Calendar overview 1711
|Charles VI becomes Holy Roman Emperor .||
conquers Rio de Janeiro .
|Royal Prussian Society of Sciences opens the Berlin observatory .|
|1711 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1159/60 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1703/04 (turn of the year September 11th / 12th)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1116/17 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2254/55 (southern Buddhism); 2253/54 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1073/74 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4044/45 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||1122/23 (turn of the year 18/19 February)|
|Jewish calendar||5471/72 (September 13-14)|
|Coptic Calendar||1427/28 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2021/22 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2022/23 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1767/68 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- January: The Khan of the Crimean Tatars , Devlet II. Giray , invades Ukraine with over 80,000 Tartars , supported by 10,000 pro-Swedish Ukrainian Cossacks , more than 4,000 Poles and 700 Swedes. After initial advances, the Khan's troops are driven back to Crimea in March by Russian and Russian-friendly Cossack troops .
- February 25 Tsar Peter I explained in the Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin the war against the Ottoman Empire . On March 8, he received the declaration of war by Sultan Ahmed III. Peter then goes on the offensive and invades the Ottoman Empire, crossing the Dniester . The Pruth campaign begins.
- April 13: Russia and Moldova sign a secret treaty in which the Moldovan Prince Dimitrie Cantemir declares his country a vassal state of Russia. Russia guarantees the prince the right to determine his heir to the throne.
- July 5: The Russian army reaches Jassy .
- July 14th: The Ottoman fortress Brailov in today's Romania surrenders to the Russian army under General Carl Ewald von Rönne . Two days later, Tsar Peter I ordered the fortress to be returned to the Ottoman Empire.
- July 19: Groswesir Baltaji Mehmed Pascha succeeds in hopelessly encircling the Russian army at Huși am Prut .
- July 19-21: The defeat in the Battle of Stănileşti on the Prut by the Russians and the Moldavians allied with them against the Turks marks the end of the brief rule of the Moldovan Prince Dimitrie Cantemir. Grand Vizier Baltaji Mehmed Pasha accepts, through Peter's wife Katharina Alexejewna, Field Marshal General Boris Sheremetev's offer of an armistice and the start of negotiations.
- July 23: The Peace of the Prut ends the 3rd Russian Turkish War . The treaty allows Tsar Peter to withdraw peacefully from Moldova , but the Tsar returns the recently conquered city of Azov and destroys the newly built fortresses. The treaty also forbids the Tsar from interfering in Polish affairs and obliges him to ensure safe conduct for the Swedish King Charles XII. grant on his way back to Sweden. For the time being, however, this remains in the Ottoman Empire.
The war in the Baltic Sea region
- August 29th: Danish troops under the command of King Frederick IV penetrate from Mecklenburg near Damgarten in Swedish Pomerania for the first time. The Swedes have only 8,000 men under Colonel Karl Gustav Düker here . Russian and Saxon troops from Poland join the Danes at the beginning of September. They came through the Neumark and the Uckermark and soon afterwards united with the Danish army. This is the first time in all the years of the war that the members of the Northern Alliance are involved in a joint operation.
- September 7th: The siege of Stralsund by the allied armies begins, followed by further sieges in the following years.
- December 4: The battle at Lübow between Danish and Swedish troops ends with a Danish victory, which, however, remains largely without consequences.
- December 8: 6,000 Swedes land on Rügen in support of Stralsund .
- December 29th: Danish units begin bombing Wismar , but are unable to capture the city.
Further events in Russia / Courland / Electoral Saxony
- January 21: Shortly after his wedding to the Russian Princess Anna Ivanovna , Friedrich Wilhelm Kettler , Duke of Courland and Semgalla , dies of an illness. Despite the claims of his widow, his uncle Ferdinand Kettler takes over the government in the duchy. However, the last duke from the Kettler dynasty is in exile in Gdansk and will not return to Courland even after taking power.
- February 22nd: Petrine reforms : with a ukase from Tsar Peter I , the ruling senate , the highest imperial authority in Russia and for internal administration and the judiciary, is created and nine men are appointed senators.
- March 17: Peter I declares Katharina Alexejewna his rightful wife and Tsaritsa.
- October 25: The Russian Tsarevich Alexei marries Charlotte Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel . The ceremony takes place in Torgau on the Elbe at the court of the Saxon Electress Christiane Eberhardine .
Holy Roman Empire / Habsburg Empire
- January 6th: Charles III. Joseph of Lorraine becomes Archbishop of Trier and thereby also elector . He follows the late Johann Hugo von Orsbeck .
- April 17: Emperor Joseph I dies of smallpox in Vienna without a male heir . His brother Charles VI. becomes his successor, initially in the Habsburg hereditary lands as King of the Kingdom of Hungary , Croatia and Bohemia . The prospect that Charles will succeed his brother as Holy Roman Emperor is one of the reasons for Britain's withdrawal from the War of the Spanish Succession .
- April 29th: The Peace of Sathmar ends the uprising of Francis II Rákóczi in the Kingdom of Hungary and in Transylvania . All insurgents receive an amnesty. The signing ceremony will take place on May 1st. 12,000 Kuruc then lay down their arms and swear an oath of allegiance to the king in front of Palatine Johann Pálffy . The last insurgent fortress is captured on June 23. Franz II Rákóczi does not accept the peace conditions and instead goes to Poland.
- October 12: Charles VI. is elected German Emperor in Frankfurt am Main . He will also be crowned in Frankfurt am Main on December 22nd .
Other events in Europe
- January 21: After the death of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm Kettler , his widow Anna functions as - albeit not undisputed - Courland and Semigallia .
- May 29: Queen Anne makes Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer , Lord High Treasurer .
- The Duchy of Modena purchases the Duchy of Mirandola .
- April: Numerous ships set sail from various ports in southern England to support the British colonies in Queen Anne's War , the North American part of the War of the Spanish Succession .
- July 30th: An expedition consisting of various British and colonial ships, including nine warships, two bombards and 60 transport and supply ships with 7,500 soldiers and about 6,000 sailors sails from Boston . An attack on Québec , the capital of New France, is planned .
- August 22: The Québec expedition has to be canceled after eight troop transports capsize in the St. Lawrence River due to bad weather and insufficient knowledge of the fairway and 890 soldiers and sailors drown.
- September 12-22: Pirates in the service of France conquer the rich Portuguese fortress and port city of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in the Battle of Rio de Janeiro under their leader René Duguay-Trouin . The Portuguese fleet lying in the port is destroyed. The French fall into the hands of the annual income of the entire colony of Brazil. Only after reports of an approaching Portuguese reinforcement on land and British support at sea as well as the payment of a ransom does Duguay-Trouin's fleet sail back unscathed to Brest with numerous captured merchant ships.
- September 22nd: The Tuscarora Indian tribe begins a war against European settlers in North Carolina that will drag on for more than three years.
- The city of Beaufort is founded as the second major settlement after Charleston in the Province of South Carolina .
- The officer Ahmad Qaramanli takes power in Tripoli , although he formally recognizes the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire , but de facto governs completely independently. The barbarian state becomes a stronghold of the barbarian corsairs .
- October 15: Sultan ibn Saif II succeeds his late father Saif ibn Sultan I as Imam of Oman from the Yaruba dynasty . He first stopped the Omani attacks on British and Dutch merchant shipping, which had started under his father. This is to avoid counter-attacks by Great Britain and the Netherlands on the Omani trade. In the period that followed, Oman only attacks Portuguese and Persian ships.
- Watchtang VI. becomes king of Georgia under the sovereignty of the Persian dynasty of the Safavids .
- March 1: One of the early modern newspapers, The Spectator , founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele , is first published in London. The previous magazine, Tatler, by the same publisher, ceased publication on January 2nd.
- When King Friedrich I took over the trading company in state ownership , the Brandenburg-African Company ceased to exist after almost thirty years . In the next two decades, the subsequent Prussian king concentrated only on the liquidation of the company's property and inventory.
- The South Sea Company in London is founded.
- In Saint Petersburg , the first section of what will later be the avenue Nevsky Prospect will be relocated from the Alexander Nevsky Monastery to the Novgorod trade route.
science and technology
- January 19: The Royal Prussian Society of Sciences hands over the completed Berlin observatory at its first solemn meeting .
- Looking for gold, the Greek physician discovered Eirini d'Eirinis in Val de Travers , the asphalt deposits La Presta , which is used as the first in Europe in 1714 for medical purposes.
- The Speyer merchant Johann Seeger Ruland (re) discovered the grape variety Pinot Gris / Ruländer in an abandoned vineyard .
- February 9: The world premiere of the opera Henrico IV by Johann Mattheson takes place in Hamburg.
- February 24: At London's Queen's Theater is George Frideric Handel's first version of the opera Rinaldo premiered with extraordinary success.
- Antonio Vivaldi publishes the concert cycle L'Estro Armonico .
- The first version of the opera Croesus by Reinhard Keizer based on the libretto by Lucas von Bostel has its world premiere at the Oper am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- Alexander Pope publishes his first major poem, An Essay on Criticism .
- The first Winter Palace is built in Saint Petersburg .
- The Kimbarowka Monastery in what is now Belarus is founded.
- January 14th: The Great Jewish Fire in Frankfurt's Judengasse is one of the worst fire disasters in the history of Frankfurt am Main . Four people are killed and the entire ghetto burns down. The surrounding districts of the city are spared due to the favorable wind. Rabbi Naphtali Cohen, in whose house the fire broke out, is blamed for the disaster. His innocence is proven on March 21, but he loses the trust of the Jewish community.
- After the end of the Great Plague in East Prussia , King Frederick I initiated the rétablissement of the country devastated by the epidemic. The plague claimed around 240,000 lives in two years. The reconstruction is being driven by the settlement of colonists from Lithuania, Switzerland and various German countries.
First half of the year
- Franz Freiherr von der Trenck , Austrian officer and irregular († 1749) January 1st:
- January 12: Gaetano Latilla , Italian composer († 1788)
- January 15: Sidonia Hedwig Zigarunemann , German poet († 1740)
- January 22nd: Johann Philipp Fabrizius , German Protestant missionary, Lutheran pastor and Bible translator († 1791)
- January 30th: Abraham Roentgen , German cabinetmaker and cabinet maker († 1793)
- Wenzel Anton Kaunitz , Austrian politician († 1794) February 2:
- Omar Ali Saifuddin I , Sultan of Brunei († 1795) February 3:
- February 11: Johann Heumann von Teutschenbrunn , founder of scientific diplomacy ( document theory ) († 1760)
- February 27: Constantin Mavrocordat , Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldova († 1769)
- February 28: Adam Friedrich von Arnstedt , Prussian Colonel († 1778)
- Carl Gustaf Pilo , Swedish-Danish portrait painter († 1793) March 5:
- April 15: Stefano Evodio Assemani , Arab orientalist († 1782)
- April 22nd: Paul II. Anton Esterházy de Galantha , Imperial Field Marshal († 1762)
- April 25: Marie Antoinette von Ahlefeldt , German Countess and Prioress of the Uetersen Monastery († 1764)
- April 26: Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont , French writer († 1780)
- David Hume , Scottish philosopher and historian († 1776) May 7:
- May 10: Friedrich III. , Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth († 1763)
- May 13: Quirin Mickl , Abbot of Hohenfurt Monastery († 1767)
- May 17: Agustín de Jáuregui , Spanish officer, governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru († 1784)
- May 18: Rugjer Josip Bošković , mathematician and astronomer († 1787)
- May 23: Ablay Abilmansur Khan , Kazakh Khan († 1781)
- May 24th: Peter Karl Christoph von Keith , personal page of the later King Frederick the Great († 1756)
- Ludwig Ernst von Benkendorf , Saxon cavalry general († 1801) June 5:
- June 10: Amelia Sophie Eleonore , British princess († 1786)
Second half of the year
- July 22nd: Georg Wilhelm Richmann , German physicist († 1753)
- August 12: Johann Stapf , South German sculptor and building expert († 1785)
- August 16: Johann Ludwig Seekatz , German painter († 1783)
- August 19: Edward Boscawen , British admiral († 1761)
- August 22: Heinrich von Bibra , Prince-Bishop of the Fulda Monastery († 1788)
- August 28: Lorenz Adam Bartenstein , German Protestant clergyman, educator and headmaster († 1796)
- Wilhelm IV , Prince of Nassau († 1751) September 1:
- Anton Ignaz von Fugger-Glött , Canon in Cologne († 1787) September 3:
- Alexandre Guy Pingré , French astronomer († 1796) September 4:
- Henry Melchior Mühlenberg , founder of the Lutheran Church in the USA († 1787) September 6:
- Thomas Hutchinson , last civilian governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay († 1780) September 9:
- September 20: Friedrich August , Prince-Bishop of Lübeck and Duke of Oldenburg († 1785)
- September 25: Qianlong , Emperor of China († 1799)
- October 15: Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine , Queen of Sardinia († 1741)
- October 29: Laura Bassi , Italian philosopher, first professor in Europe (for physics) († 1778)
- Kitty Clive , English actress, soprano and author († 1785) November 5:
- November 18: Franz Töpsl , German theologian († 1796)
- November 19: Mikhail Wassiljewitsch Lomonossow , Russian polymath, writer, linguist and historian, chemist and astronomer († 1765)
- Maria Barbara de Bragança , Queen of Spain († 1758) December 4:
- Marie Françoise Catherine de Beauvau-Craon , official mistress of Stanislaus I. Leszczyński, Duke of Lorraine and bar at the court of Lunéville († 1786) December 8:
- December 25th: Caspar Jakob Huth , German Protestant theologian and university professor († 1760)
- December 25th: Jean Cassanéa de Mondonville , French violin virtuoso and composer († 1772)
- December 27: Johann Dietrich Winckler , German Lutheran theologian († 1784)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Daniel Gottlieb Andreae , Prussian civil servant († 1778)
- William Cadogan , English physician († 1797)
- Panna Czinka , Hungarian violinist / Roma musician († 1772)
Born around 1711
- 1711/1712: Teresa Margarida da Silva e Orta , Brazilian writer († 1792)
- 1711/1717: Giuseppe Zocchi , Florentine painter and draftsman († 1767)
January to April
- Ludwig Gebhard von Hoym , royal-Polish and electoral-Saxon real secret council, Bergrat, chamber president and chief tax collector in the Thuringian district (* 1631) January 2:
- Philipp van Almonde , Dutch Vice Admiral (* 1644) January 6th:
- Johann Hugo von Orsbeck , Bishop of Speyer, Archbishop and Elector of Trier (* 1634) January 6th:
- January 14th: Sophie Eleonore von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern , Guelph princess and canoness in the Gandersheim Monastery (* 1674)
- January 16: Joseph Vaz , Indian religious priest and missionary in India and Sri Lanka, saint of the Catholic Church (* 1651)
- January 21: Friedrich Wilhelm Kettler , Duke of Courland and Semigallia (* 1692)
- January 21: Augustin Terwesten , Dutch painter (* 1649)
- January 24th: Jean Bérain the Elder , French painter, draftsman and engraver (* 1640)
- January: Guillijn Peter van der Zeepen , court painter at the East Frisian court
- Wilhelm von Plettenberg , Land Commander of the Teutonic Order February 2nd:
- Francesco Maria de 'Medici , Italian cardinal and patron (* 1660) February 3:
- Wolfgang von Schmettau , Minister and Envoy from Brandenburg (* 1648) February 5:
- February 15: Marco Antonio Canevalle , Italian architect and builder (* 1652)
- February 17th: José de Vaquedano , Spanish priest, composer and conductor (* around 1642)
- February 20: Alexander Artschilowitsch Imeretinski , Georgian prince of the Kingdom of Imeretia (* 1674)
- February 21: Joan van Hoorn , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies (* 1653)
- February 28: Giovanni Pietro della Torre , Prague court stone mason and sculptor (* 1660)
- Adam Herold , German educator and Protestant theologian (* 1659) March 2:
- Karl , Landgrave of Hessen-Wanfried (* 1649) March 3:
- Hans Georg Asam , German painter (* 1649) March 7th:
- March 11th: Karl Schweikard von Sickingen , Knight of the Teutonic Order
- March 13: Nicolas Boileau , French writer (* 1636)
- March 14: Johann Friedrich Landsberger , German merchant (* 1649)
- March 19: Josef Langer , German-Czech scientist of the Piarists, mathematician and astronomer (* 1650)
- March 20: Gotthilf Treuer , German poet and poet (* 1632)
- March 23: Bernhard Michael Mandl , Salzburg sculptor (* around 1660)
- April 14: Louis of France , heir to the French throne, son of Louis XIV (* 1661)
- April 17th: Joseph I , Holy Roman Emperor (* 1678)
- April 24: Johann Werlhof , German legal scholar (* 1660)
May to August
- May 14: Beda Weller , abbot of the Grafschaft monastery (* 1656)
- May 16: Narabayashi Chinzan , Japanese interpreter and doctor (* 1649)
- May 27: Franz Alexander , Prince of Nassau-Hadamar (* 1674)
- May 27: Matthäus Gottfried Purmann , German surgeon and author (* 1648)
- Andreas Ingolstetter , German merchant and hymn poet (* 1633) June 7th:
- June 10: Johannes Munnicks , Dutch medic (* 1652)
- June 16: Maria Anna Amalia of Courland , Princess of Courland and Countess of Hesse-Kassel (* 1653)
- June 24th: Agnes Heinold , Swabian poet (* 1642)
- before June 28: Gerard de Lairesse , Dutch painter, etcher and mezzotint engraver (* 1640/41)
- James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry , Scottish nobleman and politician (* 1672) July 6th:
- July 14th: Johann Wilhelm Friso , Prince of Orange and Prince of Nassau-Dietz (* 1687)
- July 21: Avetik von Tokat , Patriarch of the Armenian Patriarchate Constantinople (* 1657)
- Michael Wenzel Halbax , Czech-Austrian painter (* 1661) August 1:
- Christoph Pfautz , German mathematician, astronomer, geographer and librarian (* 1645) August 2:
- Tobias Holländer , bailiff, councilor, bag master, envoy and mayor of the city of Schaffhausen (* 1636) August 3:
- August 20: Louis-François de Boufflers , French general and Marshal of France (* 1644)
- August 21: Caspar Hopf , Saxon violin maker (* 1650)
September to December
- Elisabeth Sophie Chéron , French painter, engraver, poet and translator (* 1648) September 5:
- September 20: Jakob Daniel Tepser , Mayor of Vienna (* 1653)
- September 27: Christian Geist , German organist and composer (* around 1640)
- September: John Lawson , English explorer, adventurer and writer (* 1674)
- Christian Friedrich Richter , German Protestant pastor, hymn poet and doctor (* 1676) October 5th:
- October 15: Saif ibn Sultan I , Imam of Oman
- Christian Demelius , German composer (* 1643) November 1:
- November 18: Johann Sigmund von Kuenburg , Prince-Bishop of Lavant and Prince-Bishop of Chiemsee (* 1659)
- November 20: Gerrit Roosen , Hamburg merchant and preacher of the Mennonite congregation in Altona (* 1612)
- December 19: Đorđe Branković , Transylvanian count and envoy (* 1645)
- December 19: Philipp Wilhelm , Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and governor of Magdeburg (* 1669)
- December 23: Friedrich Matthias von Syberg , lord of House Kemnade and court lord of Stiepel (* 1646)
- December 26: Çorlulu Ali Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* around 1670)
- December: Johann Nicolaus Hanff , German organist and composer (* 1663)
Exact date of death unknown
- Wladimir Wassiljewitsch Atlasow , Russian Cossack and explorer (* 1661)
- Mary Rowlandson , English settler in New England and author of a captivity narrative about her captivity with the Narragansett (* around 1637)
- Peter Schenk the Elder , German engraver and cartographer (* 1660)