peace of Nystad between Sweden and Russia finally
ends the Great Northern War .
Saint Petersburg ,
Tsar Peter I has himself proclaimed Emperor of the Russian Empire .
|Innocent XIII. elected pope .|
|1721 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1169/70 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1713/14 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1126/1127 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2264/65 (southern Buddhism); 2263/64 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1083/84 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4054/55 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1133/34 (turn of the year 21/22 October)|
|Jewish calendar||5481/82 (September 21/22)|
|Coptic calendar||1437/38 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2031/32 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2032/33 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1777/78 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War and foundation of the Russian Empire
- March 31: The peace negotiations between Russia and Sweden begin in Nystad , Finland. The Swedish delegation is led by Count Johan Paulinus Lillienstedt and Baron Otto Reinhold Strömfeldt . The Russian delegation is led by Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann and General Jacob Daniel Bruce .
- May – June: Russian devastation in Sweden 1719 to 1721 : The Russian galley fleet under General Admiral Fedor Apraxin attacks settlements on the Swedish east coast between Gävle and Piteå . Three cities and 506 villages are completely destroyed.
- June 5: The raid on Sundsvall is the final act of combat in the Great Northern War. A Swedish garrison of about 280 men is defeated at Sundsvall and Selånger against a troop of cavalry ten times as large as the Cossacks and over 6,000 Russian infantrymen.
The Peace of Nystad ended the Great Northern War between Sweden and Russia on September 10th . Sweden cedes the areas of Ingermanland , Livonia , Estonia , the islands of Ösel and Dagö and South Karelia to Russia . In return, Finland gets it back, except for Old Finland , which Peter I conquered in 1714.
On November 2nd, Tsar Peter I was proclaimed Emperor of the Russian Empire in Saint Petersburg . Peter I crowns himself like all his successors and expresses with his self-coronation that the emperors are subject to neither secular nor ecclesiastical power. To emphasize the western orientation of the empire, the traditional Russian cap of the Monomakh is replaced by the tsar's crown . International disputes arise from the fact especially with the Habsburg Empire , whose ruler the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire is to be the successor of the Western Roman Empire feels and therefore claims the only legitimate leadership in the Christian world. For this reason, the imperial title is only recognized by the defeated opponents of the war, Sweden and the Netherlands , with which Peter the Great has good connections.
Holy Roman Empire
- As a result of the bursting of the South Sea Bubble, the government of James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope , is in dire straits. As a result of the heated debates, Stanhope suffers a stroke, from which he dies on February 5th. Embroiled in the speculative bubble , Lord High Treasurer and Lord President of the Council Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland , must resign from all his offices.
- April 4: Robert Walpole becomes Lord High Treasurer and Chairman of the House of Commons . He becomes the most influential man in the kingdom and de facto the first British Prime Minister . He is mainly supported by Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend , the Secretary of State for the Northern Department .
- March 9th: The garrison of the Brandenburg colony of Arguin can not withstand a French attack, gives up the fort and retreats to the Mauritanian mainland to fight .
- May 18: After the death of David III. his half-brother Walda Giyorgis becomes the new Negus from Ethiopia . But a large part of the nobility is hostile to him, deposed him after just three days and put his brother Asma Sagad on the throne.
- January 31: The city of Warburg grants Johannes Jodokus Kohlschein the right to brew . That is considered to be the founding date of the Warburger brewery .
- The French East India Company establishes a trading post in Mahé at the mouth of the Mayyazhipuzha River in India .
- The Nevsky Prospect between the Admiralty in the west and the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in the east of Saint Petersburg is being completed after ten years of construction.
science and technology
- City architect Claus Stallknecht completed the Altona town hall , built in the French Baroque style, after seven years of construction .
- Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu , anonymously published the epistolary novel Persian Letters in Amsterdam , which was placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum in 1761 .
Music and theater
Hamburg / Copenhagen
- January 28: The world premiere of the opera Der patient Socrates by Georg Philipp Telemann takes place at the Opera am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- December 18: The opera Cloris and Tirsis by Reinhard Keizer and Francesco Bartolomeo Conti is premiered in Copenhagen.
- April 15: The dramma per musica Il Muzio Scevola with music by Filippo Amadei (1st act), Giovanni Bononcini (2nd act) and Georg Friedrich Händel (3rd act) on a libretto by Paolo Antonio Rolli has its world premiere by the Royal Academy of Music at King's Theater in the Haymarket in London.
- May 20: The opera L'odio e l'amore by Giovanni Bononcini premieres at the King's Theater in London.
- December 9th: Georg Friedrich Handel's dramma per musica Floridante with the libretto by Paolo Antonio Rolli based on La costanza in trionfo by Francesco Silvani is premiered at the King's Theater in the Haymarket in London and is well received by the audience.
Naples / Rome
- January: Alessandro Scarlatti's last opera Griselda based on the libretto by Apostolo Zeno based on Griseldi's from Giovanni Boccaccio's Decamerone is premiered at the Teatro Capranica in Rome.
- May 30th: The libretto Endimione by Pietro Metastasio is premiered in Naples in the setting by Domenico Sarro for the wedding of the Prince of Belmonte, Antonio Pignatelli, with Anna Francesca Pinelli di Sangro.
- August 28: Nicola Antonio Porpora's setting of Pietro Metastasio's libretto Gli orti esperidi is premiered in Naples on the birthday of Empress Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel .
- November 26th: The world premiere of the musical drama Arianna e Teseo by Leonardo Leo takes place at the Teatro San Bartolomeo in Naples.
Salzburg / Vienna
- October 4th: The world premiere of the opera Il germanico Marte by Antonio Caldara takes place in Salzburg.
- November 4th: The world premiere of the opera Ormisda re di Persia by Antonio Caldara takes place at the Court Theater in Vienna.
- August 7th: The Danish Crown Prince Christian marries the Hohenzollern princess Sophie Magdalene von Brandenburg-Kulmbach at Pretzsch Palace .
- December 3: Johann Sebastian Bach marries the Princely Chamber Singer Anna Magdalena Wilcke in Köthen .
- December 15: Veit Adlwart is executed as part of the second of the child witch trials in Freising . The witch trials run until 1723.
- The first coffee house opens in Berlin .
- March 19: Pope Clement XI. dies in Rome. The conclave for the election of his successor begins on March 31st with 56 participants.
- May 8th: Michelangelo dei Conti is named Innocent XIII. unanimously elected Pope in a previously very eventful conclave after the favorite Fabrizio Paolucci , the cardinal state secretary of the predecessor Clemens XI. , has been excluded from the election by an imperial veto . On June 16, the new Pope made his brother Bernardo Maria Conti cardinal.
Church reform in Russia
- January 25th: Peter I orders the establishment of the Most Holy Conducting Synod as the highest governmental institution of the Russian Orthodox Church by ukase . This will abolish the patriarchy . The synod consists partly of ecclesiastical dignitaries and partly of lay people appointed by the tsar. Members include the Metropolitans of Saint Petersburg, Moscow and Kiev, as well as the Exarch of Georgia. The jurisdiction of the holiest ruling synod extends to all questions of ecclesiastical life and also includes some secular areas.
- MAY 12: The Norwegian priest Hans Egede breaks with his family by ship to Greenland on to there suspected him Vikings to proselytize . He meets the Inuit and becomes the "Apostle of the Greenlanders".
- July 3: Hans Egede arrives in Greenland on his missionary trip .
Founding of dioceses and monasteries
- May 18: The Grand Archbishopric of Făgăraș and Alba Iulia is founded.
- January 1st: After the New Years flood in 1721 , the Heligoland dune is separated from the main island.
- February-July: In the highlands of Comtat is Pestmauer built to stop the spread of the Provence raging plague to prevent north. Nonetheless, the epidemic reached Avignon in August , while in the southern parts of Provence it has almost died down. Now the wall is supposed to protect the south from the disease in the north.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- Johann Friedrich , Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt († 1767) January 8:
- January 12: Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Prussian Field Marshal General († 1792)
- January 17: Elisabeth Auguste von Pfalz-Sulzbach , Electress of the Palatinate and Bavaria († 1794)
- January 19: Jean-Philippe Baratier , German mathematician, historian and orientalist, linguistic genius († 1740)
- January 21: James Murray , British soldier, colonial administrator and governor of the province of Quebec and governor of Menorca († 1794)
- Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz , Prussian cavalry officer († 1773) February 3:
- John Fell , American politician († 1798) February 5:
- Christian Henrich Heineken , Lübeck child prodigy († 1725) February 6:
- February 21: John McKinly , American politician († 1796)
- Juan Crespí , Spanish Franciscan and missionary († 1782) March 1:
- Karoline von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , Countess of Hessen-Darmstadt († 1774) March 9:
- March 19: Tobias Smollett , British doctor and writer († 1771)
- March 19: Simon Gabriel Suckow , German university professor († 1786)
- Pieter Hellendaal , Dutch composer, organist and violinist († 1799) April 1:
- Karl Maria Raimund Duke of Arenberg , Duke of Arenberg († 1778) April 1:
- Franz Anton Knittel , German Protestant clergyman and palaeographer († 1792) April 3:
- Friedrich Christian I , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg († 1794) April 6:
- April 24: Johann Philipp Kirnberger , German music theorist and composer († 1783)
- April 26: Wilhelm August, Duke of Cumberland , member of the British royal family, British-Hanoverian military leader († 1765)
- May 15: Dmitri Michailowitsch Golitsyn , Russian diplomat, military and art patron († 1793)
- May 16: Johann Emanuel pork , German organ builder († 1771)
- May 17: Johann August Bach , German legal historian († 1758)
- May 22: Johann Daniel Müller , German theologian († 1794)
- May 24: Ferdinand Sterzinger , Catholic theologian and canon lawyer († 1786)
- Barbara Campanini , Italian ballet dancer († 1799) June 7:
- June 21: Benjamin Wilson , English painter and scientist († 1788)
- June 22nd: Georg Wilhelm von der Goltz , Polish general and diplomat († 1767)
- June 24th: Johann Friedrich Faselius , German medic († 1767)
- June 29: Johann von Kalb , German-American general during the American Revolution († 1780)
Second half of the year
- Johann Peter Schwartz , German Protestant theologian († 1781) July 6th:
- July 13: Felix Joseph de Abreu y Bertodano , Spanish ambassador († 1766)
- July 20: Achatz Ferdinand von der Asseburg , German diplomat († 1797)
- July 20: Philippe-Auguste de Sainte-Foix , French writer († 1795)
- July 23: Joseph Franz Xaver von Hoppenbichl , German Catholic clergyman and economist († 1779)
- July 23: Anna Dorothea Therbusch , German painter († 1782)
- July 30th: Antonín Boll , Czech philosopher and Jesuit († 1792)
- Ernst August Schulze , German Reformed theologian († 1786) August 8:
- August 22: Nikolaus Wilhelm Schröder , German orientalist and librarian († 1798)
- August 27: Johann Adam von Auersperg , Prince, Chamberlain and Hereditary Marshal of Tyrol († 1795)
- Wilhelm Paul Verpoorten , German educator and Lutheran theologian († 1794) September 4:
- 17./19. September: Pierre-Louis Dubus, called Préville , French actor († 1799)
- September 20: Ernst Heinrich Abel , German portrait painter († after 1787)
- September 21: Jean-Philippe Dutoit-Membrini , Swiss mystic († 1793)
- September 22nd (baptized): Thérèse Levasseur , French domestic help, partner of Jean-Jacques Rousseau († 1801)
- Tia Weil , regional rabbi in Baden and rabbinical scholar († 1805) October 2:
- October 14: Peter Viktor von Besenval , Swiss military in French service († 1791)
- October 16: Johann Bücher , German Protestant theologian († 1785)
- Johannes Esaias Nilson , German painter († 1784) November 2:
- Johann Conrad Bürgy , Swiss-German organ builder († 1792) November 6th:
- Mark Akenside , English doctor and poet († 1770) November 9:
- November 14: Friedrich Samuel Zickler , German Lutheran theologian († 1779)
- November 20: Jean-Henri Maubert de Gouvest , French escaped monk, adventurer, artillery officer, secretary, writer, publicist, secret agent and director of a comedy troupe visiting Germany († 1767)
- November 22: Marcantonio Marcolini , Italian Cardinal, Nuncio to Florence, Secretary of the Consulta in Rome and General Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber († 1782)
- Chrétien-Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes , French statesman, minister and defender of Louis XVI. († 1794) December 6th:
- December 11: Wolfgang Thomas Rau , German medic († 1772)
- December 12th: Christian Gotthelf von Gutschmid , theologian, educator and statesman of the Electorate of Saxony († 1798)
- December 13: Johann Ulrich Sponsel , German Protestant theologian († 1788)
- December 15: Johann Samuel Diterich , German hymn poet († 1797)
- December 20: Johann Georg Specht , builder of the late baroque and belonged to the so-called Vorarlberg building school or the masters of the Vorarlberg cathedral scheme († 1803)
- December 25: William Collins , English poet († 1759)
- December 27: Frans Hemsterhuis , Dutch philosopher and writer († 1790)
- December 29th: Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Madame de Pompadour , French noblewoman, mistress of Louis XV. († 1764)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Louis Anseaume , French librettist († 1784)
- Claude d'Apchon , French bishop († 1783)
- Arnulphe d'Aumont , French medic († 1800)
- John Garth , English composer († 1810)
- Michael Nestius , German Evangelical Lutheran clergyman († 1794)
- Ngawang Tshälthrim , Tibetan Trülku and politician, Regent of Tibet († 1791)
Born around 1721
- January 30, 1721 or May 20, 1722: Bernardo Bellotto (Canaletto), Italian painter († 1780)
January to April
- Amy Buisson , Geneva Brigadier in foreign service (* 1649) January 1:
- Theodor Dassov , German linguist and Lutheran theologian (* 1648) January 6th:
- January 11th: Johann Ernst Schaper , German physician and Mecklenburg politician (* 1668)
- January 18: Otto von Schlabrendorf , Prussian infantry general, governor of the Küstrin fortress and heir to Groß Machnow and Blankenfeld (* 1650)
- January 25: Robert Challe , French traveler and writer (* 1659)
- January: Ernst Christoph Hochmann von Hochenau , German mystical-separatist Pietist (* 1670)
- Johann Tobias Gottfried Trost , Central German organ builder (* 1651) February 2:
- Heinrich Mylius , German medic (* 1696) February 4:
- Nicolas-Joseph Foucault , French administrator and collector of antiques (* 1643) February 7th:
- February 21: Christoph Heinrich Amthor , German poet and translator (* 1677)
- February 22nd: Johann Christoph Bach , German organist, eldest brother of Johann Sebastian Bach (* 1671)
- February 24: John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby , British statesman and poet (* 1648)
- Jonas Casimir von Auer , Prussian Colonel (* 1658) March 5:
- Johann Kayser , Westphalian poet, Lutheran preacher and high school teacher (* 1654) March 9:
- March 12: Johannes Luyts , Dutch mathematician, philosopher, astronomer and physicist (* 1655)
- March 13: Caspar Gottlob von Rodewitz , German wood carver and stone sculptor (* 1679)
- March 15: Louise of Mecklenburg , Queen of Denmark and Norway (* 1667)
- March 19: Giovanni Francesco Albani, as Clemens XI. Pope (* 1649)
- March 24th: Michael I. Esterházy de Galantha , Hungarian nobleman in the Habsburg service (* 1671)
- March 29th: Charles Vane , British pirate in the Caribbean
- April 10: Joachim Gerstenbüttel , German composer (* 1647)
- April 13th: Johann van Ghelen , Flemish printer in Vienna (* 1645)
- April 14: Michel Chamillart , French minister (* 1652)
- April 17th: Tobias Balthasar Hold , first German mayor of Timisoara (* around 1660)
- April 20: Louis Laguerre , French painter in England (* 1663)
- April 21: Dorothea Louise of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg , Abbess of Itzehoe Monastery (* 1663)
- April 22nd: Karl Friedrich , Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (* 1668)
- April 26: Karl Arnd , German Lutheran theologian (* 1673)
- April 27: Eva von Buttlar , German mystical-libertine sectarian (* 1670)
- April 28: Mary Read , English pirate and privateer (* 1685)
May to August
- Marc René de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d'Argenson , French statesman (* 1652) May 8:
- May 10: Christian Wilhelm , Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (* 1647)
- May 16: Wilhelm Erasmus Arends , German Protestant pastor and hymn poet (* 1677)
- May 18: David III. , Emperor of Ethiopia (* 1695)
- May 27: Christoph von Hellwig , Stadtphysicus zu Erfurt, publicist and creator of the “Centenary Calendar” (* 1663)
- Joseph I. Esterházy de Galantha , Hungarian nobleman and third prince and majorate of the Esterházy family (* 1688) June 6:
- June 17: Michael Erich Franck , German novelist (* 1691)
- June 17th: Matwei Petrovich Gagarin , Russian nobleman, first governor of Siberia
- June 18: Philipp , Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal (* 1655)
- June 21: Johann Christoph Müller , German cartographer and engineer officer (* 1673)
- after June 25: Francesco Mitta , Lombard builder in Kurhannover (* 1662)
- June 28: Isaac Sailmaker , Dutch marine painter in England (* around 1633)
- June: Anton Siebel , Mayor of Elberfeld (* 1670)
- Hermann von Brevern , German-Baltic lawyer (* 1663) July 3:
- Elihu Yale , merchant of Welsh descent, governor of the British East India Company in Madras and sponsor of the Yale College named after him (* 1649) July 8:
- July 12th: Antonio Giannettini , Italian organist, conductor and composer (* 1648)
- July 18: Antoine Watteau , French painter (* 1684)
- July 26: Samuel Jacobi , German cantor and composer (* 1652)
- July 28th: Nureddin al-Jscherrahi , Ottoman Islamic mystic, founder of the Jerrahi dervish order (* 1678)
- Grinling Gibbons , Dutch-English sculptor (* 1648) August 3:
- Louis Counet , Liège painter in Trier (* 1652) August 5th:
- Wolf Christoph Zorn von Plobsheim , German architect (* 1655) August 9:
- August 16: Christian Friedrich Hunold , German author (* 1680)
- August: Jacques Paisible , French recorder player and composer (* around 1656)
- August: Petrus Laurentius Wockenfuß , German cantor and composer (* 1675)
September to December
- Johann Anton Losy von Losinthal , Bohemian imperial official, composer and lutenist (* around 1645) September 3:
- Georg Wolfgang Wedel , German medic and alchemist (* 1645) September 6th:
- Bernhard Friedrich Albinus , German doctor (* 1653) September 7th:
- Henri Arnaud , French pastor and Waldensian leader (* 1643) September 8th:
- Elisabeth Dorothea of Hessen-Darmstadt , Countess of Hessen-Homburg (* 1676) September 9:
- September 13: Domenico Boscho , Italian plasterer in Styria
- September 17th: Marguerite Louise d'Orléans , Grand Duchess of Tuscany (* 1645)
- September 18: Matthew Prior , English writer and diplomat (* 1664)
- Benoît Audran the Elder , French engraver (* 1661) October 2:
- Abraham Martijnszoon Alewijn , Dutch lawyer, playwright and poet (* 1664) October 4:
- October 11: Anton Florian , Prince of Liechtenstein (* 1656)
- October 23: Samuel Frisching , mayor of the city and republic of Bern (* 1638)
- October 26: Georg August , Prince of Nassau-Idstein (* 1665)
- October 27: Carl Mörner af Morlanda , Swedish field marshal (* 1658)
- October 28th: Johann Conrad Vogel , organ builder from Upper Palatinate (* 1656)
- Catharina Margaretha Linck or Anastasius Lagrantinus Rosenstengel, German button maker, calico printer and soldier, executed for fornication with another woman (* 1687) November 8th:
- November 12: Étienne Picart , French engraver (* 1632)
- November 21: Christian Romstet , Saxon draftsman and engraver (* 1640)
- November 24th: Gustav Gabriel Appelmann , Swedish artillery officer (* 1656)
- November 24th: Maximilian Friedrich Casimir von Knigge , Courland High Court Marshal (* 1653)
- November 28: Louis Dominique Garthausen, called Cartouche , French robber, murderer and gang leader (* 1693)
- December 12: Joseph Greissing , court architect in Würzburg (* 1664)
- December 13: Alexander Selkirk , Scottish navigator and adventurer, role model for Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (* 1676)
Exact date of death unknown
- Bidil , Persian-speaking poet from India (* 1645)
- Christian Anton Philipp Knorr von Rosenroth , German lawyer and poet (* 1653)
- Zinat un-nisa , princess of the Mughal Empire and builder
Died around 1721
- Matthys Naiveu , Dutch painter (* 1647)