Calendar overview 1787
signed the United States Constitution .
|Josephinian criminal law replaces the Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana in the Habsburg hereditary lands.||
Grigori Alexandrowitsch Potjomkin allegedly
shows Tsarina Catherine II
" Potemkin villages ".
|1787 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1235/36 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1779/80 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1192/93 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2330/31 (southern Buddhism); 2329/30 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1149/50 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4120/21 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1165/66 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1201/02 (October 12/13)|
|Jewish calendar||5547/48 (September 12/13)|
|Coptic calendar||1503/04 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2097/98 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2098/99 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1843/44 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 29th : France's King Louis XVI. On the initiative of Charles Alexandre de Calonne , who is responsible for finance, convenes a meeting of notables to persuade the privileged estates to renounce their tax exemption. The aim is to put the broken state finances in order.
- February 22nd : The French assembly of notables meets again in the Palace of Versailles for the first time since 1626 . Contrary to what was expected, however, she is not compliant. Only the Count of Artois , the king's brother, supports his tax plans.
- April 9 : Charles Alexandre de Calonne is dismissed as finance minister under pressure from the nobility, especially Queen Marie Antoinette . The minister known as "Monsieur Deficite" is exiled to Lorraine. He will be succeeded on May 1st by Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne , a member of the Assembly of Notables. In the course of the year, the latter felt compelled to increase taxes and thus aroused resistance from parliaments .
- May 25th : The Notable Assembly breaks up without result.
- November 29th : The French King Louis XVI. issues an edict of tolerance in favor of the Huguenots .
Other events in Europe
- January 1st : The Josephine Criminal Law replaces the Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana in Austria. Torture and the death penalty have thus been abolished in the ordinary criminal proceedings in the Habsburg hereditary lands.
- May 13 : The eleven-ship First Fleet leaves Portsmouth under the command of Arthur Phillip with 756 prisoners and 550 crew members on board for Australia .
- August 24 : Turkey declares war on Russia. The Russian-Austrian Turkish War begins.
- September 13 : Prussian invasion of Holland
- Grigori Alexandrowitsch Potjomkin allegedly shows Tsarina Catherine II of Russia the “ Potemkin villages ” on a trip to the newly conquered areas in the Crimea to demonstrate the development of New Russia to her .
- Hamburg exceeds the 100,000-inhabitant limit and becomes a big city .
- May 25 : The Philadelphia Convention meets to discuss improvements to the Articles of Confederation . The United States Constitution emerges from the work of the delegates .
- July 14 : With the Northwest Ordinance , with which the US states on the east coast transfer their claims to areas west of the Appalachian Mountains to the federal government, the Northwest Territory is founded on the Great Lakes .
- September 17th : Completion of the US Constitution in Philadelphia
- December 7th : Delaware becomes 1st state of the USA
- December 12 : Pennsylvania joins the USA as 2nd of the 13 founding states
- December 18 : New Jersey becomes 3rd state in the USA
- Federalist Papers
Asia / Oceania
- January: The French expedition, led by Jean-François de La Pérouse , reaches Macau after crossing the Pacific . Now the little-known East Asian tributaries , the Chinese Sea and the Japanese Sea , are being systematically explored and mapped, as is the large Siberian peninsula of Kamchatka , which is interesting because of its abundance of fur .
- September 29 : The interpreter Jean Baptiste Barthélemy de Lesseps disembarks in Petropavlovsk to cross Kamchatka and Siberia on his own.
- After Sakhalin and the Japanese Kuril Islands have been explored, the South Seas are headed for. In Samoa is on 11 December , the second captain and close friend La Pérouses, the scientist Paul Fleuriot de Langle killed by locals.
- January 11 : Trade treaty between Russia and France.
- September 30th : The merchant ships Lady Washington and Columbia leave Boston Harbor . Your captains want to start a fur trade with China. The Columbia with its future captain Robert Gray becomes the first US circumnavigator of the world .
- October 29th : The Hanover Stock Exchange receives through Georg III. , King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg, Elector of Hanover, the sovereign confirmation and recognition as a "public institute".
- The GL Kayser Spedition in Mainz is founded.
science and technology
- January 11 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers two Uranus moons: Titania and Oberon
- January 14th : In the constellation Haar der Berenike , the astronomer Wilhelm Herschel finds a lens-shaped galaxy about 52 million light years away , known today as NGC 4459 . It belongs to the Virgo Galaxy Cluster .
- March 17 : Wilhelm Herschel observes the galaxy NGC 4244 in the constellation Hounds .
- March 18 : Wilhelm Herschel notes further discoveries of galaxies: NGC 3184 in the constellation Great Bear and NGC 5966 in the constellation Bear Guardian .
- March 20 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers a nebula. Today the object is known as NGC 4631, or the Whale Galaxy .
- April 9th : Wilhelm Herschel sighted the galaxy NGC 5362 in the constellation Hounds .
- May 7th : Wilhelm Herschel becomes the discoverer of the galaxy NGC 5728 in the constellation Libra .
- May 15 : Wilhelm Herschel is the first to see the galaxy NGC 5676 in the constellation Bear Guardian.
- May 16 : Wilhelm Herschel observes the galaxy NGC 5407 in the constellation Hounds and the galaxy NGC 6207 in the constellation Hercules .
- May 19 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy NGC 5757 in the constellation Libra .
- August 3rd : Measurements by the Geneva naturalist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure show that Mont Blanc is the highest mountain in Europe.
- September 11th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy known as NGC 7392 in the constellation Aquarius .
- November 30th : Wilhelm Herschel is the first to notice the galaxy NGC 185 in the constellation Cassiopeia .
- Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni describes the sound figures named after him .
- The Pittsburgh Academy , precursor to the University of Pittsburgh , is founded.
- The Irish painter Robert Barker receives a patent for the production of panoramic pictures .
- The classicist painter Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein from the branching family of painters Tischbein accompanies Johann Wolfgang von Goethe on his journey through Italy and paints his most famous picture Goethe in the Campagna .
Literature and theater
- August 29 : World premiere of Friedrich Schiller's Dom Karlos - Infant von Spanien in the "republican city of Hamburg"
- July 2 : In Christian Gottfried Körner's house , Friedrich Schiller's only comedy Körner's morning is premiered in private . Schiller wrote the work as a birthday present for his friend Körner. The manuscript was not published until long after Schiller's death.
- July: Joachim Heinrich Campe gives a translation of John Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education in his General Revision of the Entire School System . Part ninth. out.
- October 14 : Second Viennese suburban theater is the Freihaustheater opened. Christian Roßbach is the founder and first director.
Music and musical theater
- March 14th : The world premiere of the opera Andromeda e Perseo by Michael Haydn takes place in Salzburg.
- June 8 : At the Paris Opéra , the opera Tarare by Antonio Salieri, based on a text by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, celebrates an unparalleled success at its premiere .
- July 14 : World premiere of the opera Les Promesses de mariage by Henri Montan Berton at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- October 29th : World premiere of the opera Don Giovanni by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at the National Theater (Graeflich Nostitzsches National Theater) in Prague
- December 5th : World premiere of the opera La Dame invisible ou L'Amant à l'épreuve by Henri Montan Berton at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- September 17th : On the 50th anniversary of the inauguration of the Georg-August University in Göttingen , the 17-year-old " university maid " Dorothea Schlözer , daughter of the Göttingen university professor August Ludwig von Schlözer , is the second woman after Dorothea Christiane Erxleben to do her doctorate in Germany. Friedrich Schiller describes a woman's doctorate as a “pathetic farce” .
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is the first German citizen to be erected in Hanover .
- History of cricket : Marylebone Cricket Club is founded in London . Lord's Cricket Ground is being built.
- January 1 : Manuel José Arce y Fagoaga , Central American President († 1847 )
- January 1 : Domenico Quaglio , German architectural painter of the German Romantic period († 1837 )
- January 13 : Julius Constantijn Rijk , Dutch governor of Suriname († 1854 )
- January 24th : Julius Albert , Hanoverian mining captain and inventor of the wire rope († 1846 )
- January 24 : Christian Ludwig Brehm , German pastor and ornithologist († 1864 )
- January 29 : Franz Xaver Nippel von Weyerheim , Austrian lawyer († 1862 )
- January 30 : Johann Ulrich Himbsel , German building officer († 1860 )
- February 1 : Louis Jean Jacques Angely , German comedy poet, actor and director († 1835 )
- February 1 : Johann Joachim Wachsmann , German choir conductor and composer († 1853 )
- February 13 : Johann Caspar von Orelli , Swiss philologist († 1849 )
- February 23 : José Lúcio Travassos Valdez , Portuguese statesman and politician († 1862 )
- February 26 : André Coindre , French priest and founder of the order († 1826 )
- February 28 : Joseph Ludwig von Armansperg , Bavarian statesman († 1853 )
- March 6 : Joseph von Fraunhofer , German optician and physicist († 1826 )
- March 10 : William Etty , British painter († 1849 )
- March 27 : Heinrich Adam , German etcher and landscape painter († 1862 )
- March 28 : Wenzel Scholz , Austrian actor († 1857 )
- March 30th : Georg Christian Kessler , German winemaker and founder of the first German sparkling wine cellar († 1842 )
- April 3 : Franz Reisinger , German surgeon and university professor († 1855 )
- April 7 : Samuel McKean , American politician († 1841 )
- April 9 : Johann Gottlob von Quandt , German author and member of the Academic Council († 1859 )
- April 12 : Joseph Ignaz Ritter , Silesian Catholic theologian and church historian († 1857 )
- April 25 : Jakob Friedrich Binder , First Mayor of Nuremberg from 1821 to 1853 († 1856 )
- April 26 : Ludwig Uhland , German lawyer, poet and politician († 1862 )
- May 7 : Thomas Buck Reed , American politician († 1829 )
- May 11 : Alfred I. zu Windisch-Graetz , Austrian field marshal († 1862 )
- May 21 : John Page , American politician († 1865 )
- May 27 : Jean Elias Benjamin Valz , French astronomer († 1867 )
- May 28 : Peter Feddersen Stuhr , German university professor and historian († 1851 )
- June 2 : Nils Gabriel Sefström , Swedish chemist and mineralogist († 1845 )
- June 5 : James de Carle Sowerby , English scientist and artist († 1871 )
- June 7th : William Daniel Conybeare , English geologist and paleontologist († 1857 )
- June 9 : Frédéric Cailliaud , French explorer of Africa († 1869 )
- June 9 : Samuel L. Southard , American politician († 1842 )
- June 24 : Giovanni Arrivabene , Italian economist († 1881 )
- June 27 : Thomas Say , American entomologist († 1834 )
- July 7th : César Malan , Swiss teacher and Reformed pastor († 1864 )
- July 17 : Friedrich Krupp , German industrialist († 1826 )
- July 25 : Karl Ludwig Randhan , German physician († 1840 )
- July 29th : Leopold von Sedlnitzky , Austrian Prince-Bishop of Breslau († 1871 )
- July 31 : Christian Ferdinand Siemens , German farmer and father of the founder of the global Siemens AG († 1840 )
- August 5 : Carl Mittermaier , German lawyer and politician († 1867 )
- August 11 : Johann Gottlieb Nörrenberg , German physicist († 1862 )
- August 12 : Stephen Royce , American politician († 1868 )
- August 14 : Emmanuel Théaulon , French playwright and librettist († 1841 )
- August 15 : Alexander Aljabjew , Russian composer († 1851 )
- August 17 : Maxim Vorobjow , Russian romantic landscape painter († 1855 )
- August 20 : John M. Niles , American politician († 1856 )
- August 22 : Christian Friedrich Freiherr von Stockmar , German doctor and statesman († 1863 )
- August 24 : James Weddell , British navigator and whaler († 1834 )
- August 28 : Wilhelm Harnisch , German theologian and educator († 1864 )
- August 31 : Louis Antoine Ponchard , French opera singer († 1866 )
- September 3 : Éléonore Denuelle , lover of Napoleon I († 1868 )
- September 4 : Ninomiya Sontoku , Japanese agricultural reformer († 1856 )
- September 6 : Émilie de Rodat , French saint († 1852 )
- September 6 : Gottlieb Lukas Friedrich Tafel , German classical philologist († 1860 )
- September 15 : Guillaume-Henri Dufour , Swiss general, politician, cartographer and engineer († 1875 )
- September 15 : André Jolivard , French landscape painter († 1851 )
- September 17 : William H. Roane , American politician († 1845 )
- September 21 : Karl Immanuel Nitzsch , German theologian († 1868 )
- September 27 : Karl Adolf von Wachsmann , German writer († 1862 )
- October 2 : Albrecht Besserer von Thalfingen , Bavarian General and Minister of War († 1839 )
- October 4 : François Guizot , French politician and writer († 1874 )
- October 11 : Ferdinand von Ritgen , German professor of medicine, gynecologist († 1867 )
- October 12 : Carl Barth , German draftsman and engraver († 1853 )
- October 30 : Louis-Jacques-Maurice de Bonald , French cardinal and Archbishop of Lyon († 1870 )
- November 5 : John Richardson , Scottish natural historian, scholar and explorer († 1865 )
- November 6 : Vuk Stefanović Karadžić , Serbian philologist († 1864 )
- November 7th : Carl Carl , Austrian actor and theater director († 1854 )
- November 9 : Johann Natterer , Austrian natural scientist, zoologist and collector († 1843 )
- November 11th : Michail Wielhorski , Russian composer, cellist and patron († 1856 )
- November 17 : Karl von Canitz and Dallwitz , Prussian lieutenant general and statesman († 1850 )
- November 17 : Michele Carafa , Italian composer († 1872 )
- November 18 : Louis Daguerre , French pioneer of photography († 1851 )
- November 18 : Theodor Enslin , German bookseller, bibliographer and publisher († 1851 )
- November 20 : Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse , German designer and inventor († 1867 )
- November 21 : Samuel Cunard , Canadian businessman and shipowner († 1865 )
- November 22nd : Rasmus Christian Rask , Danish Indo-Europeanist and linguist († 1832 )
- November 25th : Franz Xaver Gruber , Austrian musician († 1863 )
- November 28 : Christian Friedrich Andreas Rohns , German architect and building contractor († 1853 )
- November 29 : Ramón Freire y Serrano , Chilean officer and president († 1851 )
- December 4 : Johan Fredrik Berwald , Swedish composer († 1861 )
- December 10th : Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet , American founder of education for deaf children († 1851 )
- December 11 : Georg Carabelli , Austro-Hungarian dentist († 1842 )
- December 12th : David Assur Assing , German doctor, poet and editor († 1842 )
- December 14 : Hans Detlef Friedrich Asschenfeldt , German publisher and member of parliament († 1856 )
- December 21 : Thomas Graf , German Catholic clergyman († 1840 )
- December 23 : Antonio Barezzi , Italian merchant and patron († 1867 )
- December 30th : Otto von Kotzebue , German-Baltic explorer and officer in the Russian Navy († 1846 )
- December : Jan Evangelista Purkyně , Czech physiologist († 1869 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Israel Aksenfeld , Russian writer († 1866 )
- Michael Frey , German composer, violinist and Kapellmeister († 1832 )
- Oliver H. Prince , American politician († 1837 )
First half of the year
- January 10 : Friedrich Joachim Stengel , German architect of the German Baroque (* 1694 )
- January 14th : Antonio Casali , Italian Catholic Cardinal (* 1715 )
- February 4 : Pompeo Batoni , Italian painter (* 1708 )
- February 12 : Rugjer Josip Bošković , Italian-Serbian mathematician and astronomer (* 1711 )
- February 13 : Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes , French statesman (* 1717 )
- February 25 : Anton Ignaz von Fugger-Glött , German Canon in Cologne (* 1711 )
- April 2 : Thomas Gage , British Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces (* 1719 )
- April 3 : Tommaso Maria Ghilini , Italian Catholic Cardinal (* 1718 )
- April 25 : Gerhard Matthäus Friedrich Brawe , German physician and author (* 1745 )
- April 27th : Ambrosio de Benavides , Spanish colonial administrator, governor of Puerto Rico, Charcas and Chile (* 1718 )
- May 21 : Johann Jacob Stahel , German bookseller and printer (* 1723 )
- May 25 : Carl Gustav Jablonsky , German naturalist, entomologist and illustrator (* 1756 )
- May 28 : Leopold Mozart , German composer and music teacher (* 1719 )
- June 13 : Josef Bárta , Czech composer (* 1744 )
- June 17th : José de Gálvez y Gallardo , Spanish nobleman, civil servant and colonial minister (* 1720 )
- June 20 : Carl Friedrich Abel , German Baroque composer (* 1723 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Charles de Rohan, prince de Soubise , French general, Marshal of France (* 1715 )
- July 9 : William Irvine , Scottish chemist (* 1743 )
- August 1st : Alexander von der Mark , illegitimate son of King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia (* 1779 )
- August 1st : Alfonso Maria de Liguori , Italian lawyer, bishop and founder of the order (* 1696 )
- August 2 : Johann Wilhelm Franz von Krohne , German adventurer and author (* 1738 )
- October 7th : Henry Melchior Mühlenberg , German founder of the Lutheran Church in the USA (* 1711 )
- October 23 : Pasquale Cafaro , Italian composer (* 1715 )
- October 28 : Johann Karl August Musäus , German writer and literary critic (* 1735 )
- October 30 : Ferdinando Galiani , Italian economist (* 1728 )
- December 3 : Anton IV of Montfort , German nobleman (* 1723 )
- December 3 : Philipp Erasmus Reich , German publisher (* 1717 )
- December 5 : Sven Lagerbring , Swedish historian (* 1707 )
- December 9 : Bernhard Joachim Hagen , German composer (* 1720 )
- December 18 : Johann Jakob Dusch , German poet (* 1725 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Carlo Galli da Bibiena , Italian decorative and theater painter (* 1728 )
- Mary Ann Yates , British actress and dancer (* 1728 )