Calendar overview 1779
|James Cook is killed on his third circumnavigation of the world by locals in the Sandwich Islands when he and his men try to take the king hostage.|
|David Garrick dies.||Lessing's drama Nathan the Wise appears as a print.|
|1779 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1227/28 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1771/72 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1184/85 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2322/23 (southern Buddhism); 2321/22 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1141/42 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4112/13 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1157/58 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1192/93 (January 18-19)|
|Jewish calendar||5539/40 (September 10-11)|
|Coptic calendar||1495/96 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2089/90 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2090/91 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1835/36 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 14 : James Cook is killed on his third circumnavigation of the world by locals in the Sandwich Islands when he and his men try to take the king hostage.
- March 21 : Russian intervention in the Crimean peninsula.
- May 13 : In the Peace of Teschen , the War of the Bavarian Succession between Prussia and Austria is resolved.
- July 6 : The naval battle of Grenada in the American War of Independence ends in a draw between Great Britain and France.
- September 11th : Speech by the Prussian King Friedrich II , the Great, on the equality of all subjects in Küstrin
- September 15 : Rivalries between Spanish settlers and British on the Yucatán peninsula lead to the destruction of the British lumberjack settlement Belize Town as a result of a Spanish attack . But the British did not give up the region , which later became British Honduras , discouraged and repopulate the place.
- Spain intervenes on the American side in the American War of Independence .
- Charlotte von Hezel begins publishing her weekly paper for the fair sex , which appears in Ilmenau . Sis is the first woman to publish a magazine. In the magazine, Hezel not only deals with topics such as fashion and housekeeping, but also wants to contribute to women's education and publishes texts on art history and literature, medicine and other scientific articles. In the same year, Ernestine Hofmann from Hamburg publishes the paper For Hamburg's Daughters anonymously .
science and technology
In January 1779 two Prussian spies tried to spy on the functioning of the steam engine on the premises of James Watt's factory.
- July 2 : The first arc of Ironbridge , the world's first from cast iron constructed arch bridge , spanning a river, the British Severn .
- March 23 : The British astronomer Edward Pigott is the first person to see the Blackeye Galaxy in the constellation Haar der Berenike .
- April 11 : Johann Gottfried Köhler finds the galaxies Messier 59 and Messier 60 in the Virgo galaxy cluster .
- April 15 : Charles Messier discovers a galaxy in the constellation Virgo , which he lists as number 58 in his directory .
- May 5 : The Italian astronomer Barnaba Oriani discovers the galaxy later named Messier 61 in the constellation Virgo .
- June 14th : The French astronomer Pierre Méchain tracks down the galaxy registered as Messier 63 in the constellation Hounds .
Teaching and Research
- Establishment of the first German chair for pedagogy , taken by Ernst Christian Trapp at the University of Halle .
- The Lyceum Fridericianum in Kassel is founded.
Architecture and fine arts
- The construction of the Fridericianum in Kassel, the first public museum on the European continent, is completed. Among other things, it houses the Hessian State Library founded in 1580 .
- Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's drama Nathan the Wise appears as a print. The first non-public performance will take place in Mannheim on October 15 .
Music and theater
- January 17th : The comic opera Das Grab des Mufti or Die Zwei (Zwei) Geizigen by Johann Adam Hiller has its world premiere .
- February 14 : The world premiere of the opera Gli Astrologi immaginari ( The Conceited Astrologers ) by Giovanni Pacini takes place in Saint Petersburg.
- March 23 : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completed probably for the Easter celebrations on April 4 in Salzburg Cathedral written exhibition , which years later under the name Coronation Mass gained notoriety.
- April 6 : The prose version of the play Iphigenie auf Tauris by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is premiered at the ducal private theater in Weimar .
- April 25 : The world premiere of the opera La vera costanza ( The Fluttery Lover ) by Joseph Haydn takes place in Esterház .
- May 18th : The opera Iphigénie en Tauride by Christoph Willibald Gluck has its world premiere at the Paris Opera .
- September 20th : First performance of the melodrama Pygmalion by Georg Benda in Gotha
- December 6th : The world premiere of the opera L'isola disabitata ( The Uninhabited Island ) by Joseph Haydn takes place in Esterház .
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart begins work on the Singspiel Zaide , which, however, remains unfinished. The fragment was not premiered until 1866 .
- August 18 : The Diocese of Chambéry is founded.
- October 10 : The late Baroque Johanniskirche in Frankfurt am Main , newly built by city architect Johann Andreas Liebhardt , is consecrated. It is the first building in the city to have a lightning rod .
- November 7th : The new Seiffen church is consecrated.
January to April
- January 2 : Gerhard Friederich , German Evangelical Lutheran pastor and writer († 1862 )
- January 4 : Robert Henry Goldsborough , American politician († 1836 )
- January 4th : Alexander von der Mark , illegitimate son of King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia († 1787 )
- January 5 : Stephen Decatur junior , American naval officer († 1820 )
- January 5 : Zebulon Pike , American officer and explorer († 1813 )
- January 13 : William Badger , American politician († 1852 )
- January 14 : Joseph Kent , American politician († 1837 )
- January 15 : Jean Coralli , French dancer and choreographer († 1854 )
- January 18 : Peter Mark Roget , English doctor and lexicographer († 1869 )
- January 23 : Isaac C. Bates , American politician († 1845 )
- January 24th : Elisabeth Alexejewna , Princess of Baden († 1826 )
- January 27 : Franz Philipp Aull , German politician († 1850 )
- February 5 : François (Frans) Van Campenhout , Belgian opera singer, conductor and composer († 1848 )
- February 9 : Anne-Françoise-Hippolyte Boutet , better known as Mademoiselle Mars, French actress († 1847 )
- February 14 : Nathaniel Pearce , British adventurer, Africa traveler and travel writer († 1820 )
- February 20 : Augustus Wall Callcott , British painter († 1844 )
- February 21 : Friedrich Carl von Savigny , German legal scholar († 1861 )
- February 22 : Joachim Nicolas Eggert , Swedish composer and conductor († 1813 )
- February 23 : Johann Kaspar Aiblinger , German composer and Kapellmeister († 1867 )
- February 24 : Johann Ernst Hoyos-Sprinzenstein , Austrian court official, landowner and military man († 1849 )
- March 2nd : Johann Albrecht Friedrich von Eichhorn , Prussian statesman, minister of culture. († 1856 )
- March 6 : Antoine-Henri Jomini , Swiss military theorist and general († 1869 )
- March 9 : Johann Melchior Schuler , Swiss Protestant clergyman and local researcher († 1859 )
- March 10 : Frances Trollope , British writer († 1863 )
- March 11 : Philipp August Friedrich , Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg († 1846 )
- March 15 : William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne , British Interior and Prime Minister († 1848 )
- March 18 : Rudolf Emanuel Stierlin , Swiss Protestant clergyman and local researcher († 1866 )
- March 21 : Alexis de Garaudé , French music teacher and composer († 1852 )
- March 29 : Christian Heinrich Zeller , German pedagogue and hymn poet of the pietistic direction († 1860 )
- March 31 : Georg Lankensperger , Bavarian inventor of the stub axle steering († 1847 )
- April 11 : Burkhard Wilhelm Seiler , German medic († 1843 )
- April 20 : Gottlob August Krille , German composer and Kreuzkantor († 1813 )
May to August
- May 4 : John Adam , British interim Governor General († 1825 )
- May 7 : Johann Georg Florschütz , German Protestant clergyman († 1849 )
- May 8 : Konstantin Pawlowitsch Romanow , Grand Duke of Russia († 1831 )
- May 12 : Giambattista Torricelli , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman and writer († 1848 )
- May 15 : Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Weise , German civil servant and politician († 1851 )
- June 1 : Christoph Johann Jakob Arnold , German architect († 1844 )
- June 7 : Franz Joseph Freiherr von Arens , German lawyer and politician († 1855 )
- June 11 : Bernhard von Lindenau , Saxon astronomer, head of government and art collector († 1854 )
- June 16 : Samuel D. Ingham , American politician († 1860 )
- June 23 : Johann Baptist Schiedermayr , German composer and church musician († 1840 )
- June 28 : Daniel Elliott Huger , American politician († 1854 )
- June 29 : Rudolf von Salis-Zizers , Swiss officer († 1840 )
- June 30 : Adam Heinrich Müller , German philosopher and state theorist († 1829 )
- June 30th : Daniel Steinmann , Swiss businessman and politician († 1839 )
- July 4th : Heinrich Arnold Huyssen , German industrialist and politician († 1870 )
- July 13 : William Hedley , English mine director († 1843 )
- July 17 : José Bernardo de Tagle Portocarrero , President of Peru from 1823 to 1824 († 1825 )
- July 18 : Gottlob König , German forest scientist († 1849 )
- July 18 : Christian Gottlob Hammer , German landscape painter and engraver († 1864 )
- July 20 : Ignaz Schuster , Austrian actor and composer († 1835 )
- July 22nd : Edward Lloyd , American politician († 1834 )
- August 1 : Karl Otto Ludwig von Arnim , German writer († 1861 )
- August 1 : Francis Scott Key , American lawyer and amateur poet († 1843 )
- August 1 : Lorenz Oken , Baden natural historian and scientist († 1851 )
- August 6 : Henry Moore Ridgely , American politician († 1847 )
- August 7th : Louis de Freycinet , French explorer († 1842 )
- August 7th : Carl Ritter , Prussian founder of scientific geography († 1859 )
- August 15 : Joseph Widmer , Swiss Roman Catholic theologian and university professor († 1844 )
- August 20 : Jöns Jakob Berzelius , Swedish chemist († 1848 )
- August 22nd : Johann Gottlieb Kreyziger , German educator and philologist († 1854 )
- August 24 : Dietrich Georg von Kieser , German physician and psychiatrist († 1862 )
- August 28 : Antoinette Ernestine Amalie , Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld († 1824 )
- August 31 : Anton Viktor Joseph Johann Raimund , Archduke of Austria († 1835 )
September to December
- September 4 : Ernst von Bernuth , German lawyer († 1847 )
- September 5 : Franz von Sonnenberg , German poet († 1805 )
- September 8 : Mustafa IV. , Ottoman Sultan († 1808 )
- September 10 : Louis Alexandre Piccinni , French composer († 1850 )
- September 14 : Karl Friedrich Gottlob Wetzel , German Romantic writer († 1819 )
- September 17 : John Campbell, 1st Baron Campbell , British politician and lawyer († 1861 )
- September 18 : Ludolph Christian Treviranus , German botanist († 1864 )
- September 19 : Valentin Sibbern , Norwegian officer and politician († 1853 )
- September 19 : August of Prussia , Prussian Prince and General († 1843 )
- September 21 : Hermann Wedel-Jarlsberg , Norwegian politician († 1840 )
- September 26 : Abraham Constantin Mouradgea d'Ohsson , French-Armenian Mongolist († 1851 )
- September 29 : Frederik Meltzer , Norwegian businessman and politician († 1855 )
- October 4 : Pamphile Léopold François Aimon , French composer († 1866 )
- October 6 : Nathan Appleton , American politician († 1861 )
- October 6 : Francis IV , Austrian Archduke, Duke of Modena and Reggio († 1846 )
- October 10 : Magnus Björnstjerna , Swedish general, diplomat and writer († 1847 )
- October 18 : Karl Joseph Aloys Agricola , miniature painter and copperplate engraver († 1852 )
- November 4 : Gustav Adolf Ferdinand Heinrich Leo , German civil servant († 1840 )
- November 5 : Washington Allston , American painter and poet († 1843 )
- November 14 : Adam Oehlenschläger , Danish national romantic poet († 1850 )
- November 20 : Franz Haniel , German entrepreneur († 1868 )
- November 22 : Toussaint von Charpentier , German geologist and entomologist († 1847 )
- November 27 : Aimé Marie Gaspard de Clermont-Tonnerre , French general and minister († 1865 )
- December 2 : Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov , Russian composer († 1856 )
- December 5 : John Sergeant , American politician († 1852 )
- December 12 or December 13 : Sophie Barat , French founder of the Catholic women's order of the Sacré Cœur Sisters († 1865 )
- December 17 : Fanny Tarnow , German writer († 1862 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johannes Bückler , called Schinderhannes , notorious serial offender († 1803 )
- José María Gruesso , Colombian poet († 1835 )
- George Poindexter , American politician († 1853 )
First half of the year
- January 3 : Claude Bourgelat , French veterinarian and author, founder of the first veterinary school (* 1712 )
- January 6th : Alexander Georg von Humboldt , Prussian officer and entrepreneur, father of Wilhelm and Alexander Humboldt (* 1720 )
- January 20 : David Garrick , British actor (* 1717 )
- January 21 : Christoph Traugott Delius , German mining scientist (* 1728 )
- January 26th : Thomas Hudson , British portrait painter and art collector (* 1701 )
- January 28 : Joseph Franz Xaver von Hoppenbichl , German Catholic clergyman and economist (* 1721 )
- February 3 : Louis de Jaucourt , French writer (* 1704 )
- February 12 : Henrik Filip Johnsen , Swedish composer (* 1717 )
- February 14 : James Cook , British explorer and navigator (* 1728 )
- February 24 : Paul Daniel Longolius , Saxon editor (* 1704 )
- February 27 : Johann Georg Sulzer , German philosopher (* 1720 )
- March 3 : Karim Khan , ruler of Persia (* around 1705 )
- March 4 : Heinrich Leopold Wagner , German writer (* 1747 )
- March 28 : Woldemar Salomo Hausdorf , German Protestant theologian (* 1731 )
- April 7th : Hilaire Marin Rouelle , French chemist (* 1718 )
- April 9th : Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain (* 1717 )
- April 10 : Grigory Nikolajewitsch Teplow , Russian composer (* 1717 )
- April 23 : Friedrich Samuel Zickler , German Lutheran theologian (* 1721 )
- May 16 : Johann Paul Reinhard , German university professor and historian (* 1722 )
- May 30 : Johann Friedrich Hahn , German poet (* 1753 )
- June 21 : Hermann Werner Franziskus Gottlieb Freiherr von der Asseburg zu Hinnenburg , Prime Minister of the Electorate of Cologne (* 1702 )
- June 23 : Michael Sehul , Ethiopian nobleman, governor of Tigray (* around 1691 )
- June 29 : Anton Raphael Mengs , German painter (* 1728 )
Second half of the year
- July 21 : Michael Adelbulner , German mathematician, physicist and astronomer (* 1702 )
- July 26th : Friedrich Wilhelm Adolph Biefer , German Pietist (* 1706 )
- August 22nd : Abol Fath Khan Zand , Shah of the Zand Dynasty (* around 1755 )
- August 22nd : Charles Clerke , British navigator and explorer (* 1741 )
- September 7th : John Armstrong , Scottish doctor and poet (* 1709 )
- September 30th : Diego José Abad , Spanish Jesuit, writer, educator and humanist (* 1727 )
- October 9 : Johann Georg Dirr , Bavarian plasterer and sculptor (* 1723 )
- October 18 : Leonard Offerhaus , German historian in the Netherlands (* 1699 )
- November 12th : Helfrich Peter Sturz , German Enlightenment writer (* 1736 )
- November 13th : Thomas Chippendale , English furniture designer (* 1718 )
- November 16 : Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Farnham , Irish politician and peer
- November 25th : François Dom Bédos de Celles , French Benedictine, organ builder, appraiser and writer (* 1709 )
- November 28 : Wilhelm Sebastian von Belling , Prussian hussar general (* 1719 )
- December 5 : Herman Antonín Jelínek , Bohemian composer and violin virtuoso (* 1709 )
- December 6th : Jean Siméon Chardin , French painter (* 1699 )
- December 11th : Alessandro Albani , Catholic Cardinal (* 1692 )
- December 16 : Go-Momozono , Emperor of Japan (* 1758 )
- December 20 : Johann Philipp Burckhard Asbrand , German theologian (* 1722 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Joseph Angerer , Austrian sculptor (* 1735 )
- Louis-Roch-Antoine-Charles Arnauld , French author and encyclopedia (* 1703 )