Joachim Heinrich Campe
Joachim Heinrich was born on June 29, 1746 in Deensen near Holzminden as the second son of the couple Burchhard Hilmar Campe (1695–1760), active as a businessman, and his wife Anna Margarethe geb. Gosler born. The family was originally of noble descent, but the father had deliberately given up the title of nobility that had been legally awarded to him after a legal dispute with the family because he did not want to identify with the classifications. From 1760 Joachim Heinrich was one of the first students to attend the Amelungsborn monastery school in Holzminden (today Campe-Gymnasium ) and then from 1765 studied theology in Helmstedt . His teacher was Wilhelm Abraham Teller , who had to leave Helmstedt after strong hostility because of his clearly enlightening position. He attested that his student had extraordinary abilities. Because of similar views, Joachim Heinrich Campe also changed universities and studied Protestant theology in Halle from 1768 (with Johann Salomo Semler 1725–1791). He completed his studies on December 20, 1768 with the thesis Nonnulla de vi consuetudinis quaestionibus homianis addita in the field of philosophy. He was then from 1769 to 1773 tutor and tutor of Heinrich Friedrich Ferdinand von Holwede (1762-1817), the half-brother of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in Tegel . During this time he came into contact with the ideas of the Enlightenment and the people involved in the house of the Humboldt family. From 1773 to 1775 he was field preacher of the regiment of the Crown Prince, later King Friedrich Wilhelm II, stationed in Potsdam . In 1775 he returned to his position as tutor of the Humboldt family and also taught the siblings Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt. During this time he took part in a competition of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin on the subject of sensations and cognitive powers of the human soul . From 1776 he worked briefly as a preacher at the Heiliggeistkirche in Potsdam. But since he was much more interested in educational work, he briefly accepted a call to the Philanthropinum (a reform school) from Johann Bernhard Basedow in Dessau , where he became co-curator , soon also its director. But since he had fundamentally different views on the educational methods with which the sons of wealthy merchant families looked after there were taught, there were several conflicts. After an argument with Basedow, he left Dessau and went to Hamburg. But in order not to reveal his actual reasons, he disguised this departure as an escape.
Campe had joined the Masonic lodge Balduin zur Linde in Leipzig in 1777 , and in 1778 the Absalom zu den Drei Netteln lodge in Hamburg . He resigned in 1780, probably because he was disappointed in his charitable intentions; in any case, he has not attended any more boxes.
In 1777 Jakob Böhl , the head of a large trading company, entrusted him with the upbringing of his sons. In the then rural area of Hammerbrook , Campe am Hammerdeich (today Hamburg-Hamm ) founded its own educational institution. During this time he cultivated and intensified contacts with the Berlin and Hamburg Enlightenmentists Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , Mathias Claudius , Gotthold Ephraim Lessing . He frequented the houses of Reimarus and Sieveking . The youth novel Robinson the Younger , published in 1779/1780 , a free translation and adaptation of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe , has been translated into numerous languages, is considered the first specific German youth publication and has become one of the most successful German-language youth novels ever. In 1781 the youth novel The Discovery of America followed . The royalties made Campe financially independent.
Campe, along with the writers Christian Felix Weisse and Christian Gotthilf Salzmann, is one of the founders of the modern genre of targeted children's and youth literature . His work The Discovery of America (1781/82) marks the transition from children's to youth literature and at the same time served as a definition aid for the genre of youth literature . He created a series of books for children and adolescents, all of which should be educational, but also friendly and aimed at a certain age group. His publications range from primers to collections of translated and personal travelogues to educational books on behavior for boys and girls. Campe thus coined an " Enlightenment-specific philanthropic - literary form". This pedagogical narrative style was adopted by other writers and, in the case of Carl Goehring, for example, was used for national pedagogical purposes about a century later .
At Easter 1783 Campe handed over the management of his educational institute to Ernst Christian Trapp and retired with four students to an estate in Trittau (today the Stormarn district ). His active time as an educator now ended, and he devoted himself increasingly to his writing. He remained true to his pedagogical calling in his writings. The main focus of his educational considerations were the discussion of Rousseau's Émile or About Education , questions of professional education , character formation and general educational issues such as literary education. Gender education was particularly close to his heart. With his Theophron he tried to give the boys guidance in life with the “fatherly advice”. Gender instruction (education) was so important to him that he made two parts of his general revision available for the subject . Johann Friedrich Oest and Peter Villaume were the authors. Campe made trips through Germany and Switzerland.
In 1786, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel appointed Campe as “High Princely School Councilor” to head a school directorate in Wolfenbüttel. Under the administrative direction of Karl August von Hardenberg , who later became Prussian reform chancellor, the country's school system was to be comprehensively reformed. Other members of the board of directors were Konrad Heusinger , Johann Stuve and Ernst Christian Trapp . The drastic reform plans failed due to the resistance of the Catholic Church and the estates. In 1790 the school directorate was dissolved. Due to his pedagogical reputation, he was commissioned by the then Crown Prince and later King Friedrich Wilhelm II in 1786 to develop an educational concept for his son, who later became King Friedrich Wilhelm III. , to create.
As early as 1786 Campe founded the Braunschweigische Schulbuchhandlung, which he ran himself. The Duke promoted this project, knew how to protect the Enlightenment from the Prussian censorship , subsidized the purchase of a publishing house and granted postage free for the book shipments. Campe knew how to preserve his rights to his own books during this time without copyright and to earn even more from printing other people's works. The enlightened Campe, who originally wanted to protect his young readers from perishable novels, invented mass production in the German book trade.
A few days after the storming of the Bastille , Campe set off for Paris with his former student Wilhelm von Humboldt . They visited the revolutionary places together, had dinner with Mirabeau and took part in sessions of the National Assembly, including the night session of the 4th / 5th. August, which changed the state of France so fundamentally.
On August 26, 1792, Campe received, along with Friedrich Schiller , Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , George Washington , Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and 16 other foreigners, the honorary citizenship of the Republic of France .
Campe's only daughter Charlotte, the model for “Lotte” in his Robinson adaptation, married the publisher Friedrich Vieweg in 1795 , who moved from Berlin to Braunschweig in 1799 and also took over the school bookshop.
Shortly before, the future bookseller, printer and publisher Friedrich Bernhard Culemann had completed his training at Campe.
In 1807 Campe became a deputy from Brunswick in Kassel, the capital of the Kingdom of Westphalia founded by Napoleon . Due to the increasing political reaction, but also because of the effects of a serious illness, he withdrew into private life.
As a result, the focus of his literary work shifted towards studying the German language. Even before Konrad Duden, he published a large dictionary of the German language.
On October 22nd, 1818 Joachim Heinrich Campe died in Braunschweig as a wealthy but almost forgotten man.
German translations of foreign words
- ancient (for the foreign word antique)
- Ground floor ( ground floor )
- Desire to eat ( appetite )
- Sensitivity (1st delicacy, 2nd bar )
- progressive (progressive)
- conventional ( conventional )
- College ( university )
- Course ( course )
- Marginal note ( gloss )
- Rendezvous ( Rendezvous )
- Dispute ( debate )
- actually ( factually )
- Prediction ( prophecy )
- Wust ( chaos ) and
- Distorted image ( caricature ),
No entry into everyday language found u. a. For:
- Catholic : Obsessive believer ,
- Protestant : free believer ,
- Relic : Hheilümelei ,
- Soldier warrior ,
- Culture : Spiritual cultivation ,
- Pause : silence in between ,
- Mummy : dried corpse balsam corpse ,
- Sofa : upholstered bed ,
- Grotto : artificial cave ,
- Irony : roguish seriousness ,
- [ Primordial ] chaos : primeval mix, primitive mix or mixed lump,
- "Pori" ( pores ): sweat pits , weld holes, vapor pits.
- "Electrisirung": lightning flash excitation.
- "Queruliren": "Klägeln".
Campe (like Philipp von Zesen in earlier times ) is also wrongly ascribed to the creation of the word facial oriel for nose , at least there is no evidence of this in his writings. Presumably it is more of a parody of the suggestions of Campe and other language purists.
Campe's linguistic purism was not nationalistic, but motivated by enlightenment . Presumably under the influence of the high level of discussion among the simple population of France during the French Revolution , Campe tried to replace foreign words with words that were anchored in the language system, which were transparent and thus also understandable to the uneducated. With that, he hoped, these uneducated people would no longer be excluded from political events. Campe's primary objective was not to preserve linguistic purity, but to create something that would later be called “the public ”; Ultimately, his program was therefore emancipatory .
With regard to the development of a standard German language from the various German dialects, the fault line in the baroque language dispute ran mainly along confessional boundaries. Above all, southern German and Austrian clergy tried to establish a southern written language , while the scholars of the Protestant north preferred a High German written language based on the Meissen dialect. In this heated dispute at the time, Campe was clearly on the side of the northern version of the script, as presented by Johann Christoph Gottsched in 1748 . However, he turned against the formation of the standard language exclusively from Central German dialects , as Johann Christoph Adelung had practiced in his dictionary. Instead, he pleaded for a standard language that would consist of all dialects. It was not until 1784 that the baroque language dispute was finally decided, at least on a political level, when the Gottsched variant was introduced as the official language in the Habsburg crown lands. In this way, however, the Enlightenment principle of bringing writing as close as possible to what was spoken was not realized in the south of the German-speaking area.
- Nonnulla de vi consuetudinis quaestionibus homianis addita (Hall 1768) online
- Philosophical conversations about the immediate publicity of religion and about some inadequate kinds of evidence of it (1773) online
- Morals booklet for children from civilized classes (Dessau 1777) online
- Educational Negotiations (1777) online
- Collection of some educational pamphlets (Leipzig, 1778) Vol.1 online , Vol. 2
- On sensitivity and sentimentality in educational terms (Hamburg 1779) Digital copy of the Bavarian State Library (Reprint: Becker, Potsdam 2012, ISBN 978-3-941919-92-1 )
- Robinson the Younger. A reading book for children (Volume 1 Hamburg 1779, digitized and full text in the German Text Archive ; Volume 2 Hamburg 1780, digitized and full text in the German Text Archive )
- Small children's library (12 volumes, Hamburg 1779 to 1784) Volume 1 online , Volume 2 , Volume 3 , Volume 4 , Volume 5 , Volume 6 , Volume 8
- The Discovery of America (1781). Volume 1 online , Volume 2 , Volume 3
- Theophron or The Experienced Counselor for the Inexperienced Youth (Volume 1 Hamburg 1783, digitized and full text in the German Text Archive ; Volume 2 Hamburg 1783, digitized and full text in the German Text Archive )
- Fatherly advice to my daughter. A counterpart to the Theophron, dedicated to adult female youth (1789). on-line
- General revision of the entire school and education system. From a society of practical educators (Hamburg, Wolfenbüttel, Vienna, Braunschweig, 1785 to 1792). Volume 1 online
- First collection of strange travelogues for the youth (12 parts, Hamburg 1785 to 1793, continuation 6 parts, Braunschweig 1794 to 1801)
- About some misunderstood, at least unused means of promoting industry, the population and public prosperity. Two fragments (Wolfenbüttel, 1786). Volume 1 online , Volume 2
- About the expedient and inexpedient in rewards and punishments (Braunschweig, 1788, digitized version of the library for research on the history of education )
- Braunschweigisches Journal philosophical, philological and educational content (Braunschweig 1788 to 1791); continued as:
- Schleswigsches, formerly Braunschweigiges Journal (Neues Braunschweigiges Journal) (Altona, 1792); then:
- Schleswigsches Journal (Altona, 1792 to 1793)
- Letters from Paris (1790). on-line
- Samples of some attempts to enrich the German language (Braunschweig 1791). on-line
- History of the French Revolution (1792). Volume 1 online , Volume 2 , Volume 3
- On the purification and enrichment of the German language (Braunschweig, 1794, digitized version )
- Contribution to the advancement of the advancing education of the German language (Braunschweig 1795 to 1797)
- Dictionary for the explanation and Germanization of the foreign words that have penetrated our language (2 parts, Braunschweig 1801; edition 1813: full text in the Google book search)
- New collection of strange travelogues for young people (7 parts, Braunschweig 1802 to 1806). Volume 1 online , Volume 2 , Volume 3 , Volume 4 , Volume 5 , Volume 6 , Volume 7
- All children's and youth publications (38 parts, Braunschweig 1806 to 1822)
- Dictionary of the German language (5 volumes, 1807 to 1812). Volume 1 online , Volume 2 , Volume 3 , Volume 4 , Volume 5
- Letters from and to Joachim Heinrich Campe , ed. by Hanno Schmitt u. a. Volume 1: Letters from 1766–1788 , Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1996, ISBN 3-447-03902-7 , Volume 2: Letters from 1789–1814 , Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-447-05682-3
- Friedrich Carl Gröger , Heinrich Jacob Aldenrath , portrait of Joachim Heinrich Campe , Hamburg lithographic printing company Speckter & Herterich, 1818/1829, lithograph , 548 × 379 mm, ( online digital portrait index, photo archive Photo Marburg )
- Johann Heinrich Schröder painted, portrait Joachim Heinrich Campe , Friedrich Theodor Müller engraved, around 1830, copper engraving , 266 × 218 mm, ( online in picture index )
- G. Baur : Campe, Joachim Heinrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, pp. 733-737.
- Gottfried Hausmann : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, ISBN 3-428-00184-2 , p. 110 f. ( ).
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : CAMPE, Joachim Heinrich. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 900–901.
- Hans-Werner Engels : Campe, Joachim Heinrich . In: Franklin Kopitzsch, Dirk Brietzke (Hrsg.): Hamburgische Biographie . tape 3 . Wallstein, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 3-8353-0081-4 , p. 72-73 .
In-depth information on biography
- Hans-Jürgen Perrey: Joachim Heinrich Campe (1746-1818). Philanthropist - enlightener - publicist. edition lumière, Bremen 2010. (= Philanthropism and popular enlightenment. Studies and documents 2; Press and history - New contributions 56), ISBN 978-3-934686-84-7 .
- Hanno Schmitt (ed.): Visionary wisdom. Joachim Heinrich Campe in his time (1746–1818). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1996. (= exhibition catalogs of the Herzog August Library 74), ISBN 3-447-03822-5 .
Youth literature and education
- Alwin Binder and Heinrich Richartz: Joachim Heinrich Campes “Robinson the Younger” as a literary representation of the theory and practice of the aspiring middle class. In: Joachim Heinrich Campe: Robinson the Younger, for pleasant and useful entertainment for children. After the first edition, ed. by Alwin Binder and Heinrich Richartz. Stuttgart 1981/2000 (= Reclams UB 7665), ISBN 3-15-007665-X , pp. 376-425.
- Gabriele Brune-Heiderich: The encounter of Europe with the overseas world. Ethnological aspects in the youth literary work Joachim Heinrich Campes. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1989 (= Europäische Hochschulschriften ; Series 11, Pedagogy; 385), ISBN 3-631-41834-5 .
- Hans-Heino Ewers (Hrsg.): Children's and youth literature of the Enlightenment. Reclam, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-15-009992-7 ( full-text digitized version (PDF) from the University of Cologne ), pp. 463–468 (list of the publications printed there).
- Ludwig Ready: Campes political education. An Introduction to Enlightenment Education. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1977 (= Impulse for Research 27), ISBN 3-534-07744-X .
- Michaela Jonach: Fatherly advice for middle-class daughters. Upbringing of girls and the ideology of femininity with Joachim Heinrich Campe and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1997 (= aspects of pedagogical innovation 22), ISBN 3-631-32373-5 .
- Christa Kersting: The genesis of pedagogy in the 18th century. Campes “General Revision” in the context of modern science. Deutscher Studien-Verlag, Weinheim 1992, ISBN 3-89271-381-2 .
- Friedrich Koch : Sexuality, Education and Society. From gender instruction to emancipatory sex education. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2000, ISBN 978-3-631-36525-0 .
- Ralf Koerrenz : Elementary grammar of religion and morals. Orientations in Joachim Heinrich Campes doctrine of the soul. In: Joachim Heinrich Campe: Soul teaching for children. IKS Garamond, Jena 2010 (= Pedagogical Reform in Sources ; Edition Paideia 7), ISBN 978-3-938203-86-6 , pp. XXI – XXXVI.
- Silke Köstler-Holste: Natural speaking in instructive writing. JH Campes "Robinson the Younger" (1779/80). Niemeyer, Tübingen 2004 (= series germanistic linguistics 247), ISBN 3-484-31247-5 .
- Carola Pohlmann: The youth wrote and had enough experience, JH Campe as a writer for children and young people. Reichert, Wiesbaden 1996 (= exhibition catalogs. Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage 18), ISBN 3-88226-893-X .
- Angelika Reinhard: The career of Robinson Crusoe from literary to educational hero. A literary study of Robinson Defoes and the Robinson adaptations by Campe and Forster . Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1994. (= European university publications; series 1, German language and literature; 1463) ISBN 3-631-42450-7 .
- Helmut Henne : Semantics and Lexicography. Studies on the lexical codification of the German language. De Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1972 (= Studia linguistica Germanica 7), ISBN 3-11-003528-6 .
- Wolfgang Krischke: What does German mean here? Short history of the German language. Beck, Munich 2009, (= Beck'sche Reihe 4079), ISBN 978-3-406-59243-0 , p. 232 ff.
- Imke Lang-Groth: On the way to a document dictionary. The contribution by Joachim Heinrich Campe and Theodor Bernd. Publishing house for regional history, Bielefeld 2012 (= Braunschweiger contributions to the German language and literature , 16). ISBN 978-3-89534-916-4 .
- Ryszard Lipczuk: History and Present of Foreign Word Purism in Germany and Poland. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2007 (= Danzig Contributions to German Studies 23), ISBN 978-3-631-57388-4 .
- Sibylle Orgeldinger: Standardization and purism with Joachim Heinrich Campe. De Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1999 (= Studia linguistica Germanica 51), ISBN 3-11-016312-8 .
- Jürgen Schiewe : Language Purism and Emancipation. Joachim Heinrich Campes German translation program as a prerequisite for social change. Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1988 (= German Linguistics 96/97), ISBN 3-487-09289-1 .
- Literature by and about Joachim Heinrich Campe in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Joachim Heinrich Campe in the German Digital Library
- Books by and about Campe at the Berlin State Library
- Works by Joachim Heinrich Campe at zeno.org
- Works by Joachim Heinrich Campe in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Sibylle Orgeldinger, standardization and pluralism with Joachim Heinrich Campe - Dissertation Heidelberg 1998 in Berlin, New York 1988 p. 4 ff
- Heinz Jansen: From the Göttinger Hainbund . Münster 1933, p. 77. Handbook of Freemasonry, Vol. I, Leipzig 1863, p. 159
- Cf. Ewers, Hans-Heino: Children's and youth literature of the Enlightenment . Stuttgart: Reclam, 1991. pp. 463f. Likewise the introduction from the Theophron .
- Ewers, Hans-Heino: Joachim Heinrich Campe as a children's writer and as a youth writer . In: Pohlmann, Carola (Hrsg.): Experience wrote it and it's enough for young people: Joachim Heinrich Campe as a writer for children and young people . Reichert, Wiesbaden 1996, p. 21 .
- Steinlein, Rüdiger: The discovery of America (1781/82) and the beginnings of the youth literary history (adventure) narration . In: Pohlmann, Carola (Hrsg.): Experience wrote it and it's enough for young people: Joachim Heinrich Campe as a writer for children and young people . Reichert, Wiesbaden 1996, p. 34 .
- Campe, Joachim Heinrich: The discovery of America . 8th edition. School bookshop, Braunschweig 1817, p. IIV .
- Schmideler, Sebastian: Historical aspects of the reception of the Middle Ages in children's and youth literature . In: Bennewitz, I. & A. Schindler (eds.): Middle Ages in Children's and Young People's Books: Files from the Bamberg Conference 2010 . University of Bamberg Press, Bamberg 2012, p. 42 .
- Hugo Thielen : Culemann, (1), Friedrich Bernhard , in: Stadtlexikon Hannover , p. 119
- Member of Joachim Heinrich Campe at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences , accessed on January 11, 2017.
- Joachim Heinrich Campe: Dictionary of the German language. Vol. 1–5 + supplementary volume Reprograph. Nachdr. Hildesheim u. a .: Olms 1969-1970 = 1807-1813.
- Joachim Heinrich Campe: Dictionary for the explanation and Germanization of the foreign expressions that have penetrated our language. New strongly probably u. consistently verb. Output. - Reprograph. Reprint d. Edition Braunschweig 1813. Hildesheim a. a .: Olms 1970 = 1813. (That is :) Joachim Heinrich Campe: Dictionary of the German language, supplementary volume.
- Grimm: German Dictionary
- Friedrich Kluge : Etymological dictionary of the German language. 18th edition edit. v. Walther Mitzka. Berlin: de Gruyter 1960.
- Joachim Heinrich Campe: Dictionary for the explanation and Germanization of the foreign expressions that have penetrated our language. New strongly probably u. consistently verb. Output reprograph. Reprint of the Braunschweig 1813 edition. Olm, Hildesheim 1970, Spp. 252 b, 580 b.
- Friedrich Kluge: Etymological dictionary of the German language. 18th edition edit. v. Walther Mitzka. Berlin: de Gruyter 1960, p. 311 suggested by Christian Heinrich Wolke (previously Hohe Schule or hoheschule with inner flexion). The suggestion (proof not until 1825 with Julius von Voss ) was accepted by Campe in 1813
- Chaos as chaotic mess , also called improper chaos by Campe . (Campe: Dictionary of the German Language, Vol. 6).
- Joachim Heinrich Campe: Dictionary of the German language. Vol. 1–5 + supplementary volume Reprograph. Nachdr. Hildesheim u. a .: Olms 1969-1970 = 1807-1813
- Joachim Heinrich Campe: Dictionary for the explanation and Germanization of the foreign expressions that have penetrated our language. New strongly probably u. consistently verb. Output - reprograph. Reprint of the Braunschweig 1813 edition. Hildesheim u. a .: Olms 1970 = 1813. (That is :) Joachim Heinrich Campe: Dictionary of the German language, supplementary volume.
- Friedrich Kluge: Etymological dictionary of the German language. 18. On. edit by Walther Mitzka. Berlin: de Gruyter 1960.
- “Human slaughter: bitterly joking and at the same time true naming of the soldier” (Campe: Dictionary of the German Language, Vol. 3). Is not suggested by Campe for Germanization.
- In Zesen earlier "parched corpses"; Campe himself gives two references for dried bodies : “M. Reisen "and" CS Dessen: Verdeutschungswörterbuch ".
- "in jest [...] the Lotterbett" (Campe: Dictionary of the German Language, Erg. Bd.)
- In Zesen, earlier "Lusthöhle".
- "in lower spelling." "The Dutch say Mengelclomp ." (Campe: Dictionary of the German Language, Erg. Bd.). At Zesen you can already find “Mängeklumpf”.
- "Weld holes" already in Zesen .
- "Electricity" = lightning bolt
- Campe: Dictionary of the German Language, Vol. 1, p. 567
- Campe: Dictionary of the German language. Erg.Bd.
- Campe: Dictionary of the German language. Erg. Vol.
- Friedrich Kluge: Etymological dictionary of the German language, 18th edition. v. Walther Mitzka. Berlin: de Gruyter 1960, under the keyword "face": "'Facial bay' [...] at Matthison 1795".
- Helmut Henne: Braunschweig Dictionary Workshop - Joachim Heinrich Campe and his (e) collaborators, in: Hanno Schmitt (ed.): Visionäre Lebensklugheit. Joachim Heinrich Campe in his time (1746–1818) . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1996. (= exhibition catalogs of the Herzog August Library; 74), p. 215–224, here: p. 221 f.
- Helmut Henne: Braunschweig Dictionary Workshop - Joachim Heinrich Campe and his (e) collaborators, in: Hanno Schmitt (ed.): Visionäre Lebensklugheit. Joachim Heinrich Campe in his time (1746–1818) . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1996. (= exhibition catalogs of the Herzog August Library; 74), p. 215–224, here: p. 217 f .; Sibylle Orgeldinger: Standardization and purism with Joachim Heinrich Campe. de Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1999, (= Studia linguistica Germanica; 51), p. 28 f.
|SURNAME||Campe, Joachim Heinrich|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Campe, Joachim|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German writer, linguist, educator and publisher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 29, 1746|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Deensen|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 22, 1818|
|Place of death||Braunschweig|