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Heads of State · Nekrolog · Music Year

The signing of the Nystadt Peace Treaty, etching
The peace of Nystad between Sweden and Russia finally
ends the Great Northern War .
Peter I the Great
In Saint Petersburg ,
Tsar Peter I proclaimed himself Emperor of the Russian Empire .
Pope Innocent XIII
Michelangelo dei Conti is named Innocent XIII. elected Pope .
1721 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1169/70 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1713/14 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Bengali solar calendar 1126/1127 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2264/65 (southern Buddhism); 2263/64 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 73rd (74th) cycle

Year of the Metal Ox辛丑 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Rat 庚子)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1083/84 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4054/55 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1099/1100
Islamic calendar 1133/34 (turn of the year 21/22 October)
Jewish calendar 5481/82 (September 21-22)
Coptic Calendar 1437/38 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 896/897
Seleucid era Babylon: 2031/32 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2032/33 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1777/78 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Great Northern War and foundation of the Russian Empire

Territory changes as a result of the peace treaties after the Great Northern War 1719–1721
Peace of Nystad: The Swedish loss of territory in Old Finland in green

The Peace of Nystad ended the Great Northern War between Sweden and Russia on September 10th . Sweden cedes the areas of Ingermanland , Livonia , Estonia , the islands of Ösel and Dagö and South Karelia to Russia . In return, Finland gets it back, except for Old Finland , which Peter I conquered in 1714.

The Russian tsar's crown

On November 2nd, Tsar Peter I was proclaimed Emperor of the Russian Empire in Saint Petersburg . Peter I crowns himself like all his successors and expresses with his self-coronation that the emperors are subject to neither secular nor ecclesiastical power. To emphasize the western orientation of the empire, the traditional Russian cap of the Monomakh is replaced by the tsar's crown . International disputes arise from the fact especially with the Habsburg Empire , whose ruler the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire is to be the successor of the Western Roman Empire feels and therefore claims the only legitimate leadership in the Christian world. For this reason, the imperial title is only recognized by the defeated opponents of the war, Sweden and the Netherlands , with which Peter the Great has good connections.

Holy Roman Empire

The county of Nassau-Idstein falls to Friedrich Ludwig von Nassau-Ottweiler .

Great Britain

Sir Robert Walpole


Arguin's fortress (1721)


science and technology

The Danish Lustration , a land survey in Western Pomerania , which was temporarily (1715 to 1721) under Danish rule , is completed.




Title vignette of the first edition of the Persian letters

Music and theater

Hamburg / Copenhagen
Naples / Rome
Manuscript by Alessandro Scarlatti
Salzburg / Vienna
Instrumental music

Johann Sebastian Bach finishes the work on his Brandenburg Concerts , which he dedicates to Prince Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg-Schwedt .



Pope election

Church reform in Russia

  • January 25: Peter I orders the establishment of the Most Holy Conducting Synod as the highest governmental institution of the Russian Orthodox Church by ukase . This will abolish patriarchy . The synod consists partly of ecclesiastical dignitaries and partly of lay people appointed by the tsar. Members include the Metropolitans of Saint Petersburg, Moscow and Kiev, as well as the Exarch of Georgia. The jurisdiction of the holiest ruling synod extends to all questions of ecclesiastical life and also includes some secular areas.


Statue of Hans Egede in the Greenlandic capital Nuuk

Founding of dioceses and monasteries


The plague wall near Fontaine-de-Vaucluse
  • February-July: In the highlands of Comtat is Pestmauer built to stop the spread of the Provence raging plague to prevent north. Nonetheless, the epidemic reached Avignon in August , while in the southern parts of Provence it has almost subsided. Now the wall is supposed to protect the south from the disease in the north.

Historical maps and views

A New Map of Europe According to the Newest Observations , Herman Moll


First half of the year

Second half of the year

  • 0October 2: Tia Weil , regional rabbi in Baden and rabbinical scholar († 1805)
  • October 14: Peter Viktor von Besenval , Swiss military in French service († 1791)
  • October 16: Johann Bücher , German Protestant theologian († 1785)
  • 0November 2: Johannes Esaias Nilson , German painter († 1784)
  • 0November 6th: Johann Conrad Bürgy , Swiss-German organ builder († 1792)
  • 0November 9th: Mark Akenside , English doctor and poet († 1770)
  • November 14: Friedrich Samuel Zickler , German Lutheran theologian († 1779)
  • November 20: Jean-Henri Maubert de Gouvest , French escaped monk, adventurer, artillery officer, secretary, writer, publicist, secret agent and director of a comedy troupe visiting Germany († 1767)
  • November 22nd: Marcantonio Marcolini , Italian Cardinal, Nuncio to Florence, Secretary of the Consulta in Rome and General Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber († 1782)
Portrait of Madame de Pompadour
  • December 29th: Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Madame de Pompadour , French noblewoman, mistress of Louis XV. († 1764)

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1721

  • January 30, 1721 or May 20, 1722: Bernardo Bellotto (Canaletto), Italian painter († 1780)


January to April

The funeral of Clemens XI. in 1721

May to August

September to December

  • December 12: Joseph Greissing , court architect in Würzburg (* 1664)
  • December 13: Alexander Selkirk , Scottish navigator and adventurer, role model for Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (* 1676)

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1721

Web links

Commons : 1721  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files