|Leopold Joseph Graf Daun defeats Friedrich II in the battle of Hochkirch .||Clement XIII.|
in the French and Indian War
|1758 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1206/07 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1750/51 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1163/1164 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2301/02 (southern Buddhism); 2300/01 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1120/21 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4091/92 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1136/37 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1171/72 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th September)|
|Jewish calendar||5518/19 (October 2-3)|
|Coptic calendar||1474/75 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2068/69 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2069/70 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1814/15 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Seven Years War in Europe
- Beginning of the year: Russian troops under Count Wilhelm von Fermor occupy East Prussia again , penetrate the Neumark and intend to unite with the Austrians who are to advance from Bohemia .
- March 15 to April 18 : The second siege of Schweidnitz Fortress in the Seven Years' War ends with the handover by fortress commander Franz Ludwig von Thürheim to the Prussian troops under Joachim Christian von Tresckow . Leopold von Zastrow becomes the new commander of the fortress .
- April 11th : Great Britain supports Prussia during the Seven Years' War with the pledge of funds and help from newly formed soldiers from Kurhannover .
- May to June: The siege of Olomouc is a central part of the Prussian spring offensive of 1758 under Frederick II. It is planned as a decisive action against Austria . The conquest of the fortress Olomouc in Moravia is intended to bind the main Austrian forces to the Danube. Prince Heinrich is supposed to protect the Prussian position in Saxony. After taking Olomouc, he is supposed to advance towards Bohemia and take Prague . Dohna's army is now supposed to defend the core areas against the Swedes and Russians and to secure General Hans Joachim von Zieten Lower Silesia .
- June 23 : Prince Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel defeated numerically superior French troops under Louis de Bourbon-Condé, comte de Clermont , with an Allied army in the battle of Krefeld . The French are initially withdrawing to Neuss via Osterath. The victorious units move on to Düsseldorf , which they begin to besiege on June 28th .
- June 30th : With the attack near Domstadtl near today's Domašov nad Bystřicí , the Austrians succeed in defeating the cover of a large supply convoy of the Prussians and destroying the convoy. For the most part, the attacks are not carried out in a formed order of battle, but rather in the manner of a small war from ambush. As a result, Frederick II is forced to break off the siege of Olomouc due to the lack of supplies .
- July 8th : The French garrison in Düsseldorf surrenders, the Hanoverian troops take the city. At the beginning of August, however, they were driven out again by Louis-Georges-Erasme de Contades .
- August 5th : In the battle of Mehr , the "small army" deployed on the Prussian side of around 3,000 men under the Brunswick Lieutenant General Philipp Freiherr von Imhoff encounters a French superiority under General François de Chevert of around 10,000 soldiers and defeats them.
- August 25th : By waiting unauthorized against Friedrich's multiple orders, General Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz turned the battle of Zorndorf in favor of the inferior Prussians and defeated the Russian armed forces under Wilhelm von Fermor .
- September 11th : The battle of Saint-Cast is one of the few battles of the Seven Years' War fought on French soil. An amphibious British army is attacked and defeated by French troops under the command of Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon , after a raid on the coast of Brittany during embarkation at Saint-Cast-le-Guildo .
- October 9 / December 3 : Étienne-François de Choiseul replaces François-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis as French Foreign Minister.
- October 10 : In the first battle near Lutterberg , French soldiers under the command of Charles de Rohan, prince de Soubise , defeat Allied troops under Johann Casimir von Isenburg-Birstein and thus gain control of most of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel .
- October 14th : Friedrich II. Is defeated by Count von Daun in the Battle of Hochkirch after being surprised by the Austrians at a poorly chosen camp site.
- The (third) Treaty of Versailles of December 30th modified the Austro-French treaty from the previous year . France reaffirms the strategic alliance with Austria and the newly joined Russia , but revokes its promises regarding Silesia, waives all claims in the Netherlands and cuts its aid to Austria and Russia .
Seven Years War in North America
- British Prime Minister William Pitt appoints Edward Boscawen as admiral of a fleet that is to lay siege to the French fortress Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island in Canada. Jeffrey Amherst becomes Commander of the Land Forces.
- June 8th : A British siege army under James Wolfe lands on the coast in front of the fortress despite strong surf and heavy French defensive fire.
- June 28th : The French sink four ships in the port entrance to make them impassable.
- July 8 : In the Battle of Fort Carillon near Fort Ticonderoga , a vastly outnumbered British army under General James Abercrombie suffers a heavy defeat in the French and Indian War against the French led by Louis-Joseph de Montcalm .
- July 26th : The fortress of Louisbourg surrenders to the British siege troops. An important supply port for the French Canada and a central base of the French Navy in North America will fall.
- September 14th : A British attack on Fort Duquesne fails with heavy losses.
- October 26th : The Treaty of Easton between the British colonial government of the province of Pennsylvania and the Indian tribes of the Ohio Valley , including the Shawnee and Lenni Lenape , states that the tribes will no longer fight on the side of France against the British, who in return affirm not to establish any settlements west of the Allegheny Mountains.
- September 14th : The so-called Forbes Expedition under General Forbes and Colonel George Washington conquers Fort Duquesne . The British are rebuilding the destroyed fort and naming it Fort Pitt after the British Prime Minister . Pittsburgh later developed from this .
Portugal and its colonies
On King José I of Portugal is on 3 September a bombing done when he no bodyguards from a tryst with his mistress Teresa de Távora in the tent city in Ajuda returns, he will be since the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 resides. The king escapes with luck with only minor gunshot wounds. Two suspects arrested several days later confess under torture that they were hired by members of the Távora family. Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello has almost the entire family arrested, as well as the alleged co-conspirator José de Mascarenhas da Silva e Lencastre, Duke of Aveiro . The Jesuits , who oppose the Chancellor's reforms, are also associated with the attempted murder. The trial of the aristocratic defendants begins on December 20th . The exact background of the Távora affair is still unclear.
South East Asia
- April 13 : Borommakot , King of Ayutthaya in Siam , dies. His older son Ekathat , who is considered “stupid, gullible and incompetent”, was shortly before excluded from the line of succession and sent to a monastery. The younger brother Uthumphon is crowned king. Three other half-brothers ally against him. Their uprising is suppressed, however, and the three princes are executed. However, Ekathat returns from the monastery and claims the throne, whereupon Uthumphon abdicates in his favor on June 1st and in turn retires to a Buddhist monastery.
- March 5th : The Petite Poste for mail delivery within Paris is approved.
- April 5 : Duke Carl Eugen von Württemberg founds the Ludwigsburg porcelain factory by decree .
- October 18 : The first blast furnace of the St. Antony ironworks in Klosterhardt , from which the MAN company will develop in the long term , is blown.
- The Berentzen family set up a grain distillery in Haselünne .
- The Middleton Railway starts operating as a horse-drawn railway . It transports coal from the numerous opencast mines south of Leeds from Middleton to the River Aire.
science and technology
- 11 January : Due to a lack of textile specialists, Archduchess Maria Theresia founded the Imperial and Royal Commercial Drawing Academy in Vienna . Lessons begin with six students in a palace in downtown Vienna.
- December 25th : The comet predicted by Edmond Halley is discovered by Johann Georg Palitzsch .
- In the first volume of the 10th edition of his work Systema Naturae , Carl von Linné introduces the two-part naming scheme for animals as well, thus establishing modern zoological nomenclature together with Carl Alexander Clerck .
- The French personal physician of King Louis XV. , François Quesnay , founded the economic theory of the physiocracy through his first economic cycle model, Tableau économique .
- Elector Carl Theodor von der Pfalz founds a copper engraving and drawing cabinet in Mannheim Palace , from which the State Collection of Graphics in Munich will develop.
- Joseph Haydn completed one of his first symphonies , which was later referred to as the 37th symphony .
- Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock wrote the religious poem Resurrection, yes you will resurrect .
Religion and society
- April 14th : The rhinoceros Clara dies in London at the age of around 20. The showman Douwe Mout van der Meer then withdrew from the public.
- July 6 : Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico is elected Pope after a 52-day conclave as the successor to Benedict XIV, who died in Rome on May 3, and takes the name Clement XIII. on. The election of Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini was previously due to the veto of the French King Louis XV. been prevented. He then becomes the archivist of the Papal Secret Archives .
- In his first encyclical A quo on September 13th, the new Pope calls on all bishops for Christian unity.
- Archbishop Christoph Anton von Migazzi , member of the Jesuit order, founds the Vienna seminary .
- Parson's Cause , a legal battle over the remuneration of Anglican clergy in the British colony of Virginia , which willdragon until 1763 , begins.
- January 20 : Marie Lavoisier , French chemist, illustrator and salonnière († 1836 )
- January 22nd : Andrea Amoretti , Italian engraver and printer († 1807 )
- January 29 : Heinrich Maria Graf , German Roman Catholic clergyman and politician († 1822 )
- February 1 : Jacques Antoine Marie de Cazalès , French politician († 1805 )
- February 1 : Ludwig Gotthard Kosegarten , Mecklenburg theologian, pastor and poet († 1818 )
- February 7 : Benedikt Schak , Bohemian tenor and composer († 1826 )
- February 10 : Amalia Holst , German educator and women's rights activist († 1829 )
- March 3 : Carl Gottlob Cramer , German writer († 1817 )
- March 9 : Franz Joseph Gall , German doctor and anatomist († 1828 )
- March 20 : Anna Maria Iselin , Basel citizen's daughter († 1840 )
- April 3 : Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez , Colombian journalist and librarian († 1819 )
- April 4 : Pierre Paul Prud'hon , French painter († 1823 )
- April 8 : Peter Joseph Krahe , German architect of early classicism († 1840 )
- April 9 : Fisher Ames , American politician († 1808 )
- April 13 : Johann von Klenau , Austrian general († 1819 )
- April 16 : Christian von Massenbach , Prussian colonel and writer († 1827 )
- April 23 : Alexander Cochrane , British admiral († 1832 )
- April 28 : James Monroe , American politician and President of the United States of America († 1831 )
- April 29 : Johann Heinrich Lips , Swiss engraver († 1817 )
- May 6 : Maximilien de Robespierre , French lawyer and revolutionary († 1794 )
- May 6 : André Masséna , Marshal of France and Duke of Rivoli and Prince of Essling († 1817 )
- May 8 : Johann Christoph Georg Adler , lawyer († 1815 )
- May 13 : Elizabeth Hervey , Duchess of Devonshire († 1824 )
- May 17 : Honoré IV. , Prince of Monaco († 1819 )
- June 1 : Matthias Klaus , Austrian politician and 4th Mayor of St. Pölten († 1833 )
- June 6th : François-Marie Mayeur , French actor, director, playwright and author of pamphlets († 1818 )
- June 14 : Christian August Günther , German lawyer († 1839 )
- June 22 : Joseph McMinn , American politician († 1824 )
- June 23 : Anna Elisabeth Schönemann , Frankfurt banker's daughter, Goethe's fiancée Lili († 1817 )
- June 30 : James Stephen , British MP († 1832 )
- July 9 : Dietrich Friedrich von Holstein , German officer († 1840 )
- July 20 : Marguerite Élie Guadet , French revolutionary († 1794 )
- July 20 : Sophie Friederike von Thurn und Taxis , German noblewoman († 1800 )
- July 25 : Louise Weyland , Bavarian court counselor and educator of the children of King Maximilian I Joseph († 1837 )
- July 26th : Maximus von Imhof , Augustinian hermit and natural scientist († 1817 )
- August 3 : Friedrich Theodor Kühne , German university professor and linguist († 1834 )
- August 5 : Go-Momozono , Japanese Emperor († 1779 )
- August 5 : Maria Anna Moser , Austrian painter († 1838 )
- August 10 : Armand Gensonné , French politician during the French Revolution († 1793 )
- August 14 : Antoine Charles Horace Vernet , French painter († 1836 )
- August 24 : Sophie Friederike von Mecklenburg , Hereditary Princess of Denmark († 1794 )
- August 24th : Thomas Picton , British Lieutenant General, Governor of Trinidad († 1815 )
- before August 25: Franziska Romana von Hallwil , Swiss aristocrat and revolutionary († 1836 )
- August 26 : Johann Conrad Kopstadt , German politician († 1834 )
- August 29 : Franz Anton von Hartig , Austrian diplomat, historian, poet and geographer († 1797 )
- August 29 : Corentin de Leissegues , French admiral († 1832 )
- September 1 : Wilhelm Leberecht Götzinger , Saxon developer of Saxon Switzerland († 1818 )
- September 6 : Pierre Augustin Hullin , French general († 1841 )
- September 10 : Hannah Webster Foster , American writer († 1840 )
- September 13 : Friedrich August Unger , German Protestant clergyman († 1846 )
- September 20 : Jean-Jacques Dessalines , as Jacques I from 1804 to 1806 Emperor of Haiti († 1806 )
- September 21 : Silvestre de Sacy , French orientalist († 1838 )
- September 24 : Albrecht Anton Adolph Hofmann , German lawyer and civil servant († 1837 )
- September 25 : Josepha Auernhammer , Austrian pianist and composer († 1820 )
- September 25 : Maria Anna Thekla Mozart , das Bäsle , cousin of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart († 1841 )
- September 25 : Franz Michael Vierthaler , Austrian pedagogue, school reformer, writer and journalist († 1827 )
- October 5 : August Lafontaine , German writer († 1831 )
- October 11 : Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers , German doctor and astronomer († 1840 )
- October 12 : Theodorus Bailey , American politician († 1828 )
- October 15 : Benedikt Arnstein , Austrian writer († 1841 )
- October 16 : Johann Heinrich Dannecker , German sculptor († 1841 )
- October 16 : Noah Webster , American lexicographer, translator and writer († 1843 )
- October 19 : Placidus Heinrich , German Benedictine monk in the St. Emmeram Monastery, Regensburg († 1825 )
- October 28 : Joseph-François-Louis Damas , French colonel († 1829 )
- October 30 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Hertling , German lawyer and diplomat († 1816 )
- October 30 : Friedrich Theodor von Schubert , German astronomer († 1825 )
- November 2 : Ryōkan , Zen Buddhist monk of the Japanese Sōtō-shū († 1831 )
- November 6th : Carl Anton von Barth , Mayor of Munich and Landscape Chancellor († 1797 )
- November 11 : Caleb P. Bennett , American politician († 1836 )
- November 12 : Jean-Joseph Mounier , French politician († 1806 )
- November 16 : Peter Andreas Heiberg , Danish satirist († 1841 )
- November 20 : Alexandre Grimod de la Reynière , French gourmet, teacher of culinary art and inventor of gastronomic criticism († 1837 )
- November 20 : Abraham B. Venable , American politician († 1811 )
- November 20 : Georg Friedrich Fickert , German hymn poet and pastor († 1815 )
- November 23 : Samuel Gottlob Auberlen , Swabian musician and song composer († 1829 )
- November 25 : John Armstrong junior , American soldier and politician († 1843 )
- November 25 : Ludwig Philipp Aschoff , German pharmacist († 1827 )
- November 29 : Franziska von Arnstein , Austrian salonier († 1818 )
- December 3 : Louis Adam , French composer and piano virtuoso († 1848 )
- December 3 : Joseph Gelinek , Czech composer and pianist († 1825 )
- December 11 : Carl Friedrich Zelter , German musician († 1832 )
- December 18 : Johann Georg Schulthess , Swiss Reformed theologian († 1802 )
- December 24th : Christian Adam Dann , Protestant theologian and animal rights activist († 1837 )
- December 31 : Johann Heinrich Bleuler , Swiss painter and engraver († 1823 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Culemann , German lawyer and mayor († 1824 )
- Henriette Dauer-von Etzdorf , German actress and opera singer († 1843 )
- Caroline Maximiliane Döbbelin , German actress († 1828 )
- Seymour Dorothy Fleming , British noblewoman († 1818 )
- Jampel Gyatsho , eighth Dalai Lama († 1804 )
- Moritz Kellerhoven , German portrait painter and etcher († 1830 )
- Juliane Caroline Koch , German opera singer († 1783 )
- Józef Kopeć , Polish general and diary author († 1827 )
- Onogawa Kisaburo , Japanese sumo wrestler († 1806 )
- Salem Poor , Afro-American slave and soldier († 1802 )
- Dorothea Widmer , German spouse murderer († 1781 )
- Yeshe Tenpe Nyima , religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism († 1773 )
- Carl Adolph Schultze , Weimar Mayor and Court Counsel († 1818 )
Born around 1758
- Kamehameha I. , first king of Hawaii († 1819 )
- Osman Pazvantoğlu , Ottoman Janissaries and Pasha von Widin († 1807 )
- Zwide kaLanga , leader (Inkosi) of the Ndwandwe in southern Africa († around 1820 )
First half of the year
- January 1 : Maria Ernestine Francisca von Rietberg , German countess (* 1687 )
- January 17th : Johann Gottfried Brendel , German medic (* 1712 )
- February 5 : Ferdinand Julius von Troyer , Prince-Bishop of Olomouc (* 1698 )
- February 24 : Johann Gottlieb Gonne , German lawyer and university professor (* 1713 )
- February 28 : Balthasar Freiherr von Campenhausen , Russian lieutenant general and governor general of Finland (* 1689 )
- March 2 : Johann Baptist Zimmermann , German painter and plasterer (* 1680 )
- March 22 : Jonathan Edwards , British-American congregational preacher and missionary (* 1703 )
- March 28 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Dossow , Prussian Field Marshal General, Governor of Wesel (* 1669 )
- April 7th : Joachim Wilhelm von Brawe , German playwright (* 1738 )
- April 7 : Esther Edwards Burr , British-American diarist (* 1732 )
- April 12th : Antoine de Jussieu , French doctor and botanist (* 1686 )
- April 13 : Borommakot , King of Siam (* around 1680 )
- April 15 : Heinrich Valentin Beck , German cantor and composer (* 1698 )
- April 18 : Lorenz Heister , German botanist and anatomist (* 1683 )
- April 30th : François d'Agincour , French harpsichordist, organist and composer (* 1684 )
- May 3rd : Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, under the name Benedict XIV. Pope (* 1675 )
- May 7 : Caroline von Erbach-Fürstenau , Duchess and Regent of Saxony-Hildburghausen (* 1700 )
- May 10 : Christian Gottlieb Jöcher , German historian, librarian and lexicographer (* 1694 )
- May 10 : Claus von Reventlow , Danish-German lawyer, President of the Højesteret and canon in Lübeck (* 1693 )
- May 11 : Johann Georg Oldekop , German Protestant clergyman (* 1696 )
- May 19 : George Werner , Saxon architect and builder (* 1682 )
- May 28 : Ernst August II. Constantine , Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach (* 1737 )
- May 30 : Christoph Timotheus Seidel , German Lutheran theologian (* 1703 )
- June 5 : Johann Peter Reusch , German philosopher and Lutheran theologian (* 1691 )
- June 12 : August Wilhelm of Prussia , Prussian Prince and General (* 1722 )
- June 14 : Abraham Kaau-Boerhaave , Dutch physician (* 1715 )
- June 27 : Michelangelo Unterberger , South Tyrolean painter (* 1695 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Basilius Christian Bernhard Wiedeburg , German mathematician and astronomer (* 1722 )
- July 6th : Johann Andreas Rothe , German pastor, writer and song poet (* 1688 )
- July 7th : Erasmus Fröhlich , Austrian Jesuit, historian, librarian and numismatist (* 1700 )
- July 11 : Adam Otto von Viereck , Prussian Minister of State and Privy Budget Councilor (* 1684 )
- July 15 : Ambrosius Stub , Danish poet (* 1705 )
- July 28 : Christian Ludwig Stieglitz , German lawyer, councilor and mayor of Leipzig (* 1677 )
- August 13 : Hekimoğlu Ali Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1689 )
- August 15 : Pierre Bouguer , French physicist, geodesist and astronomer (* 1698 )
- August 17th : Stepan Fjodorowitsch Apraxin , Russian field marshal (* 1702 )
- August 24 : Bartolomeo Nazari , Italian painter (* 1693 )
- August 27 : Maria Barbara de Bragança , Queen of Spain (* 1711 )
- September 12 : Melchior Buchner , German painter and plasterer (* 1695 )
- September 13 : Conrad Mannlich , German painter (* 1700 )
- September 30th : Alberico Archinto , Italian Cardinal, Cardinal Secretary of State and Vice Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church (* 1698 )
- October 6 : Yanagisawa Kien , Japanese painter (* 1703 )
- October 8 : Christoph Ludwig Crell , German literary and legal scholar (* 1703 )
- October 14 : James Keith , Scottish Jacobite, General of the Russian Army, Field Marshal General of the Prussian Army and confidante of Frederick the Great (* 1696 )
- October 14 : Wilhelmine of Prussia , Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, sister of Frederick the Great (* 1709 )
- October 20 : Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough , British nobleman and politician (* 1706)
- November 4th : Johann Christian Stock , German medic (* 1707 )
- November 5th : Hans Egede , Danish-Norwegian pastor and "Apostle of the Greenlanders" (* 1686 )
- November 6th : Heinrich XXXV. , Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (* 1689 )
- November 20 : Johan Helmich Roman , Swedish composer (* 1694 )
- November 27th : Francesco Bernardi, called Senesino , Italian mezzo-soprano (* 1686 )
- November 28 : Margareta Klopstock , German writer (* 1728 )
- December 5 : Johann Friedrich Fasch , Saxon composer (* 1688 )
- December 6th : Johann August Bach , German legal historian (* 1721 )
- December 12 : Françoise de Graffigny , French writer and Salonnière (* 1695 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Elizabeth Blackwell , Scottish draftsman, engraver and illustrator (* around 1700 )
- Giampaolo De Dominici , Neapolitan actor, musician, singer and composer (* 1680 )
- Domenico Francia , Italian painter (* 1702 )
- François Mackandal , leader of the Haitian Maroons in Saint-Domingue
- Martin von Neugebauer , Swedish diplomat and chancellor in Swedish Pomerania (* 1670 )