : The siege of Thorn ends with the capture of the city by the Swedes. The capture of Thorn brings the Swedish King Charles XII. complete control of Poland .
- June 16 : The uprising directed against Habsburg rule by Franz II. Rákóczi becomes political when the nobleman is able to take the lead in a smaller rebellion that has broken out in Carpathian Ukraine . This spreads through influx throughout the northeast of the Kingdom of Hungary .
- September 12th : Within the Austrian hereditary lands the pactum mutuae successionis is concluded.
Other events in Europe
- November 23 : With the Schönberg Treaty , Christian Heinrich von Brandenburg-Kulmbach gives up his right of succession in the Franconian possessions of the Hohenzollern in favor of King Friedrich I in Prussia in return for financial compensation.
- Ottoman Empire : Edirne incident in which insurgents murder Sheikhul Islam Feyzullah Efendi and depose Sultan Mustafa II . Ahmed III. becomes sultan.
- The uprising of the camisards in the Cevennes under the leadership of Jean Cavalier against the French crown continues. It is being carried out with extreme brutality on both sides.
- In response to the English Act of Settlement of 1701 , the Scottish Parliament passes the Act of Security .
Empire of Japan
- March 20 : The 46 ronin sentenced to death after revenge for the death of their prince in Edo , who were permitted by the Shogun to commit seppuku , follow this saying.
Other events in Asia
- Phrachao Suea succeeds his late father Phetracha to the throne of the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya .
- Watchtang VI. becomes ruler of the Georgian Kingdom of Kartlien under the sovereignty of the Persian dynasty of the Safavids . His adviser is the monk Sulchan-Saba Orbeliani .
- January: The first edition of a Russian-language newspaper called Vedomosti appears in Moscow . The founders declare that they want to report on the military and other things "that are worth knowing and memories that happen in Moscow and other neighboring countries."
- August 8th : The Wiennerische Diarium appears with its first edition. Today's Wiener Zeitung is considered the oldest newspaper in the world that is still published .
- August 29th : On behalf of Tsar Peter I , an iron processing factory is established on the banks of the Onega River . The associated settlement of workers is called Petrozavodsk , which becomes the capital of Karelia .
- December 27th : In the Methuen Treaty , England acquires the right to export textiles to Portugal without restriction , while, conversely, Portugal is exclusively allowed to supply England with wine .
science and technology
- July 1st : The opera Der Verführte Claudius by Reinhard Keizer with a libretto by Heinrich Hinsch has its world premiere at the Oper am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- July 12 : The equestrian statue of the Great Elector designed by Andreas Schlueter is ceremoniously unveiled on the Long Bridge to the Berlin City Palace .
- July 1st : The maid Afra Dickh is hanged after the Fürsteneck witch trial and then burned.
- July 31 : After his authorship of the anonymous treatise The Shortest Way With The Dissenters ( The Shortest Way ) is known with which he attacked the Anglican Church, has Daniel Defoe after three days in the pillory for an indefinite period in prison.
- August 9th : Johann Sebastian Bach is employed as organist in the New Church in Arnstadt .
- John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby , has a large city palace built for himself in London , Buckingham Palace .
- In the ecclesiastical province of Albania one is Partikularkonzil held all Albanian bishops and numerous religious leaders at the. The church assembly takes place at a time when the Islamization of the Albanian population is reaching its peak. The Catholic forces in the country itself but also the Roman Curia are now intensifying their efforts to consolidate the Albanian Church.
- 5. bis 13. December : On the British Isles sweeps the heaviest storm has ever been reported on there. The hurricane reaches speeds of up to 120 mph . A total of around 8,000 people are killed, numerous ships sink and thousands of oaks overturn. Twelve Royal Navy warships and an unknown number of merchant ships sink off the English coast, particularly in The Downs between Goodwin Sands and eastern Kent at the mouth of the North Sea and the English Channel . Over 1,500 Royal Navy sailors and probably many hundreds, if not over a thousand, of merchant ship sailors die in the process. The great storm of 1703 has an impact as far as Lower Germany and has its climax there on December 8th .
- December 31 : A major earthquake hits Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan . Along with a subsequent tsunami , it wreaked havoc in Tokyo, Odawara, and other locations in the region. Over 10,000 people die in the natural disaster .
First half of the year
- January 1 : Carlos Francisco de Croix , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain († 1778 )
- January 15 : Henriette-Louise de Bourbon , Abbess of Beaumont-lés-Tours († 1772 )
- February 13th (baptized): Johann Peter Moll , German builder and mayor in Grombach († 1767 )
- February 18 : Corrado Giaquinto , Italian painter († 1766 )
- February 21 : Shāh Walī Allāh ad-Dihlawī , Indian-Islamic thinker († 1762 )
- March 12 : Ladislaus Amade von Várkonyi , Hungarian poet († 1764 )
- March 14 : Johann Andreas Boden , German historian and Lutheran theologian († 1764 )
- March 23 : Johann Georg Üblhör , German plasterer and sculptor († 1763 )
- April 15 : Luisa Bergalli , Venetian poet and librettist († 1779 )
- April 18 : Johann Gottfried Schaumburg , German legal scholar († 1746 )
- April 24 : José Francisco de Isla , Spanish writer and translator († 1781 )
- May 8 : Johann Gottlob Harrer , German composer and Thomaskantor († 1755 )
- May 12 : Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer , French composer, harpsichordist and singer († 1755 )
- May 25 : Christoph Ludwig Crell , German literary and legal scholar († 1758 )
- June 23 : Maria Leszczyńska , Polish nobleman, Queen of France († 1768 )
- June 24th : Johann Baptist Regondi , imperial master stonemason and sculptor († 1762 )
- June 27 : Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens , French writer and philosopher († 1771 )
- June 28 : John Wesley , English revival preacher and one of the founders of the United Methodist Church († 1791 )
Second half of the year
- July 23 : Carl Friedrich von Kraut , Oberhofmarschall of Prince Heinrich of Prussia († 1767 )
- July 24 : Justus Juncker , German painter († 1767 )
- August 4th : Louis I. de Bourbon , Duke of Orléans and Duke of Nemours, Grand Master of the Order of Lazarus († 1752 )
- August 27 : August von Hallerstein , German Jesuit and China missionary († 1774 )
- August 30 : Yanagisawa Kien , Japanese painter († 1758 )
- September 1 : William Battie , English doctor († 1776 )
- September 15 : Guillaume-François Rouelle , French chemist († 1770 )
- September 20 : Christoph Timotheus Seidel , German Lutheran theologian († 1758 )
- September 21 : Charlotte Wilhelmine Amalie Alexandrina von Nassau-Hadamar , baroness of Merode-Westerloo († 1740 )
- September 29 : François Boucher , French painter, draftsman, engraver and decorator († 1770 )
- October 1 : Karl Gottlob Hofmann , German Lutheran theologian and historian († 1774 )
- October 3 : Franz Christoph Janneck , Austrian painter († 1761 )
- October 5 : Jonathan Edwards , North American preacher, missionary and leader of the Great Awakening revival movement († 1758 )
- October 5 : Christian Weise , German Lutheran theologian and educator († 1743 )
- November 1 : Władysław Aleksander Łubieński , Archbishop of Lemberg, Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland-Lithuania and Interrex of Poland-Lithuania († 1767 )
- November 2 : Hans Joachim Steinmann , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1792 )
- November 22 : Balthasar Riepp , Austrian painter († 1764 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Louis-Roch-Antoine-Charles Arnauld , French author and encyclopedia († 1779 )
- Changchub Dorje , 12th Karmapa of the Karma Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism († 1732 )
- Matthew Dubourg , Irish violin virtuoso and composer († 1767 )
- Johann Gottlieb Graun , German violinist and composer († 1784 )
- Johann Peter Migendt , German organ builder († 1767 )
- John Ranby , English doctor and military surgeon († 1773 )
Born around 1703
- 1702 /03: Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab , Islamic scholar hanbalitischer teaching direction, founder of Wahhabism († 1792 )
- Anton Wilhelm Amo , philosopher and legal scholar of African origin in Germany († after 1753)
- Margaretha Kirch , Berlin astronomer († after 1744)
January to April
- January 6 : Charlotte Marie von Sachsen-Jena , Duchess of Sachsen-Weimar (* 1669 )
- January 8 : Gottfried von Jena , German diplomat and Prussian politician (* 1624 )
- January 9 : Ursula Micaela Morata , Spanish nun and founder of a monastery (* 1628 )
- January 11 : Johann Georg Graevius , German classical philologist and text critic (* 1632 )
- January 16 : Erik Dahlberg , Swedish field marshal, fortress builder and architect (* 1625 )
- January 18 : Johann Friedrich Falckner , Saxon lawyer and mayor of Leipzig (* 1642 )
- February 11 : Godert de Ginkell, 1st Earl of Athlone , Dutch general (* 1644 )
- February 18 : Thomas Hyde , English orientalist and linguist (* 1636 )
- February 18 : Jelena Zrinski , Croatian noblewoman (* 1643 )
- February 26 : Christian Hirschmentzl , Bohemian monk and writer (* 1638 )
- March 12th : Aubrey de Vere, 20th Earl of Oxford , English nobleman (* 1627 )
- March 14th : Robert Hooke , English physicist (* 1635 )
- March 20 : Johannes Kunckel , German alchemist and glassmaker (* around 1630 )
- March 25th : Carl Gustav von Löwenhaupt , Electoral Saxon government official (* 1662 )
- March 28 : Johann Brunetti , titular bishop of Lacedaemonia and auxiliary bishop in Breslau (* 1646 )
- March 28 : Hans Christian Eiffler , Mayor of Altona (* 1630 )
- March 29 : Georg Friedrich II. , Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (* 1678 )
- March 31 : Johann Christoph Bach , German composer (* 1642 )
- April 9th : Johann Balthasar Moscherosch , German Romance scholar and librarian (* 1647 )
- April 23 : Otto Wilhelm von Fersen , Swedish field marshal (* 1623 )
May to August
- May 3 : Eglon van der Neer , Dutch painter (* 1635 / 36 )
- May 9 : François Blondel , Flemish spa and spa doctor (* 1613 )
- May 16 : Charles Perrault , French writer, who became famous primarily for his collection of fairy tales (* 1628 )
- May 21 : Raimund Faltz , Swedish court medalist, wax boss, ivory carver and miniature painter at the Prussian court (* 1658 )
- May 26 : Samuel Pepys , English civil servant and diary writer (* 1633 )
- May: Gottfried Ulrich de la Margelle , auxiliary bishop in Cologne (* 1635 )
- May: Anna Vetter , Nuremberg preacher and mystical visionary (* 1630 )
- June 4th : Philis de La Charce , French war heroine (* 1645 )
- June 4th : Luise Katharina von Rautter , Prussian landowner and hydraulic engineering entrepreneur (* 1650 )
- June 14 : Jean Hérault de Gourville , French financier and adventurer (* 1625 )
- July 11th : Andreas Hedio , Prussian philosopher and librarian (* 1640 )
- July 26 : Gérard Audran , French engraver (* 1640 )
- August 1st : Sibylle Hedwig von Sachsen-Lauenburg , Duchess of Sachsen-Lauenburg (* 1625 )
- August 14 : Grigore Pintea , Transylvanian Hajduken leader (* 1670 )
- August 26 : Adam II. Batthyány , Hungarian general, Ban of Croatia (* 1662 )
September to December
- September 6th : Andreas Austen , German Reformed theologian, Graecist and Orientalist (* 1658 )
- September 14th : Gilles Jullien , French composer and organist (* around 1653 )
- September 22nd : Vincenzo Viviani , Italian mathematician and physicist (* 1622 )
- September 29 : Charles de Saint-Évremond , French military, writer and moralist (* 1613 )
- September 30th : Caspar Adelmann , German Jesuit scholar and teacher (* 1641 )
- September: Marie Claveau , French comedian, member of Molière's company
- October 3 : Alessandro Melani , Italian composer, singer and conductor (* 1639 )
- October 8 : Tomás Marín González de Poveda , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and governor of Chile (* 1650 )
- October 23 : Hannah Twynnoy , English barmaid, was killed by a tiger (* 1669 / 70 )
- October 24 : Karl Gustav , Margrave of Baden-Durlach (* 1648 )
- November 1st : Eberhard Anckelmann , Protestant theologian, linguist and orientalist (* 1641 )
- November 8 : John Wallis , English mathematician (* 1616 )
- November 11 : Ivan Antun Zrinski , Croatian nobleman (* 1651 )
- November 19 : Man in the iron mask , state prisoner of the French King Louis XIV.
- November 30th : Nicolas de Grigny , French composer (* 1672 )
- November 30 : Laurentius Gutzmer , German Evangelical Lutheran clergyman (* 1636 )
- December 22nd : Vitus Handschuher , German sculptor (* 1672 )
- December 26th : Johann Christoph Sturm , German astronomer and mathematician (* 1635 )
Exact date of death unknown
- François Barrême , French mathematician and one of the founders of accounting (* 1638 )
- Gottfried Hermann von Beichlingen , Electoral Saxon Privy Councilor (* 1638 )
- Daniel Denton , English settler and author (* around 1626 )
- Benjamin Fletcher , English governor of the province of New York (* 1640 )
- Andrés Lorente , Spanish music theorist, organist and composer (* 1624 )
- Phetracha , King of Ayutthaya (* 1632 )