Lion Feuchtwanger

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Lion Feuchtwanger in Munich, 1909

Lion Feuchtwanger (born July 7, 1884 in Munich ; died December 21, 1958 in Los Angeles ) was a German writer . In the Weimar Republic he was one of the most influential personalities in the literary world. He is best known for his novel Jud Suss and is today one of the most widely read German-speaking authors of the 20th century, whose work had an influence on contemporary playwrights such as Bertolt Brecht .


Origin and education

Lion Feuchtwanger grew up as the son of the wealthy Jewish-Orthodox margarine manufacturer Sigmund Aaron Meir Feuchtwanger and his wife Johanna, nee. Bodenheim, on. He was the brother of the lawyer Ludwig Feuchtwanger and the journalist and writer Martin Feuchtwanger . Little is known about Lion's mother; he described her as strict, narrow-minded, of small town origins, pedantic to watch over domestic order.

Lions school career began at the age of six at the St. Anna elementary school in Lehel, Munich. He then attended the conservative Wilhelms-Gymnasium. Lion described his training as “pedantic and sober, sportless, conservative and patriotic; without connection with real life ”. In addition to his school activities, he studies the Hebrew Bible and the Aramaic Talmud for at least an hour every day under the supervision of a private teacher, usually at five in the morning.

Lion Feuchtwanger made his first attempts as a writer at an early age, which brought him a prize as a student. In 1903 he finished school with the Abitur at the humanistic Wilhelmsgymnasium in Munich . He then studied history , philosophy and German philology in Munich and Berlin , where he broke away from his parents' house. He received his doctorate in 1907 under Franz Muncker on Heinrich Heine's Der Rabbi von Bacharach . He refrained from doing a habilitation because of the restrictions on Jews.

Activities in Germany until 1933

Feuchtwanger founded his own cultural magazine Der Spiegel in 1908 , the first issue of which appeared on April 30th. After 15 issues and six months, however, due to financial problems, it merged with the magazine Die Schaubühne published by Siegfried Jacobsohn , for which Feuchtwanger wrote from now on. In 1912 he married Marta Löffler , a Jewish merchant's daughter . She was pregnant at the wedding. The daughter, the couple's only child, died of typhus a few months after a difficult birth during their honeymoon in Italy.

After the outbreak of the First World War , he was called up for military service as a reserve reservist in November 1914, from which he was dismissed a month later for health reasons. As early as 1918 he discovered the talent of young Bertolt Brecht , with whom he was to become a lifelong friend. During the November Revolution of 1918/1919 Feuchtwanger was sick and uninvolved.

After some success as a playwright, encouraged by Marta, he shifted his focus to the historical novel . The most successful was Jud Suss (written 1921/1922, published 1925), who was also very well received internationally from 1926 after Feuchtwanger had long looked in vain for a publisher in Germany. The topic of anti-Semitism seemed unpopular. His second big success was The Ugly Duchess Margarete Maultasch . For professional reasons he moved to Berlin in 1925 and in 1932 to a large villa on Grunewald. In 1932 the first part of the Josephus trilogy The Jewish War was published . Feuchtwanger spoke out in favor of cosmopolitanism and thus also against Jewish nationalism . He was also directed against Marxist historical materialism . He was interested in progressive intellectuals as pioneers of social development.

Memorial plaque in front of the house at Regerstraße 8, in Berlin-Grunewald

Feuchtwanger was one of the first to see the dangers posed by Hitler and the NSDAP very clairvoyantly . As early as 1920, in the satirical text, Conversations with the Eternal Jew appeared as a vision, which later became reality as a result of anti-Semitic racial madness:

“Towers of Hebrew books were burned, and pyres were set up high in the clouds, and people were charred, countless, and the voices of priests sang: Gloria in excelsis Deo. Trains of men, women, and children dragged themselves across the square from all sides; they were naked or in rags, and they had nothing with them but corpses and the scraps of scrolls, of torn, violated, and excrement-stained scrolls. And they were followed by men in caftans and women and children in the clothes of our day, countless, endless. "

Feuchtwanger was already listed on the first expatriation list from August 25, 1933 after the Nazi takeover

The figures of the "brown Munich" It will be much more accurate in the 1920s in the 1930 published roman à clef success in the Feuchtwanger in the figure Rupert Kutzner an easily recognizable portrait of Hitler stands.

In November 1932 he went to London and the USA to give lectures. The National Socialist “ seizure of power ” at the end of January 1933 made his return to Germany impossible, because Feuchtwanger was considered by the National Socialists to be one of their main intellectual opponents. His books fell victim to the 1933 book burn . His name appeared in the first expatriation list of Hitler's Germany published in the German Reichsanzeiger on August 25, 1933 . A literary fruit of this phase was the novel Die Geschwister Oppermann .

Exile in France

Memorial plaque for the German and Austrian refugees in Sanary, among them Lion Feuchtwanger

From 1933, already in the early phase of the Nazi dictatorship , Feuchtwanger lived with his wife in Sanary-sur-Mer , which made Marta a center of German-speaking exile in southern France. Due to the high circulation of his books, especially in the Anglo-Saxon-speaking area, he had a good living there.

In the novel Exil , which appeared shortly before the German invasion of the Netherlands , he describes the life of intellectuals in French exile. The affair about the violent takeover of the Pariser Tageblatt by part of the editorial team, which is called the “Pariser Nachrichten” in the book, plays a role. In this novel, published in 1939, he also placed a "dubious monument (...) in the shape of Lea Chassefierre, a half-Jewish woman who has been the lover of journalist Erich Wiesener for many years " to his temporary lover and girlfriend, the painter Eva Herrmann . In 1992, Hilde Waldo Feuchtwanger's diaries from 1906 to 1940 were discovered in the estate of his long-time secretary. The diaries (not intended for publication) can be viewed for scientific purposes in the Feuchtwanger Archives of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. The construction publishing house Berlin 2018 has the diaries under the title ″ A life as intense as possible. The diaries ″ published. Feuchtwanger's numerous notes regarding his sexual activities have been partially shortened by the editors. Michael Naumann found such things unproductive in Die Zeit” , regretted that the publication was not omitted at all and spoke of the diaries as the “most embarrassing and boring in German literary history”.

After the start of the German campaign in the west in May 1940, Feuchtwanger, like many other Germans who were in France as "étranger indésirable" (undesirable foreigners), had to go to the Les Milles internment camp , where he was interned for a few weeks when the war broke out in 1939 was. Later, due to the advance of German troops, the prisoners from Les Milles were transferred to a makeshift camp near Nîmes . From there, disguised as a woman, he was smuggled out by employees of the American consulate in Marseille.

Trip to Moscow

Disappointed by the democracies of the West, which in his opinion should definitely take a stand against the National Socialist regime, Feuchtwanger placed his hopes in the USSR. When the original with the Soviet Union sympathetic André Gide there in 1936 after traveling a critical report titled Retour de l'URSS published ( "Back from the Soviet Union") and is among many other things, the pursuit of unpopular Communists by Stalin denounced, Feuchtwanger settled from the Soviet Union for a propaganda campaign and invite them to Moscow.

From December 1, 1936 to February 5, 1937, he lived in the luxurious "Metropol" hotel and two nearby rest homes. His lover Eva Herrmann accompanied him. The couple was looked after by their publisher Artemi Chalatow . Since neither spoke Russian, their contacts were completely dependent on the translators provided by the Soviet secret service. They also tried to politically indoctrinate the visitors. His hosts promised him that they would film some of his works and print a fourteen-volume edition.

In view of the negative experiences with Gide for the Soviet side, writers who were considered non-party-compliant were kept away from Feuchtwanger, including Boris Pasternak and Boris Pilnjak . His hosts were irritated by the fact that he spoke critical of the first Moscow show trial in talks with Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov and Comintern boss Georgi Dimitrov . This cost the Soviet Union "two thirds of its supporters" abroad. But he promised not to publish his criticism of this or of the lack of freedom of the press in the West, as the Soviet Union should not be weakened. The German writer Maria Osten , who emigrated to Moscow, encouraged him in this attitude, which was in the interests of the Soviet Union .

On January 7, 1937, Stalin received him like a state guest in the Kremlin and granted him an interview; Statements from this flowed into his book Moscow 1937, which praised Stalin . Feuchtwanger also stated in it that Stalin had convinced him of the guilt of the accused in the show trials. In the second half of January 1937 he sat several times in the stands during the second show trial. He wrote two articles for the Soviet press in which he defended the show trials and another in which he attacked André Gide. The thesis previously advocated by several historians that Feuchtwanger stood up for Karl Radek , one of the main defendants of the second show trial, could not be substantiated by Soviet files.

After his return to Sanary-sur-Mer Feuchtwanger began to write his book "Moscow 1937". Since the Soviet leadership feared that he might strike a critical note, like Gide before, the Pravda reporter Mikhail Kolzow , who was on his way to the Spanish Civil War, was instructed to visit Feuchtwanger. Koltsov convinced him to delete positive passages about Leon Trotsky and the quoted critical remarks by Lenin about Stalin from the manuscript. In the same year, a Russian edition with an edition of 200,000 was published; Stalin himself edited the foreword. His publisher Artemi Chalatow was arrested in 1937 and executed the following year.

The book met with outrage among German-speaking writers who had also fled to emigration from the Nazi regime. I.a. Arnold Zweig , Franz Werfel and Bruno Frank were critical of it. The study commissioned by Andrei Zhdanov -driven anti-Semitic campaigns after the Second World War, Books Feuchtwanger were up to the political thaw after 1956 exiled from Soviet libraries. Also through Nikita Khrushchev 's secret speech about Stalin's crimes on the XX. At the CPSU party congress in February 1956, Feuchtwanger did not allow himself to be dissuaded from his praise for the Soviet regime.

Emigration to the USA

With the support of Varian Fry , Feuchtwanger and his wife were able to flee to the USA via Spain and Portugal under adventurous circumstances after months of waiting in Marseille . From 1941 he lived in California until his death , from November 1943 in the comfortable Villa Aurora . He was also able to afford this lifestyle with a large library through the income from film rights. Feuchtwanger was a co-founder of Aurora Verlag in New York in 1944 .

After the war he was suspiciously observed as a left-wing intellectual by the US authorities in the McCarthy era . In 1947 (years before Arthur Miller's 1953 drama Witch Hunt ) he wrote a play about the Salem witch trials : Wahn or Der Teufel in Boston , which premiered in Germany in 1949 and was translated by June Barrows Mussey (The Devil in Boston) in 1953. was performed in Los Angeles and New York. At the end of his life he dealt with Jewish subjects again ( The Jewess of Toledo ) and advocated a Jewish state as a refuge.

Thanks to the works from his time in France and the USA, Feuchtwanger is one of the great writers of exile literature . In 1953 he received the National Prize of the GDR 1st class for art and literature. There he was generally held in honor as an anti-fascist and for his sympathies for communism .

Lion Feuchtwanger fell ill with stomach cancer in 1957. After several operations, he died of internal bleeding in late 1958. He is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in Santa Monica .

According to Michael Naumann, Feuchtwanger's posthumous diaries, published in 2018, are the "most embarrassing and boring in German literary history, an endless array of male potency demonstrations".

Lion Feuchtwanger Prize

The Lion Feuchtwanger Prize has been awarded for historical prose since 1971.


Novels and short stories

Publisher's cover of the first print by Jud Süß, 1925
  • The lonely. Two sketches, 1903.
  • Ferrara Carnival. 1908.
  • The clay god. 1910.
  • Jud Suss. EA 1925. Drei Masken-Verlag Munich (created 1921/1922).
  • The ugly duchess . EA 1923 (green back). People's Association of Book Friends.
    • New edition for the GDR: The ugly Duchess Margarete Maultasch. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 1956.
    • New edition: The Ugly Duchess. Margarete Maultasch . Structure of the Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-7466-5005-4 .
  • Waiting room trilogy . Novels about the rise of National Socialism and the reactions to it.
  • Josephus trilogy . Novels about the Jewish historian Flavius ​​Josephus .
    • First edition:
      • The Jewish War . Propylaea Publishing House, Berlin 1932.
      • The sons. Querido Verlag, Amsterdam 1935 (exile publisher).
      • The day will come. Bermann-Fischer Verlag, Stockholm 1945 (exile publisher).
    • Single volume edition: The Jewish War. The day will come. The Sons (Josephus Trilogy). Aufbau-Verlag Berlin and Weimar GmbH, 1998, 2nd edition, ISBN 3-351-01755-3 .
    • New edition: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1982, ISBN 3-596-25707-7 .
  • The wrong Nero . Querido Verlag, Amsterdam 1936 (exile publisher), German EA 1947 Aufbau-Verlag Berlin.
  • The Lautensack brothers . 1943.
  • The story of Simone. 1942/1943, drama, shared by Feuchtwanger with Bertolt Brecht . The 15-year-old Simone Planchard identifies herself dreamily with Joan of Arc and in 1940, shortly before the Germans invaded her city, carried out an attack. Feuchtwanger rewrote the material for the novel Simone in 1944 .
  • Arms for America , 2 volumes, Querido Verlag, Amsterdam 1947/1948.
    • as a fisherman's paperback: Die Füchse im Weinberg. Part One: Arms for America. Roman, Frankfurt am Main 1983, ISBN 3-596-22545-0 .
  • Venice, Texas and fourteen other short stories. Aurora-Verlag, New York 1946 (4000 edition).
    • first published in Germany under: Battleship Potemkin and other stories. Reclam, Leipzig 1954.
  • Goya or the arge path of knowledge , EA 1951, Neuer Verlag Stockholm (Exilverlag, from 1952: Frankfurter Verlagsanstalt).
  • Odysseus and the Pigs and fourteen other stories. 1950.
  • Fool's wisdom or death and transfiguration of Jean-Jacques Rousseau , EA 1952, Frankfurter Verlagsanstalt (in red linen), from 1953 also in Aufbau-Verlag Berlin, in West Germany from autumn 1955 in Rowohlt Verlag Hamburg.
  • Die Jüdin von Toledo , EA 1955 Aufbau-Verlag Berlin with afterword by the author (from 1955 also at Rowohlt Verlag Hamburg under the title “Spanische Ballade” without afterword by the author).
  • Jefta and his daughter , EA in 1957 at Aufbau-Verlag Berlin, then from 1957 at Rowohlt Verlag Hamburg.


  • Pep - JL Wetcheek's American songbook. Potsdam 1928. Ironical argument with the American belief in the power of capital.

Autobiographical writings

Cover of Feuchtwangers Moscow 1937
  • Moscow 1937: A travelogue for my friends. Querido Verlag, Amsterdam 1937. - There are numerous new editions, e. B. Aufbau Verlag, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-7466-0168-1 . Feuchtwanger's view of the Stalinist Soviet Union, which he visited in 1936/1937.
  • Unholdes France , 1942 (later “The Devil in France”), ISBN 3-7466-5018-6 , describes Feuchtwanger's experiences in France in 1940 in the French internment camp Les Milles , while the German front is moving towards the camp.
  • The most intense life possible. The diaries . Diaries 1906-1940. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-351-03726-0 .


  • Armored cruiser Potemkin. Aufbau Verlag (GDR), 1946, published in the Federal Republic of 1985 by Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, ISBN 3-596-25834-0 . Contains various short stories, including "Venice (Texas)".


  • Small dramas ( Joel ; King Saul ; The Wife of Urias ; Poor Henry ; Donna Bianca ; The Bride of Corinth ) 1905–1906.
  • The fetish. Play in five acts, 1906.
  • Julia Farnese. A tragedy in three acts, 1915.
  • Warren Hastings. Play in four acts and one prelude, 1915.
  • Jud Suss. Play in three acts, 1918.
  • The prisoners of war. A play in five acts, 1918.
  • Thomas Wendt. A dramatic novel, 1918-1919.
  • The Dutch merchant. A play, 1920.
  • The American or the disenchanted city. A melancholy comedy in four acts, 1921.
  • The petroleum island. A play in three acts, 1923.
  • Will Hill be amnestied? Comedy in four acts, 1923.
  • Together with Bertolt Brecht:
    • Life of Edward II of England. History based on Marlowe , 1924.
    • Calcutta May 4th. Three Acts of Colonial History, 1925, Warren Hastings revision .
    • The story of Simone Machard. 1941-1943.
  • Madness or The Devil of Boston. A piece in three acts (1948). Premiere Frankfurt am Main 1949, in English translation (“The Devil in Boston”) Los Angeles 1953.

Other writings and collections

  • Heinrich Heine's Rabbi von Bacherach. With Heine's narrative fragment. A critical study. Dissertation at the University of Munich in 1907; New edition S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 3-596-25868-5 .
  • A book just for my friends. Construction, Berlin 1956. New edition: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1984, ISBN 3-596-25823-5 . Collection of about 100 smaller works by Feuchtwanger (studies, theater reviews, literary history, autobiography, short stories)
  • Desdemona's house. The Size and Limits of Historical Poetry. Greifenverlag, Rudolstadt 1961 (from the estate)
  • Harold von Hofe (ed.): Correspondence 1933–1958: Arnold Zweig - Lion Feuchtwanger. 2 volumes, construction, Berlin 1984. Paperback: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1986, ISBN 3-596-25783-2 (volume 1) and ISBN 3-596-25784-0 (volume 2).
  • Harold von Hofe, Sigrid Washburn (ed.): Correspondence with friends 1933–1958. 2 volumes, structure, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-351-01665-4 .
  • Nortrud Gomringer (ed.): Lion Feuchtwanger, letters to Eva van Hoboken . Edition Splitter, Vienna 1996, ISBN 3-901190-26-0 .

Work edition

Collected works in individual editions. Structure, Berlin 1959–1989

  • Volume 1: The ugly Duchess Margarete Maultasch. Jud Suss
  • Volume 2: The Jewish War
  • Volume 3: The Sons
  • Volume 4: The day will come
  • Volume 5: The Wrong Nero
  • Volume 6: The foxes in the vineyard
  • Volume 7: Goya or the evil path of knowledge
  • Volume 8: Fool's Wisdom or Death and Transfiguration of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Volume 9: The Jewess of Toledo. Jephta and his daughter
  • Volume 10: Success - Three Years of History of a Province
  • Volume 11: The Oppermann siblings
  • Volume 12: Exile
  • Volume 13: The Lautensack Brothers. Simone
  • Volume 14: Stories. Pep - JL Wetcheek's American songbook
  • Volume 15: Dramas 1
  • Volume 16: Dramas 2

Film adaptations of his works

Audio books and radio plays


The Lion Feuchtwanger Gymnasium in Munich is named after him.


  • Marta Feuchtwanger : Only one woman, years, days, hours. Memories. Langen Müller, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-7844-1876-7 . (Construction, Berlin 1984; paperback edition: Knaur, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-426-72224-0 )
  • Marta Feuchtwanger: Living with Lion. Conversation with Reinhart Hoffmeister in the series “Witnesses of the Century”. Lamuv, Göttingen 1991, ISBN 3-88977-278-1 .
  • Manfred Flügge : The four lives of Marta Feuchtwanger. Biography. Structure, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-351-02664-6 .
  • Klaus Gysi (Ed.): Lion Feuchtwanger. (= Contemporary writers. Volume 2). Collective for literary history under the direction of Klaus Gysi. People and knowledge, Berlin 1960.
  • Anne Hartmann: The Stalin Understanding. Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow 1937. In: Eastern Europe. 11-12.2014, pp. 59-80.
  • Anne Hartmann: "I came, I saw, I will write": Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow 1937. A documentary. Wallstein, Göttingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-8353-3152-5 .
  • Andreas Heusler: Lion Feuchtwanger. Munich - emigrant - world citizen. Residence, Salzburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-7017-3297-5 .
  • Roland Jaeger: Feuchtwanger photographically. Visual sources of exile research in the Feuchtwanger Memorial Library. In: Newsletter of the International Feuchtwanger Society. 2006, No. 4, pp. 2-6. (Also in: New newsletter from the Society for Exile Research eV (PDF; 267 kB). No. 28, December 2006, pp. 9–12)
  • Reinhold Jaretzky : Lion Feuchtwanger. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1984, ISBN 3-499-50334-4 .
  • Wolfgang Jeske, Peter Zahn: Lion Feuchtwanger or the terrible path of knowledge. A biography. Metzler, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-476-00555-0 .
  • Karl Kröhnke: Lion Feuchtwanger. The esthete in the Soviet Union. A book not just for his friends. Metzler, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 978-3-476-00791-9 .
  • Hans Leupold: Lion Feuchtwanger. VEB Bibliografisches Institut Leipzig, 1967. (License no. 433-130 / 197/75 - permission from the government to print the book)
  • Martin Mauthner: German Writers in French Exile, 1933–1940. Vallentine Mitchell, London 2007, ISBN 978-0-85303-540-4 .
  • Franz Norbert MennemeierFeuchtwanger, Lion. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1961, ISBN 3-428-00186-9 , p. 109 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Vladimir Papernyj: Faith and Truth. André Gide and Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow. In: Eastern Europe. 9-10.2003, pp. 1228-1244.
  • Andreas Rumler: Exile as a spiritual way of life. Brecht + Feuchtwanger. A working alliance. Edition AB Fischer, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-937434-76-6 .
  • Heike Specht: The Feuchtwangers. Family, tradition and the Jewish self-image in the German-Jewish bourgeoisie of the 19th and 20th centuries. Wallstein, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-8353-0017-0 .
  • Wilhelm von Sternburg : Lion Feuchtwanger. A German writer's life. Athenaeum, Königstein im Taunus 1983, ISBN 3-7610-8350-5 .
    • Revised new edition under the title: Lion Feuchtwanger. The biography . Structure, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-351-03275-3 .
  • Hans Wagener : Lion Feuchtwanger. Morgenbuch, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-371-00406-6 .
  • Feuchtwanger is alive! Report, Germany, 2008, 44 min., Written and directed: Herbert Krill, production: 3sat , first broadcast: December 17, 2008, 44 min.

Web links

Commons : Lion Feuchtwanger  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

References and comments

  1. After his emigration, the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich withdrew his doctorate from him in 1933 at the beginning of the Nazi era because of his Jewish descent. It was not until November 1952 that the university officially returned his doctoral degree.
  2. ^ W. von Sternburg: Lion Feuchtwanger. A German writer's life. P. 93 ff.
  3. Richard Kämmerlings: “Exceß in Priapo”: Lion Feuchtwanger's intimate diaries . In: THE WORLD . November 6, 2018 ( [accessed December 3, 2018]).
  4. Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv IV , war log roll No. 7833 (Ers.-Batl. Res.-Inf.-Regt. N ° 2)
  5. Hans Wagener: Lion Feuchtwanger. 1996, p. 44 f.
  6. First edition in: Hermann Sinsheimer (Ed.): An den Wassern von Babylon. An almost cheerful little Jewish book. Georg Müller, Munich 1920, pp. 52-92. Reprinted in: A Book Just For My Friends. Frankfurt am Main 1984, pp. 437-459; Quotation there p. 453 f.
  7. Michael Hepp (ed.): The expatriation of German citizens 1933-45 according to the lists published in the Reichsanzeiger, Volume 1: Lists in chronological order . De Gruyter Saur, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-11-095062-6 , pp. 3 (reprinted 2010).
  8. Manfred Flügge: Muse of Exile - The life of the painter Eva Herrmann. Insel, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-458-17550-6 , p. 238.
  9. Stefan Berkholz: Note from the box. In: The time. 26/1992.
  10. ^ Feuchtwanger Memorial Library
  11. Michael Naumann: Lion Feuchtwanger: "Fucked with Eva in the morning" . In: The time . December 8, 2018, ISSN  0044-2070 ( [accessed November 21, 2019]).
  12. ^ Anne Hartmann: Der Stalinversteher - Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow 1937. In: Eastern Europe. 11.2014, p. 60.
  13. Hans Christoph Buch: Those who cheat are cheating on themselves . In: The time . 15/1992.
  14. ^ Anne Hartmann: Der Stalinversteher - Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow 1937. In: Eastern Europe. 11.2014, pp. 62–63.
  15. ^ Anne Hartmann: Der Stalinversteher - Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow 1937. In: Eastern Europe. 11.2014, pp. 66-68.
  16. Gennady Kostyrčenko: Tajnaja polityka Stalina. Novaya versija. Čast 'I . Moscow 2015, pp. 338–339.
  17. Boris Frezinskij: Pisateli i sovetskie voždi. Moscow 2008, p. 150.
  18. ^ Anne Hartmann: Lost in translation. Lion Feuchtwanger with Stalin. Moscow 1937. In: Exile. Research, findings, results. 2/2008, pp. 5-18, 19-32.
  19. ^ Anne Hartmann: Der Stalinversteher - Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow 1937. In: Eastern Europe. 11.2014, pp. 72-73.
  20. Vladimir Papernyj: Faith and Truth. André Gide and Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow. In: Eastern Europe. 9-10.2003, p. 1242.
  21. ^ Anne Hartmann: Der Stalinversteher - Lion Feuchtwanger in Moscow 1937. In: Eastern Europe. 11.2014, pp. 72-73.
  22. In the Soviet zone of occupation , however, Feuchtwanger's book Success in the version from 1948 met with concerns. It was part of a bundle of approx. 1400 titles that were no longer to be borrowed from public lending libraries in the Soviet Zone. This book was expressly “to be avoided” for political reasons. The list comes from a "Fachgruppe Leihbücherei" in the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels , namely its SBZ branch in Leipzig. Dietrich Löffler: Book and Reading in the GDR , Federal Agency for Political Education, Bonn 2011, ISBN 978-3-8389-0234-0 , p. 333.
  23. Marta & Lion Feuchtwanger
  24. ^ Lion Feuchtwanger in the Find a Grave database . Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  25. ^ "Evenings fucked with Eva" , in: , December 5, 2018.
  26. Review: Sylvia Prahl: New audio books about anti-Nazi stations. Never tell a lie . In: Taz online, February 1, 2007.