Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais

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Jean-Marc Nattier : Pierre-Augustin Caron as a musician (1755)
Louis Clausade: Monument to Beaumarchais (1897)
The longest Grand Boulevard in Paris has been named after him since 1831

Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais [ pjɛʀ-ogystɛ kɑʀõ də bomaʀʃɛ ] (* 24. January 1732 in Paris ; † 18th May 1799 the same place), originally Pierre-Augustin Caron, 1757 with the addition of de Beaumarchais, 1762 ennobled , was a French Uomo universale of the Enlightenment period . In the course of his adventurous life he worked as a watchmaker , court clerk , musician , speculator , writer , publisher , secret agent , arms dealer and revolutionary .

He is known by name as the author of stage works and pamphlets . The drama Eugénie and the Mémoires (memoranda) served Goethe as the basis of his tragedy Clavigo . With the drama Les deux amis , Beaumarchais created a “poetic glorification of the merchant class”. The trilogy espagnole  - the comedies Le barbier de Séville (The Barber of Seville) , Le mariage de Figaro (Figaro's wedding) and La mère coupable (The guilty mother)  - opera libretti set to music by Paisiello , Mozart , Rossini and other composers go back to . Beaumarchais wrote the libretto for the opera Tarare (Trara) for Salieri .


Origin and youth

Beaumarchais, as he is usually called (his real surname Caron is also barely known to the French), was born as the only son of André-Charles Caron (1697–1775), a master watchmaker who was interested in aesthetics and music. His mother - the parents had been married since 1722 - was Louise Pichon (approx. 1700–1758). Of his nine siblings, only five sisters reached adulthood, two older and three younger.

He learned to play several instruments and made house music with his sisters.

Success as a watchmaker

Beaumarchais first learned his father's craft. At the age of twenty he invented a new mechanism for the lever escapement of pocket watches, which made it possible to build much smaller and more accurate clocks, the so-called double point escapement . After showing his invention to the court watchmaker Jean André Lepaute , he had to experience that he passed it off as his own. Beaumarchais fought back by sending a skilfully and knowledgeably argued open letter to the Academy of Sciences at the Mercure de France , which acted as a kind of patent office and which decided the dispute in his favor. Thanks to the affair, he became so well known that he won numerous new customers, including King Louis XV. and his influential mistress Madame de Pompadour , with which he himself was allowed to use the title of court watchmaker.

As another customer, he got to know the 34-year-old Madeleine-Catherine Franquet and, through her, her husband, an elderly and sick court official who was responsible for the king's meals. He gave up watchmaking and bought Franquet's office. When he died soon after, Beaumarchais married the widow in 1756. This brought the small country estate Beaumarchet into the marriage, the name of which he changed a little and, according to a pattern common among wealthy bourgeoisie, appended to his actual family name Caron in order to simulate aristocratic status. When his wife died the following year (presumably of an infection), there were whispers and rumors.

The climb

Nattier : Madame Adélaïde de France with sheet music (1758)

In his court office, Monsieur de Beaumarchais, as he now called himself, won the favor of the king's four unmarried daughters. He became her harp teacher, developing a pedal system for the harp . He organized house concerts and became a partner and factotum of the four ladies. Of course he was also known to the king and his mistress Madame de Pompadour. Through her he got in contact with her pro forma husband Lenormant d'Étioles, a rich and sociable man who drew him into his circle.

In the next few years Beaumarchais wrote the first pieces for Lenormant's private theater, so-called parades : cheerful, often crude skits on the subject of love, especially those before and alongside marriage. He composed the vocal parts of his pieces himself.

Introduced Beaumarchais to the world of finance: Joseph Pâris-Duverney

In 1760 his life took a new turn when he succeeded in getting the king's daughters and then the king himself to attend and thus to get official recognition of the officers' school, which the banker and army supplier Joseph Pâris-Duverney (1684-1770) established and had pre-financed; France was waging the Seven Years' War against Prussia and England at the side of Austria . Beaumarchais was made a junior partner by the grateful businessman and, with his help, bought the very expensive office of royal secretary in 1761, which meant little work and immediately raised its buyer to the nobility.

In 1762 he demonstrated his new nobility by using a loan from Pâris-Duverney to acquire the post of judge for hunting offenses in the forests and fields around Paris, an office which he exercised conscientiously for decades. He also bought a beautiful house in Paris, where he took two of his sisters and his widowed father, whom he persuaded to give up his bourgeois trade.

José Clavijo y Fajardo
Carmontelle : Alleged portrait of the Marquise de La Croix, whose lover Beaumarchais was in Madrid

In 1764/65 Beaumarchais stayed in Madrid for ten months, where he frequented the best of circles. Sometimes he was doing business for Pâris-Duverney, sometimes he did diplomatic assignments for the king. At the same time, he tried in vain to force the fiancé of his sister Marie, who lived there, José Clavijo y Fajardo , to keep his vows. The relationship between Clavijo and Marie was opaque; Ten years later, Beaumarchais processed this topic into a touching mini-novel, which Goethe made his piece Clavigo out of in 1774 .

Beaumarchais also remained active in literature; but he switched from the cheerful parade to the genre comédie larmoyante ( stirring piece ), which had been launched by Diderot around 1760 . His first work of this kind was Eugénie , which in contrast to tragédie bourgeoise ( domestic tragedy ) is still playing in the world of the nobility and in 1767 at the Comédie-Française premiere had. He was also active as a theater theorist by prefixing the print edition of Eugénie with an Essai sur le drame sérieux (attempt on serious drama ) .

In 1768 he married the rich young widow Geneviève-Madeleine Lévêque (nee Wattebled), who died in late 1770, soon after the birth of a second child.

In 1770 the Comédie-Française performed a second stirring piece by him, which, in contrast to Eugénie, takes place in the Third Estate , namely in the Beaumarchais familiar world of finance : Les deux amis ou Le négociant de Lyon (The Two Friends or The Merchant of Lyon ).

Setbacks and processes

Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun : Count de la Blache, 1770–1778 opponent of Beaumarchais in court

In the summer of 1770 his life took another turn, this time unfortunate: his senior partner and protector Pâris-Duverney died without leaving a formally certified confirmation of Beaumarchais' share (15,000 francs) in the company's capital. An existing informal paper was challenged in court by the great-great-nephew and sole heir of Pâris-Duverneys, the Count de la Blache. After Beaumarchais was initially right in 1772, La Blache appealed to the Paris Supreme Court in 1773, the Parlement . Here Beaumarchais learned how much a bourgeois upstart, and if he were wealthy and ennobled, was at a disadvantage in the judiciary compared to a rich, aristocratic opponent. At the same time he found that he had many envious and enemies in Paris and at court who were now trying to harm him.

La Blache had chosen the timing for the revision well: Beaumarchais sat for a few months in the Paris fortress For-l'Évêque by a royal arrest warrant at the beginning of 1773 because he got involved in a scuffle with a noble acquaintance, the Duke of Chaulnes , over a common mistress got involved.

Augustin de Saint-Aubin after Charles-Nicolas Cochin fils: Beaumarchais at the time of his trial against Goëzman (1773)

When he was released, as was customary at the time, he could reach the judge Goëzman responsible for him after paying a reasonable sum, but his view of things was not heard. An attempt to obtain a new audience through gifts to Goëzman's wife failed. After he had lost the process in April 1773 and was financially ruined by seizures and the costs of the proceedings, Beaumarchais accused Goëzman of having disadvantaged him and, moreover, only repaying part of his gifts to his wife. Goëzman charged him with attempted bribery and defamation, whereupon another trial against Beaumarchais began before the parliament.

He now took up the weapon that had already brought him victory: He went public, this time in the form of mémoires (memoirs), as the lawyers of the era wrote for their clients. Step by step he published four such memoirs from September 1773 to February 1774 , in which he skillfully asserted his position and his person, while putting his opponents in the wrong and ridiculing them. The Mémoires were widely used in printed form as brochures, improved Beaumarchais' finances and won all of Paris, including the court, and half of Europe, e.g. B. also Goethe , for his cause. But the parliament resisted the pressure of public opinion, reprimanded Beaumarchais and declared him forfeited of his honor in February 1774; H. for practically lawless.

The verdict, which had been passed with a narrow majority, fell back on the judges: Goëzman had become a figure of joke and the whole parliament, which had only recently been reformed, had fallen into disrepute. Beaumarchais thus unwittingly contributed to the fact that Louis XV. it dissolved again and also reversed the entire, mostly sensible judicial reform that he had reluctantly enacted in 1771 at the urging of his Justice Minister Maupeou .

Secret agent and arms smuggler

The Transvestit d'Éon , from whom Beaumarchais bought back secret plans to invade England (around 1775)

When Beaumarchais subsequently announced that he wanted to appeal, he was asked by the king to leave this for the time being and instead go to London as a secret agent in order to pull a pamphlet against the royal favorite Madame du Barry out of circulation. Beaumarchais did the job, but found the king dying on his return († May 10, 1774), and the young Louis XVI. who disliked him was reluctant to reward him by restoring his civil rights.

Fortunately, he knew of another threatening writing in London that dealt with the causes and possible political consequences of the childlessness of the new king. But there was also a rumor that Beaumarchais wrote the script himself in order to be rehabilitated as quickly as possible. In any case, he had himself sent back to England to negotiate with the author of the book. This allegedly fled to Amsterdam and on, where Beaumarchais pursued him and claimed to have taken him to Nuremberg, after which he himself was attacked by robbers and seriously injured, while the coachman claimed that Beaumarchais must have intentionally injured himself. What is certain is that Beaumarchais appeared in Vienna and presented to Maria Theresa , Ludwig's mother-in-law. Chancellor Count Kaunitz thought he was a con man. He had Beaumarchais arrested, but released him on the intervention of the French ambassador.

Back in Paris, Beaumarchais devoted himself again to literature and revised a comedy that he had written as early as 1771/2 and offered to the Comédie-Française without success: Le barbier de Séville ou La précaution inutile (The Barber of Seville or The Useless Caution). It is his first play in which the figure of Figaro appears as the type of intelligent and capable doer of petty-bourgeois origin, who here helps a less capable and intelligent young nobleman in love with the duping of an elderly rival. The premiere on February 23, 1775 was a failure, presumably because Beaumarchais had overloaded the text with allusions to all kinds of political and personal matters. After removing most of the allusions and streamlining the play from five to four acts, the next performance three days later was a triumph. The print version came out in July together with the longer foreword Lettre modérée sur la chute et la critique du “Barbier de Séville” (Modest plea for the failed and criticized “Barber of Seville”) , in which Beaumarchais, after having just been ordained as Comedy writer had received, witty and confidently mocked his critics.

Antoine-François Callet : Foreign Minister Vergennes (1774–1787)
American Revolutionary War : Hairstyle in the shape of a ship (around 1778)

In the meantime he himself was back as an agent in London, where he was supposed to buy the explosive papers of a Frenchman who had come into possession of secret military simulation games for an attack by France on England and who threatened to expose them. Again he was successful and thereupon won the support of the government for a considerably larger enterprise: Through his contacts in London Beaumarchais was well informed about the problems of England in its North American colonies, and he convinced Louis XVI. To hide him in secret deliveries of arms to the insurgents to support in order to expand the French influence in North America again after France had been humiliated by England in the Seven Years War and z. B. had to cede the formerly French areas of Canada and Louisiana (→ Peace of Paris 1763 ).

At the beginning of 1776 Beaumarchais founded the pseudo-Spanish shipping company Roderigue Hortalez & Cie with start-up capital from the government and supplied the rebels efficiently and perhaps decisive for the war with weapons, ammunition, uniform materials and boots for 30,000 men, of which the young USA was only his heirs, and only partially, paid. In gratitude for his services, he was rehabilitated in court in 1776.

The high point of success

Hôtel des Ambassadeurs de Hollande : 1776–1788 residence and company headquarters of Beaumarchais
Marie-Thérèse Willermaulaz (1751-1816)
Beaumarchais on the way to prison (1785)

In 1776 Beaumarchais began writing his best and most famous work, the comedy La folle journée ou Le mariage de Figaro ( The great day or The Marriage of Figaro ). The play shows in a funny and turbulent plot the wedding day of a young bourgeois castle administrator, into which the former barber Figaro has turned, who despite his cleverness and ability only succeeds with luck and effort, his master, a rather stupid, but arrogant and powerful aristocrats from practicing the jus primae noctis on his fiancée .

In 1776 Beaumarchais himself was the “victim” of cleverly designed efforts by a young harpist of Swiss origin, Marie-Thérèse Willermaulaz, who had a daughter by him in early 1777 and finally in 1786 became his third wife.

Since Beaumarchais was annoyed by the Comédie-Française, which had deposed his barber de Séville after 31 performances because he demanded a reasonable fee, he founded the Société des auteurs dramatiques (Society of Dramatic Dramatiques) in the summer of 1777 , which he chaired and which is considered the first example of successful author advocacy.

Philippe Trière after Jean-Michel Moreau : Illustration for Candide in the 70-volume Voltaire edition, Kehl 1787

In 1778 he started a new project: a complete edition of the works of Voltaire , who died on May 30, 1778 , with which he wanted to anticipate an edition planned in Russia. He even won government funding. However, since Voltaire's writings were officially banned in France, Beaumarchais installed a printing works on the other side of the Rhine in Kehl , won over the philosopher Condorcet , provided the best paper and bought Baskerville printers' type in England. The planned 70 volumes in octave format and 90 volumes in smaller duodec format were published between 1783 and 1789, the last volumes shortly before the French Revolution. However, the company ended up with financial losses.

In 1778 the play about Figaro's wedding was finished, but although the plot had been relocated to Spain as a precaution, many passages and especially Figaro's long, quasi Beaumarchais' own difficult biography summarizing the monologue in the last act seemed so revolutionary that Louis XVI. indignantly forbade any performance after a reading. “If I were to approve this piece,” the king is said to have said seven years before the revolution, “I would consequently have to tear down the Bastille.” Only after many changes and years of demarches , in which he was supported by numerous courtiers and the queen, Beaumarchais obtained approval.

The first performance on April 27, 1784 was a triumphant success. Obviously, the piece seemed like a confirmation of its anti-aristocratic resentment among the bourgeois audience, without, however, unnecessarily scaring off aristocratic viewers. The name of the protagonist Figaro entered the French lexicon as a rather fun name for a hairdresser. His figure became the prototype of a person who, although inferior in power, is defiant in the awareness of his rights, and who is also very clever and funny. The satirical magazine and daily newspaper Le Figaro , founded in 1826, bears his name.

The self-promotion that Beaumarchais made for it also contributed to the success of Le Mariage de Figaro . The proceeds from the fifteenth performance were to go to a charitable institution. When their selection provoked numerous epigrams , Beaumarchais was so unwise as to retaliate with the help of people whom his opponents could denounce as enemies of the king and queen. He was therefore briefly imprisoned by royal order in 1785.

The last few years

Jean-Baptiste-François Génillion: the Beaumarchais house built in 1788 and the Bastille
François-Joseph Bélanger : garden of the house of Beaumarchais, which had to give way to the Canal Saint-Martin in 1818

Beaumarchais was now at the height of his fame. He was now rich again, because in 1778 he had won another trial against La Blache. However, the peak of his career had passed. Many of the numerous projects he initiated around and after 1780 remained in their infancy. Others, such as the founding of a company for the water supply of Paris in 1785 or the attempt to protect the young wife of a banker named Kornmann from his stalking, succeeded, but earned him smear campaigns, in which a. the later revolutionary speaker Mirabeau profiled. The opera Tarare , written by him and set to music by Antonio Salieri , was a success in 1787, but contemporary critics clashed with numerous weaknesses in the libretto and the "unpolished" language. A magnificent house with a park built near the Bastille in 1787/88 brought Beaumarchais more trouble than joy.

He had initially welcomed the revolution of 1789 and tried to influence the course of events as a deputy and city councilor. The third Figaro piece L'autre Tartuffe ou La mère coupable (The other T. or The guilty mother) was also performed in 1792 . However, Beaumarchais soon found himself, like so many early sympathizers of the revolution, on the losing side. When he attempted to do business with the convent and import rifles from Holland that same year, it not only turned out to be a financial failure, but he was also accused of hiding guns and grain in his house. Although nothing suspicious other than a few thousand unsold copies of the Voltaire edition came to light during a house search, he was accused of treason of the Republic and imprisoned on August 20, 1792. Although he was quickly released thanks to the intercession of an ex-lover and was able to emigrate, he was expropriated and lived poorly in Holland, England and finally in Hamburg in 1794/95, without contact with his wife and daughter, who were also temporarily in custody.

In 1796 he was able to return home and was rehabilitated and compensated by the new government, the board of directors . In 1797 La mère coupable was resumed and Beaumarchais was celebrated again.

In the memoir Mes six époques (My six stages of life), which he now wrote, he described his sufferings under the republic. Although he was now hard of hearing and in poor health, he finally enjoyed his beautiful house. Here he died of a cerebral haemorrhage in 1799 after a good dinner with friends and family.

Literary work

Beaumarchais was a typical child of his epoch: a player in a time that liked to be fascinated by the player in any disguise, a gallant upstart in an environment of long-awaited doom. Like his contemporaries Cagliostro , the Count of Saint Germain or Giacomo Casanova , he used his opportunities in ailing absolutism - sometimes on the edge of legality . Unlike Cagliostro, Beaumarchais was not an impostor, but a soldier of fortune; Unlike Casanova, he did not want to change for the sake of a change, but instead wanted to move from the lottery wheel of fate to a secure bourgeois position. The tragedy of his adventurous life is that he did not succeed in this in the long run.

Duclos after Gravelot : Eugénie, 3rd act , scene 8 (1767)
Émile Bayard : Mélac in Les deux amis (1876)

He appeared for the first time in 1767 as a playwright with the sentimental drama Eugénie , in which he drew significantly from the events surrounding Clavijo. Two years later, Les deux amis ou Le négociant de Lyon (The Two Friends or The Merchant of Lyon) followed. Both had only moderate success. Although he was a dilettante as a playwright , he concentrated very carefully on his hobby: he wanted nothing less than to reap the laurels of succeeding Molière and Diderot .

Little is known that around 1763 Beaumarchais wrote a number of parades as casual work for the private theater of Charles-Guillaume Lenormant d'Étioles (1717–1799) , short comedies that were fashionable at fairs at the time, but also among the bored high society . These were skits that were rooted in the Commedia dell'arte : In rapid succession, puns from the gutter were mixed with sexual comedy and criticism of the times . Here he practiced for the pieces that would later make him famous and was already developing the staff of Barbier and Figaro.

Dazincourt as Figaro in Le barbier de Séville (1786)

While working as a secret agent and smuggling organizer, he wrote his two famous comedies. The first, Le barbier de Séville ou La précaution inutile (The Barber of Seville or The Useless Caution), is a comedy built on confusion and entanglement in which - unlike the models Molière and Marivaux - the intrigues are more important than the characters , the effects of stage presence are more significant than motivation.

Malapeau after Saint-Quentin: Le mariage de Figaro, 1st act, scene 9 (1785)

The intrigues that were necessary to get permission from the censors for his second well-known comedy, La folle journée ou Le mariage de Figaro (The Great Day or Figaro's Wedding) seem amusing today and shed light on the unstable state the balance of power in France. The piece was completed in 1778, but the resistance on the part of Louis XVI. not finally defeated until 1784. The comedy immediately brought unprecedented success. Unlike in the barber , the people involved here live with memories of the past and the feeling of impermanence. Although the intrigues still end well, the doom and gloom of the late ancien régime is subliminal.

Figaro, the main character in both plays, is an original invention of Beaumarchais. It is possible that he played a play on words with the name Figaro: Fils Caron (Caron's son). In fact, he portrayed himself in many respects as the versatile adventurer who can easily rival middle-class or aristocratic opponents in terms of intelligence and wit, in the two pieces Bartolo and Almaviva. Although the comedy was later seen as a call to revolution, it is not: the rebellious Figaro - like its author in real life - comes to terms with the circumstances and makes the most of it by playing the right card. The subordination to his aristocratic teammate and opponent Almaviva does not change during the entire Figaro trilogy.

In 1782, the barber served as the model for the opera Il barbiere di Siviglia ossia L'inutile precauzione by Paisiello , which was so popular at the time that Rossini was warned of impending failure when he set out to work out his own version in 1816. Both pieces are known to international audiences mainly through the opera adaptations by Mozart (Le nozze di Figaro) and Rossini, but in the French-speaking area they also retained their popularity as comedies.

After Alexandre-Marie Colin: Adolphe Nourrit as Tarare (1823)

In 1787 Beaumarchais wrote the libretto for the opera Tarare , which Salieri set to music in close collaboration with him. With this extraordinary work, full of satirical peaks and political allusions, both wanted to create a new genre of musical theater. Salieri developed his very own declamatory style for this, which enabled him to create a flowing transition between sung and spoken passages at certain pitches. At the end of 1787 under the title Axur, re d'Ormus (A., King of Hormus), edited by Lorenzo da Ponte and almost completely re-set by Salieri, the libretto became the basis of one of the most successful operas of the late 18th century.

In 1790 Beaumarchais wrote an addendum to Tarare in which he takes a position on the new political situation in France; Le Couronnement de Tarare (The Coronation of T.) was also set to music by Salieri.

William Ashley after Alexandre-Joseph Desenne: La mère coupable, 4th act, scene 13 (around 1830)

In 1792 the last part of the Figaro trilogy L'autre Tartuffe ou La mère coupable (The New T. or The Guilty Mother) was performed, but was lost in the turmoil of the revolution. After returning from exile, Beaumarchais endeavored with great financial commitment to resume. It was realized in May 1797 and was a success. The author even planned, together with Grétry, to make another opera, but that never happened. It was not until Milhaud's La mère coupable that the third Figaro piece made it to the opera stage in 1966.

Beaumarchais had great success with his Mémoires (memoirs) in the Goëzman affair, the most eloquent polemics since Voltaire . The whole of educated Europe - including Voltaire and Goethe - admired them and was amused by them.

In the detailed preface to the printed edition of his stirring piece Eugénie , he finally drafted his own theory of bourgeois drama: the heroes should no longer be subject to blind chance, but should be able to act of their own accord; Figaro - his alter ego - later demonstrated exactly this on stage. The drama should also no longer promote the psychological purification of the viewer through the pity of the spectator, as originally demanded by Aristotle . Rather, the horror hampers the participation of the disturbed audience, and there can no longer be any question of moral effect. Beaumarchais returned to this point of view after the random sequences in Barbier and Figaro in the Mère coupable , and the public gladly followed him. As a hobby writer, his demands went beyond those of the specialists Diderot and Lessing , whom he naturally did not know.

Major works

Stage works

Pieces for the lovers' stage:

  • Colin and Colette
  • Les députés de la Halle et du Gros-Caillou (The deputies of the market hall and the suburb G.-C.)
  • Les bottes de sept lieues (The Seven Mile Boots )
  • Léandre, marchand d'Agnus, médecin et bouquetière (L., devotional goods dealer , doctor and flower maker )
  • Jean-Bête à la foire (Dummhans at the fair )
  • Zizabelle mannequin (Z. the jointed doll ).

Dramas and Comedies:

Opera libretto:


Against Goëzman:

  • Requête d'atténuation pour le sieur Caron de Beaumarchais. À Nosseigneurs de parlement, les chambres assemblées. Knapen, Paris 1773.
  • Supplément au mémoire à consulter pour Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais. Quillau, Paris 1773.
  • Addition au supplément du mémoire à consulter pour Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais… servant de réponse à madame Goëzman… au sieur Bertrand d'Airolles,… aux sieur Marin,… et Darnaud-Baculard… P.-D. Pierres, Paris 1774.
  • Quatrième mémoire à consulter pour Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais… contre M. Goëzman,… madame Goëzman et le sieur Bertrand,… les sieurs Marin,… Darnaud-Baculard… et consorts… J.-G. Clousier, Paris 1774.

About the affair of the guns from Holland:

  • Pétition de Pierre-Augustin Caron Beaumarchais à la Convention nationale relative au décret d'accusation rendu contre lui dans la séance du 28 novembre 1792.
  • Beaumarchais à Lecointre, son dénonciateur au Compte rendu des neuf mois les plus pénibles de ma vie.



Web links

Commons : Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais  - Sources and full texts (French)

References and comments

  1. Eugénie, drame en cinq actes en prose… avec un essai sur le drame sérieux, par M. de Beaumarchais. Merlin, Paris 1767 ( digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3DsXQGAAAAQAAJ%26printsec%3Dfrontcover%26hl%3Dde%26source%3Dgbs_ge_summary_r%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse~IA%3D~M0DZ%3D%3D%3D 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  2. Fragment de mon voyage en Espagne. In: Mémoires de M. Caron de Beaumarchais… contre M. Goëzman…, Quatrième mémoire… Ruault, Paris 1774, pp. 64–99 ( digitized version http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D7m0GAAAAQAAJ%26pg%3DPA78%26dq%3DQuatri%C3%A8me%2Bm%C3%A9moire%2Ba%2Bconsulter%2Bpour%2BPierre-Augaraison%2BumC% 2B% 28% E2% 80% A6% 29% 2Bcontre% 2BM.% 2BGoezman% 2B% 28% E2% 80% A6% 29% 2B% 28Paris% 29% 2B1774% 26hl% 3Dde% 26sa% 3DX% 23v% 3Donepage % 26q% 3Dfragment% 2520de% 2520mon% 2520voyage% 2520d% E2% 80% 99Espagne% 26f% 3Dfalse ~ IA% 3D ~ MDZ% 3D% 0A ~ SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D).
  3. Clavigo. A tragedy by Goethe . Frankfurt , Leipzig 1774 ( digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3DxJ9QAAAAcAAJ%26printsec%3Dfrontcover%26dq%3Dgoethe%2Bclavigo%2B1774%26hl%3Dde%26sa%3DX%26ved%3D0ahUKEwiAG ~~jtLulDsbbAhX26%3D0ahUKEwiAG~jtLulDsbbAhX26%3D0ahUKEwi9jtLulDsbbAhX26%3D0ahUKEwi9jtLulDsbbAhXB IA% 3D ~ MDZ% 3D% 0A ~ SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  4. ^ Les deux amis ou Le négociant de Lyon. Drame en cinq actes en prose, par M. de Beaumarchais (…), Veuve Duchesne, Paris 1770 ( digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fstream%2Flesdeuxamis00beaugoog%23page%2Fn9%2Fmode%2F1up~GB%3D~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  5. ^ Anton Bettelheim : Beaumarchais. A biography. 2nd, revised edition. C. H. Beck , Munich 1911, p. 104.
  6. In a foreword to La mère coupable , Beaumarchais names the trilogy le roman de la famille Almaviva.
  7. Le barbier de Séville or La précaution inutile. Comédie en quatre actes by M. de Beaumarchais. Représentée & tombée sur le Théâtre de la Comédie Française aux Tuilleries le 23 de février 1775. Ruault, Paris 1775 ( digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3DzopXYY4c6dkC%26pg%3DPA1%26dq%3Dle%2Bbarbier%2Bde%2BS%C3%A9ville%2B%2522tomb%C3%A9e%2522%2Bruaulthl2B1775%2522%2Bruaulthl2B1775 3Dde% 26sa% 3DX% 26ved% 3D0ahUKEwj-69qZn5DcAhVmJpoKHbCOAHAQ6AEIMTAB% 23v% 3Donepage% 26q% 26f% 3Dfalse ~ IA% 3D ~ MDZ% 3D% 0A ~ SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  8. La folle journée ou Le mariage de Figaro. Comédie en cinq actes, en prose, par M. de Beaumarchais. Représentée pour la première fois par les Comédiens français ordinaires du Roi, le mardi 27 avril 1784. Ruault, Paris 1785 ( digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fgallica.bnf.fr%2Fark%3A%2F12148%2Fbtv1b86184295%2Ff9.image~GB%3D~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  9. L'autre Tartuffe or La mère coupable . Drame moral en cinq actes. Représenté pour la première fois à Paris, le [6] juin 1792. Maradan, Paris Year II (1793) ( digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fgallica.bnf.fr%2Fark%3A%2F12148%2Fbpt6k6501271g~GB%3D~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  10. ^ Gustav Friedrich Großmann , Friedrich Ludwig Benda : The Barber of Seville ( Dresden 1776);
    George Colman, Samuel Arnold : The Spanish Barber ( London 1777);
    Giuseppe Petrosellini, Giovanni Paisiello : Il barbiere di Siviglia ( Saint Petersburg 1782);
    Franz Leopold Schmiedel, Joseph Weigl : The useless caution ( Vienna 1783);
    Lorenzo Da Ponte , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Le nozze di Figaro (Vienna 1786);
    Giuseppe Petrosellini, Nicolas Isouard : Il barbiere di Siviglia ( Valletta 1796);
    Cesare Sterbini , Gioacchino Rossini : Il barbiere di Siviglia ( Rome 1816);
    Giuseppe Petrosellini, Francesco Morlacchi / Franz Anton Schubert : Il barbiere di Siviglia (Dresden 1816);
    Felice Romani , Michele Carafa : I due Figaro ( Milan 1820);
    Felice Romani, Saverio Mercadante : I due Figaro ( Madrid 1835);
    Georg Friedrich Treitschke , Conradin Kreutzer : The Two Figaro ( Braunschweig 1840);
    Guillermo Perrín y Vico / Miguel de Palacios, Gerónimo Giménez / Manuel Nieto: El barbero de Sevilla ( Madrid 1901);
    Madeleine Milhaud , Darius Milhaud : La mère coupable ( Geneva 1966).
  11. ^ Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, Antonio Salieri : Tarare (Paris 1787);
    Italian version by Lorenzo Da Ponte, Antonio Salieri: Axur, re d'Ormus (Vienna 1788).
  12. GH Baillie, Brian Loomes (ed.): Watchmakers & Clockmakers of the World. Robert Hale, 2006, ISBN 0-7198-0330-6 .
  13. ^ Marie-Josephe married Guilbert (* 1725), Marie-Louise (* 1731), Madeleine-Françoise married Lépine (* 1734), Marie-Julie (* 1735), Jeanne-Marguerite married Janot de Miron (* 1737).
  14. Fritz von Osterhausen: Callweys lexicon. Callwey, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-7667-1353-1 , p. 187.
  15. ^ Biography gratuite de Beaumarchais .
  16. For details see French Wikipedia .
  17. a b c Alain-Jacques Czouz-Tornare: Marie-Thérèse Willermaulaz. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  18. Pierre Larthomas , with the assistance of v. Jacqueline Larthomas (Ed.): Beaumarchais, Œuvres. Gallimard ( Bibliothèque de la Pléiade ), Paris 1988, ISBN 2-07-011137-7 , pp. 1–116, 1191–1236.
  19. Pierre Larthomas, with the assistance of v. Jacqueline Larthomas (Ed.): Beaumarchais, Œuvres. Gallimard (Bibliothèque de la Pléiade), Paris 1988, ISBN 2-07-011137-7 , pp. 117-489, 605-672, 1237-1427, 1475-1504.
  20. Pierre Larthomas, with the assistance of v. Jacqueline Larthomas (Ed.): Beaumarchais, Œuvres. Gallimard (Bibliothèque de la Pléiade), Paris 1988, ISBN 2-07-011137-7 , pp. 491-603, 1427-1475.
  21. Pierre Larthomas, with the assistance of v. Jacqueline Larthomas (Ed.): Beaumarchais, Œuvres. Gallimard (Bibliothèque de la Pléiade), Paris 1988, ISBN 2-07-011137-7 , pp. 673–927, 1504–1591.
  22. Pierre Larthomas, with the assistance of v. Jacqueline Larthomas (Ed.): Beaumarchais, Œuvres. Gallimard (Bibliothèque de la Pléiade), Paris 1988, ISBN 2-07-011137-7 , pp. 929-1119, 1592-1649.
  23. ^ New edition under the title Beaumarchaisiana 1812 (with details of the author).
  24. With scientific apparatus.