Calendar overview 1717
Eugene of Savoy and his army
conquer the Ottoman fortress of Belgrade .
|Christmas flood in 1717 claimed 11,500 lives.|
|1717 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1165/66 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1709/10 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1122/23 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2260/61 (southern Buddhism); 2259/60 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1079/80 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4050/51 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1129/30 (turn of the year 4th / 5th December)|
|Jewish calendar||5477/78 (September 5-6)|
|Coptic calendar||1433/34 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2027/28 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2028/29 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1773/74 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- May 2nd : The Danish admiral Peter Wessel Tordenskiold tries on behalf of King Friedrich IV. To destroy the ports of Gothenburg and Marstrand and the Swedish fleet in them. The Swedes under Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel and Olof Stromstierna were able to repel the attack on Gothenburg from the fortress Nya Elfsborg .
- Spring: Peter I of Russia is going on a second trip to Europe until autumn. After the tsar's attempt to forge a Franco-Russian alliance while in Paris remained unsuccessful, a diplomatic offensive by England to form a triple alliance with France and the Netherlands finally led Russia into foreign policy isolation. Georg Heinrich von Görtz , adviser to the Swedish King Karl XII. , tries to take advantage of the situation to come to a separate peace with Russia.
- July 19 : The attack on Strömstad planned by Peter Wessel Tordenskiold fails, the Danes suffer heavy losses. Tordenskiold is then withdrawn from command of the Kattegat fleet. The blockade of Strömstad is abandoned on August 28th .
- August 15 : Prussia , Russia and France mutually affirm their acquis in the Treaty of Amsterdam in anticipation of Sweden's inevitable defeat in the Great Northern War . France assures its neutrality in the final phase of the Great Northern War.
- After complaints from the Mecklenburg estates because of continued violations of the law by their duke, Emperor Karl VI. a Reich execution order against Karl Leopold von Mecklenburg-Schwerin , which provided around 40,000 Russian soldiers with quarters in the Reich and thus gave Peter the Great increasing influence in the Reich. The director of the Lower Saxony Reich Circle, Elector Georg Ludwig von Hanover , is charged with carrying out the execution of the Reich . This enabled his chancellor Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff to combine the interests of the Mecklenburg knighthood with the influence of a foreign power.
Other events in Eastern Europe
- February 1 : The Mute Sejm of 1717 , chaired by Stanisław Ledóchowski, confirms the Peace of Warsaw concluded the previous year between the Confederation of Tarnogród and King August II of Poland-Lithuania . As a mediator and guarantor of peace, the Russian Tsar Peter I got even greater influence on Polish domestic politics.
- December: Since 1712 and 1715, Tsar Peter I has been preparing a restructuring of the entire state administration and the establishment of central authorities based on foreign models. (cf. Petrine reforms ) In December 1717 nine colleges , each headed by a president and a vice-president, and a corresponding number of councils, assessors and secretaries, who should be predominantly Russians, are established: College for Foreign Affairs, Chamber, Judicial, auditing, war, mining and manufacturing council, state office, admiralty council. The work of the new colleges is to begin in 1719.
Venetian-Austrian Turkish War
- May 13th : Prince Eugene of Savoy , President of the Austrian Court War Council , leaves Vienna and arrives in Futog on the Danube on May 21st . On June 9th he marched on Belgrade with around 70,000 men .
- June 16 : The siege of the Ottoman- ruled fortress Belgrade in the Venetian-Austrian Turkish War begins after the Austrian army has crossed the Danube.
- July 19 : One of the last naval battles takes place off Cape Matapan in the Mediterranean using galleys . The battle between an Ottoman-Egyptian and a Venetian- French-Maltese fleet remains undecided for a long time. Only the intervention of the Portuguese contingent under the leadership of King John V on the flagship Nossa Senhora de Conceição decides the battle in favor of the papal coalition.
- July 28th : An Ottoman relief army arrives at Belgrade and begins to besiege the besiegers.
- August 14th to 16th : The conquest of Belgrade by Prince Eugene of Savoy and his army, among other things with the help of the " Mortar of Belgrade ", impressed a contemporary so much that he spoke of Prince Eugene, the noble knight of later generations , which mutated into a folk song handed down.
Quadruple Alliance War
- January 4th : France , Great Britain and the Netherlands form a triple alliance against Spain . They want to prevent King Philip V , who comes from the House of Bourbon , in the event of the premature death of the underage French ruler Louis XV. the crowns of France and Spain united.
- November: A Spanish fleet lands in Sardinia in an ambitious attempt by Prime Minister Giulio Alberoni and Queen Elisabetta Farnese to regain the possessions in Italy that were lost to Habsburg in the War of the Spanish Succession . Austria , whose troops are tied up in the Turkish war in the Balkans, reacts only half-heartedly: Eugene of Savoy is merely strengthening the defensive forces in the Kingdom of Naples . Thereupon there are feverish efforts of the Triple Alliance to mediate a peace between Austria and the Ottoman Empire .
- Friedrich Wilhelm I sells the Brandenburg-Prussian colony Groß Friedrichsburg with the fortress of the same name on the Cape of the Three Peaks in West Africa to the Dutch West India Company . However, an African chief known as Jan Conny takes over the region and fortress and defends it against several massive attempts at conquest by the Dutch.
- May: António de Albuquerque Coelho becomes Portuguese governor of Macau . But the ship that is supposed to bring him from Goa to Macau leaves without him on the orders of the owner Francisco Xavier Doutel , with whom he has an old enmity. Coelho then embarks on an adventurous journey across the Indian subcontinent. On July 16, his expedition reached the Portuguese base of São Tomé de Meliapor, 2,600 km away . Coelho buys a ship there and continues the voyage on August 5th . In Malacca , the Netherlands , they were refused to repair the storm-damaged ship and the navigator escaped from board. Two months later, the small troop reached Johor , which was involved in internal power struggles, and stayed there until the end of the year.
- November 30th : By betrayal, the Djungars under Tsewangrabtan manage to invade the Tibetan capital Lhasa and kill the regent Lhabsang Khan . The traitor Tagtsepa is installed as the new regent. The Tibetans ask China's Emperor Kangxi for assistance.
- The Siamese-Cambodian War 1714-1717 ends with a victory of the Siamese Kingdom of Ayutthaya under King Thai Sa over the Khmer Empire . Cambodia is once again liable to tribute to Siam .
- Mir Mahmud Hotaki kills his uncle Abd al-Aziz and becomes ruler of the Hotaki dynasty of the Pashtun tribe of the Ghilzai .
- May 29th : In South America , parts of the already existing Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain and Peru form the viceroyalty of New Granada . It is the third Spanish viceroyalty on American soil. Antonio de la Pedrosa y Guerrero is entrusted with the administrative management, but without being allowed to use the title of viceroy . Bogotá is chosen as the capital .
North America / Caribbean
- April 26th : The English navigator and pirate Samuel Bellamy dies in the sinking of his ship Whydah off Cape Cod .
- August: Edward Thatch is first mentioned in writing when he takes over the Sloop Revenge under the command of pirate Benjamin Hornigold , which was previously commanded by Stede Bonnet . In October he attacks the Chesapeake Bay, Philadelphia and New York within three weeks. During this time he captured at least 15 ships, making him suddenly the most feared pirate on the American east coast.
- November 17th : Edward Thatch, nicknamed Blackbeard, brings down the French slave ship La Concorde . He rebuilds the ship and makes it his flagship under the name Queen Anne's Revenge .
- Governor James Knight of the Hudson's Bay Company has the Churchill River Post fortress built from tree trunks on the Churchill River in what is now the Canadian state of Manitoba .
- The Yamasee War ends with several peace treaties.
- Thomas Twining opens the first tea shop in London.
- Johann Baring founds a trading business in Exeter, which soon became Barings Bank .
- The Hellein brewery is founded in Merkendorf by the family of the same name.
- In France, against the opposition of the parliament , the supreme court, but with the consent of the regent, John Law founds the trading company Compagnie de la Louisiane ou d'Occident , which was founded and privileged especially for the French colonies in America . When he can acquire profitable privileges and monopolies for the undercapitalized society, he sets a speculative bubble in motion.
- The South Sea Company , founded in 1711, makes its first trading trip to South America.
science and technology
- Johann Heinrich Schulze experimentally proves the sensitivity of silver nitrate to light . This was of decisive importance for the history and development of photography in later centuries.
- Friedrich Hoffmann , personal physician of the Prussian ruler, finds springs with bitter water near Bečov .
- November 30th : The Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe , built by architect Giovanni Francesco Guerniero on behalf of Landgrave Karl von Hessen-Kassel , is completed after 16 years with the erection of the copper statue of Hercules .
- Fürstenried Castle in the Hirschjagdpark in the south of Munich is completed by court architect Joseph Effner after a two-year construction period .
- The French architect Louis Remy de la Fosse built a baroque palace for Philipp Karl von Hundheim in Heidelberg .
- Construction of the Palácio Nacional begins in Mafra under the direction of the Swabian architect Johann Friedrich Ludwig .
Music and theater
- April 4th : The opera Tito Manlio by Attilio Ariosti has its world premiere at the King's Theater in London.
- July 17th : The second Suite of Water Music by George Frideric Handel is performed for the first time on a pleasure trip by the British King George I on the Thames . The king is so enthusiastic about the music that he has some parts played several times. The performance of the other two suites cannot be precisely dated.
- July: The Singspiel The Magnanimous Tomyris by Reinhard Keizer is premiered at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg. The libretto is by Johann Joachim Hoë based on the Italian libretto L'amor di figlio non conosciuto by Domenico Lalli .
- November 4th : The world premiere of the opera Trajanus by Reinhard Keizer takes place at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg. Here, too, the libretto comes from Johann Joachim Hoë.
- December 26th : Exactly eight months after the start of construction, the first performance takes place in the newly built Teatro Regio Ducale in Milan , a performance of the play Costantino by Francesco Gasparini .
- December 28th : Reinhard Keizer's opera Jobates und Bellerophon based on the libretto by Johann Joachim Hoë is premiered at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- George Frideric Handel began composing the Chandos Te Deum during his stay with James Brydges, Earl of Carnarvon .
- Dance master Gottfried Taubert mentions the grandfather dance for the first time .
- April 5 : The landgrave heir to the throne Ludwig von Hessen-Darmstadt marries Countess Charlotte von Hanau-Lichtenberg , the only surviving child of the last Hanau Count Johann Reinhard III , in Philippsruhe Palace . and the Margravine Dorothea Friederike von Brandenburg-Ansbach and thus sole heir to the County of Hanau .
- June 24th : The First Grand Lodge of England is founded through the merger of four old Masonic lodges .
- August 12 : The first of the child witch trials in Freising ends with the execution of three boys .
- September 9th : After more than 16 years as a shipwrecked man in Madagascar , Robert Drury returns to England.
- September 28 : King Frederick William I decreed in Prussia the general compulsory education for children aged five to twelve years.
- The castle church of St. Maria Magdalena in Salder is inaugurated after around four years of construction.
- April 26th : The pirate ship Whydah sank by a hurricane near Cape Cod . It takes the greatest pirate treasure known to date with it into the depths. 144 crew members die, including Captain Samuel Bellamy, known as Black Sam . Nine men survive the disaster, six of them are later hanged as pirates .
- December 24th / 25th : A severe storm surge , the so-called Christmas flood on the German North Sea coast, kills around 11,500. The direct consequence of the catastrophe is a famine , which, despite state and private aid, dragged on for several years, since both stocks and seeds were destroyed and the saline soil also resulted in reduced yields for years. Diseases like marsh fever are spreading.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 2 : Michael Angstenberger , Austrian hymn composer († 1789 )
- January 4th : Balthasar Ferdinand Moll , Austrian sculptor († 1785 )
- January 18 : Fedele Tirrito , Sicilian painter, writer, preacher and Capuchin priest († 1801 )
- January 24th : Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain († 1779 )
- January 27 : Marianne Pirker , German chamber singer and soprano († 1782 )
- January 28 : Mustafa III. , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1774 )
- January 29th : Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst , British general, conqueror of Montreal († 1797 )
- February 3 : Nicholas Cooke , American politician († 1782 )
- February 9 : Johann August von Hellfeld , German legal scholar († 1782 )
- February 13 : Ernst Gideon von Laudon , Austrian general († 1790 )
- February 14 : Richard Owen Cambridge , English poet, landowner and historian († 1802 )
- February 16 : Karl Gotthelf Müller , German rhetorician, poet and Lutheran theologian († 1760 )
- February 17 : Adam Friedrich Oeser , German painter and sculptor († 1799 )
- February 19 : David Garrick , British actor († 1779 )
- February 27 : Johann David Michaelis , German theologian and orientalist († 1791 )
- March 1 : Catharina Helena Dörrien , German botanist and educator († 1795 )
- March 14 : David Tschanz , Swiss Pietist († 1784 )
- March 20 : Johann Gottlob Böhme , German historian († 1780 )
- March 20 : Georg Peter Zenckel , German Protestant theologian and university professor († 1760 )
- March 31 : Carl Friedrich Aichinger , German linguist († 1782 )
- April 2 : Johann Augustin Dietelmair , German theologian and university professor († 1785 )
- April 4 : Karl David Schuchardt , Saxon Evangelical-Lutheran theologian and pastor, Magister († 1781 )
- April 9 : Matthias Georg Monn , Austrian composer, organist and music teacher († 1750 )
- May 13 : Maria Theresa , Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Roman-German Empress († 1780 )
- June 8 : John Collins , American politician († 1795 )
- June 24 : Johann Ernst Schubert , German Protestant theologian († 1774 )
- June 25 : Giuseppe Aglio , Italian art historian († 1809 )
- June 25 : Johannes Ringk , German composer and organist († 1778 )
- June 27 : Emanuel Witz , Swiss painter († 1797 )
- June 30 : Johann Stamitz , Bohemian violinist, conductor and composer († 1757 )
Second half of the year
- July 5th : Peter III. , King of Portugal from the House of Braganza († 1786 )
- July 24 : Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo , Spanish colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain († 1784 )
- August 8 : Gottlieb Wernsdorf I. , German educator, rhetorician and author († 1774 )
- August 13 : Louis François I de Bourbon , Prince of Conti († 1776 )
- August 13 : Christoph Nichelmann , German composer († 1762 )
- August 14 : Christian Gottfried Struensee , Rector of the Stephaneum High School in Halberstadt († 1782 )
- August 17 : Heinrich Wilhelm von Huth , Danish general of the artillery († 1806 )
- September 24 : Horace Walpole , British writer († 1797 )
- October 5th : Marie-Anne de Mailly-Nesle , French noblewoman, mistress of Louis XV. († 1744 )
- October 12 : Georg Friedrich Baermann , German mathematician († 1769 )
- October 13 : John Armstrong , American civil engineer, major general and politician († 1795 )
- October 16 : Johann Melchior Goeze , Protestant theologian († 1786 )
- October 17 : Franz Anton Ermeltraut , German painter and court painting inspector at the prince-bishop's court in Würzburg († 1767 )
- November 7th : Benedikt von Ahlefeldt , commandant of Helgoland and district administrator in Uetersen († 1776 )
- November 9 : Friedrich , Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin († 1785 )
- November 16 : Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert , French mathematician, physicist and Enlightenment philosopher († 1783 )
- December 1 : Grigori Nikolajewitsch Teplow , Russian composer († 1779 )
- December 3 : Friedrich Gottlieb Zoller , German legal scholar († 1782 )
- December 4 : Norbert Grund , Bohemian painter († 1767 )
- December 9 : Johann Joachim Winckelmann , German archaeologist and art writer, is considered the founder of scientific archeology († 1768 )
- December 16 : Elizabeth Carter , English poet, classical scholar, author and translator († 1806 )
- December 25th : Giovanni Angelo Graf Braschi, under the name Pius VI. Pope († 1799 )
- December 30 : Ferdinand Stosch , German Reformed theologian († 1780 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Jonas Apelblad , Swedish travel writer († 1786 )
- Raphael Bachi , Parisian miniature painter († 1767 )
- Henrik Filip Johnsen , Swedish composer († 1779 )
- Felix Johann Albrecht Mylius , German lawyer († 1792 )
- Lewis Nicola , officer and member of the American Philosophical Society († 1807 )
- Hans Friedrich von Schöning , Prussian Chamber President († 1787 )
- Molla Pənah Vaqif , Azerbaijani statesman, vizier of the Karabakh Khanate and poet († 1797 )
Born around 1717
First half of the year
- February 4th : Johann Adam Seupel , Strasbourg painter and engraver (* 1662 )
- February 5 : Anna Maria Wagemann , victim of the witch hunt in Fürfeld (* around 1650 )
- February 23 : Philipp Wilhelm von Boineburg , Imperial Count, seventh Erfurt governor, rector (* 1656 )
- February 23 : Magnus Stenbock , Swedish field marshal (* 1665 )
- February: Agnes Le Louchier , Walloon noblewoman, mistress of the Bavarian Elector Maximilian Emanuel (* around 1660 )
- March 7th : Johann Gerhard Arnold , German historian, consistorial councilor and high school rector (* 1637 )
- March 27 : Margaretha Susanna von Kuntsch , German writer (* 1651 )
- April 26 : Samuel Bellamy , English pirate (* 1689 )
- April 26th : Christian II , Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (* 1637 )
- April 30 : Benedikt Abelzhauser , Bavarian Benedictine monk and scholar (* 1635 )
- May 15 : Georg Christian Lehms , German poet (* 1684 )
- May 29th : Tobias Dressel , Saxon organ builder (* 1635 )
- June 3 : Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y Silva , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, viceroy of New Spain (* 1662 )
- June 20 : Anna Leszczyńska , Polish princess (* 1699 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Anna Sophie of Denmark , Electress of Saxony (* 1647 )
- July 4th : Joachim Luhn , German painter (* around 1640 )
- July 23 : Enoch Svantenius , German educator and poet (* 1652 )
- September 9 : Joachim von Ahlefeldt , holstein-gottorfisch-danish statesman and provost of the monastery of Preetz (* 1646 )
- September 14 : Johann Balthasar Beyschlag , German Protestant theologian and hymn composer (* 1669 )
- November 2 : Johann Jakob Walther , German violinist and composer (* 1650 )
- November 22nd : Sebastian Regondi , Italian sculptor (* 1672 )
- December 1st / 2nd : Daniel Merck , German violinist and composer (* 1657 )
- December 14 : Otto Magnus von Dönhoff , Brandenburg-Prussian lieutenant general and envoy (* 1665 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Lhabsang Khan , Mongolian ruler of the Qoshoten in Tibet
- Osei Tutu I , founder of the Ashanti Kingdom
- Wang Hui , Chinese painter (* 1632 )
- Margherita Salicola , Italian opera singer (* around 1660 )