Calendar overview 1746
Battle of Culloden , the Jacobites were decisively
defeated by British troops.
Ferdinand VI. becomes
king of Spain .
|Frederick V becomes King of Denmark and Norway .|
|Battle of Roucoux , the French under Moritz von Sachsen defeat the allied Austrians, British and Dutch in the War of the Austrian Succession .|
|1746 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1194/95 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1738/39 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1151/52 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2289/90 (southern Buddhism); 2288/89 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1108/09 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4079/80 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1124/25 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1158/59 (turn of the year 23/24 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5506/07 (September 14/15)|
|Coptic Calendar||1462/63 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2056/57 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2057/58 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1802/03 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- Instead of marching on completely unprepared London , Charles Edward Stuart retreats to Scotland to rebuild his Jacobite army . This gives King George II's troops time to regroup under William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland , and to face the Second Jacobite Rebellion.
- January 17: In the Battle of Falkirk , the Scottish Jacobites under Charles Edward Stuart defeat British government forces under General Henry Hawley , but retreats far north to Inverness .
- February 16: In the Rout of Moy , five Jacobites put a 1,500-strong government army to flight.
- April 16: The supporters of the Stuarts are defeated by the troops of George II under William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland in the Battle of Culloden . Bonnie Prince Charlie manages to escape and escapes the English troops with the support of Flora MacDonald in women's clothes.
- The British government reacted very decisively and with draconian measures to the uprising of 1745/46. Troops are brought into the highlands and posted there at strategically important points in fortresses such as the specially built giant Fort George near Inverness. The clan chiefs involved in the uprising and often also the clan members have to flee abroad or are executed after show trials.
- August 1st: The Act of Proscription in Scotland bans the wearing of the “Highland Dress”, the Scottish regional costume including kilt and tartan , by England. The aim of the law is to finally crush the Scottish clans that have traditionally supported the House of Stuart .
- September 20: Charles Edward Stuart embarks for France. He never returns to the British Isles.
War of the Austrian Succession
- January / February: Since Great Britain - pressed by the Jacobite uprising - has to withdraw troops from the continent, the French army under Hermann Moritz Graf von Sachsen can march relatively unhindered on Brussels and take the city after a month-long siege . The cities of Mechelen , Antwerp , Charleroi and Mons in the Austrian Netherlands will then fall. During the siege of Namur , the Marshal of Saxony defeats the Austrian relief army in the battle of Huy and then conquers the fortress .
- June 16: In the battle of Piacenza , the Austrians under Prince Josef Wenzel von Liechtenstein defeat a French-Spanish army and force them to retreat from northern Italy. The Pragmatic Army then conquered Lombardy , Piedmont and Savoy as well as the duchies of Parma , Piacenza and Guastalla . The Spanish troops then withdrew to Spain via Genoa . With the help of the British fleet, the Austrians and Sardinians successfully advance into Provence and besiege Antibes .
- October 11th: In the Battle of Roucoux , the French under Moritz von Sachsen defeat the allied Austrians, British and Dutch under Karl Alexander von Lorraine . Immediately after the battle, the French conquered Liège , and because of the late season, there were no further military operations.
- July 9th: After the death of King Philip V , his son is named Ferdinand VI. King of Spain . Ferdinand's stepmother, Elisabetta Farnese , who kept him away from inner court circles for a long time, loses her influence at court. At the instigation of the new Queen Maria Barbara de Bragança , Elizabeth's Italian courtiers also lose importance. Prime Minister Sebastián de la Cuadra y Llarena will be sacked in December and replaced by José de Carvajal y Lancaster . War and Finance Minister Zenón de Somodevilla y Bengoechea , however, remains in office.
- August 6th: On the deceased Christian VI. follows Frederick V as King of Denmark and Norway . He becomes Duke of Schleswig and Holstein and Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst at the same time . His reign, during which he relies heavily on his advisors Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff and Adam Gottlob von Moltke , is characterized by peace and prosperity in his countries.
Holy Roman Empire
- March 10: After the death of Friedrich Wilhelm , his half-brother Anton Ulrich becomes the sole ruler in the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen . At this point in time he was already 59 years old and had no descendants entitled to inherit, which is why the related Ernestine Duke Friedrich III. von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg gives hope to be able to take over the rule in the principality.
- April 14th: August Wilhelm succeeds his late father Ernst Ferdinand as Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern .
- May 16: Since Duke Johann Adolf II. Von Sachsen-Weißenfels left no successors behind his death, the secondary school passed to the Electorate of Saxony under Friedrich August II.
- June 8th: After the death of Friedrich III. his nephew Friedrich IV follows him as Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg . On October 10th he married Ulrike Luise zu Solms-Braunfels , the daughter of Prince Friedrich Wilhelm von Solms-Braunfels . Shortly after the wedding, Landgrave Ludwig VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt made claims to Hesse-Homburg.
- August 16: After the heirless death of Giuseppe Gonzaga , the Duchy of Guastalla is confiscated by Emperor Franz I Stephan .
American and Indian colonies
- September 21: A French force under Admiral Bertrand François Mahé de La Bourdonnais takes the Indian city of Madras, previously ruled by the British , in the First Carnatic War .
- Following the conquest of the French fortress Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island the previous year, some 4,000 New England men, led by William Shirley , Governor of Massachusetts , plan a coordinated attack on the center of France during King George's War in the American colonies Québec Colony with the cities of Montreal and Québec City . The desired reinforcement from England does not materialize, so that this attack does not take place. At the same time, a French fleet of 76 ships failed in an attempt to regain Louisbourg.
Other events in Asia
- April 11: Sadiq Muhammad Khan I , Nawab of Bahawalpur , is killed in a battle against Khuda Yar Khan Kalhora during the siege of Shikarpur . He is succeeded by his son Muhammad Bahawal Khan I.
- The after snowballing working ducats firm is in Neuwied founded. A little later it is classified as dangerous and banned.
science and technology
- September 11: Paris-Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Maraldi discovered in the constellation Aquarius a "foggy Star", the later as Messier 2 designated globular clusters . In the same year he also discovered the globular cluster Messier 15 .
- The French amateur astronomer Jean-Philippe de Chéseaux discovered two globular clusters, which were later named Messier 4 and Messier 71 .
Mathematics / chemistry / physics
- Matthew Stewart sets up Stewart's Theorem .
- The English inventor John Roebuck developed a process for the production of sulfuric acid in lead chambers, the so-called lead chamber process .
Teaching and Research
- October 22: The College of New Jersey is founded, from which Princeton University develops.
- Joseph von Petrasch founds the language society Societas incognitorum in Olomouc . The self-imposed goal of the learned society is the promotion of the sciences, especially the natural sciences, mathematics, numismatics, historical research as well as philology and literature.
- February 6th: The world premiere of the opera Cajo Mario by Niccolò Jommelli takes place in Bologna.
- February 14th: An Occasional Oratorio , an oratorio by George Frideric Handel based on a libretto by Newburgh Hamilton based on a poem by John Milton and Edmund Spenser , premieres in London.
- October 4th: Scylla et Glaucus , the only opera by Jean-Marie Leclair , is premiered at the Académie royale de musique in Paris. This season it comes to 17 performances. The libretto is based on Ovid's Metamorphoses .
- The play Arlecchino servitore di due padroni ( The Servant of Two Masters ) by Carlo Goldoni is premiered in Milan. It is considered the culmination of the Commedia dell'arte .
- The tragedy Canut, a tragedy by Johann Elias Schlegel , is premiered in Copenhagen.
- The palace garden behind Karlsruhe Palace is completed.
- Spring: Douwe Mout van der Meer goes on a tour of Europe with the rhinoceros Clara from Rotterdam . Via Hanover it goes to Berlin, where the animal will be viewed by Frederick the Great on April 26th. The journey continues via Frankfurt an der Oder and Breslau. After an extended stay in Wroclaw due to persistent rainfall, the team reached Vienna on October 30th. On November 5, Emperor Franz I and Maria Theresa will appear for a visit along with an imperial family tour. On this occasion, Mr. Van der Meer was raised to the nobility. On November 26th, Douwe Mout van der Meer goes home with his Clara.
- May 1st: Jakob Ernst von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn , Prince Archbishop of Salzburg , appoints Franz Karl Eusebius von Waldburg-Friedberg and Trauchburg as the successor of Joseph Franz Valerian von Arco , who died on March 24th, as Prince-Bishop of Chiemsee . After the papal confirmation on May 13, the episcopal ordination takes place on May 14 and the inauguration in Herrenchiemsee on May 18 .
- July 26th: Friedrich Karl von Schönborn-Buchheim dies. Anselm Franz von Ingelheim was elected as his successor as Prince-Bishop of Würzburg on August 29th . The election will be confirmed by Pope Benedict XIV on November 28th . On September 26th, Johann Philipp Anton von und zu Frankenstein succeeded Friedrich as Bishop of Bamberg .
- October 2: The sinking of the three French warships Duc d'Orléans (54 cannons), Phénix (54 cannons) and Lys (40 cannons) in a hurricane near Madras ( India ) killed around 1,200 crew members.
- October 28: An 8.4 magnitude earthquake in the Lima area of Peru kills around 18,000 people. The port city of Callao is practically wiped out by the subsequent tsunami.
- January 11: František Adam Míča , Bohemian composer († 1811)
- January 12: Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi , Swiss educator, philanthropist, school and social reformer, philosopher and politician († 1827)
- January 17: Paul Brigham , American politician, lawyer and governor of Vermont († 1824)
- January 24th: Gustav III. , King of Sweden († 1792)
- January 25: Félicité de Genlis , French lady-in-waiting and writer († 1830)
- January 29: Pierre Picot , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1822)
- January 31: Prince Friedrich Ludwig zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen , Prussian general († 1818)
- Tadeusz Kościuszko , Polish nobleman, general and revolutionary († 1817) February 4:
- Charles Cotesworth Pinckney , American politician († 1825) February 5:
- Susanna Margaretha Brandt , German maid and child murderer, model for Gretchen in Goethe's Faust († 1772) February 8:
- February 11: Luis Paret y Alcázar , Spanish painter († 1799)
- February 15: Wilhelm Heinse , German writer, scholar and librarian († 1803)
- February 20: Elisabeth Augusta Wendling , German opera singer († 1786)
- February 26: Maria Amalia of Austria , Duchess of Parma († 1804)
- Karoline von Hessen-Darmstadt , Countess of Hessen-Homburg († 1821) March 2:
- Izabela Czartoryska , Polish-Pomeranian nobleman, writer, philanthropist, patron, salonière and art collector († 1835) March 3:
- Georg Wilhelm Pfingsten , German teacher of the deaf and dumb († 1827) March 5:
- André Michaux , French botanist and explorer († 1802) March 7th:
- Franz Georg Karl von Metternich , diplomat and minister in the Austrian service († 1818) March 9:
- March 29: Carlo Buonaparte , Corsican nobleman, freedom fighter and politician, father of Napoléon Bonaparte († 1785)
- March 30: Francisco de Goya , Spanish painter and graphic artist († 1828)
- April 10: Heinrich Sautier , German Jesuit and founder († 1810)
- April 21: James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury , English diplomat († 1820)
- April 26: John Patten , American politician († 1800)
- Robert Lindet , French politician († 1825) May 2:
- Jean-Nicolas Pache , French politician († 1823) May 5:
- Gaspard Monge , French mathematician, chemist and physicist († 1818) May 9:
- Theodore Sedgwick , American politician († 1813) May 9:
- May 15: Claus Frimann , Norwegian pastor and poet († 1829)
- May 18: Félix de Azara , Spanish officer, naturalist and surveyor in South America († 1821)
- May 18: Johann Werner Streithorst , German Protestant theologian and writer († 1800)
- May 19: Johann Friedrich Peter , American composer († 1813)
- May 26: Johann Friedrich Doles the Younger , German composer and lawyer († 1796)
- James Hook , English composer and organist († 1827) June 3:
- Karl Emanuel , Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg († 1812) June 5:
- June 12: Isaac Salomon Anspach , Swiss Protestant clergyman and politician († 1825)
- June 15: Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle , German botanist († 1800)
- June 26: Jean-Siffrein Maury , French cleric and politician († 1817)
- June 29: Joachim Heinrich Campe , German writer, publisher, linguist and educator († 1818)
- June: Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville , French revolutionary and public prosecutor of the Revolutionary Tribunal († 1795)
- Sophie Magdalene of Denmark , Queen of Sweden († 1813) July 3:
- Franz Anton von Zauner , Austrian sculptor († 1822) July 5:
- Ludovit Václav Lachnit , Bohemian horn player and composer († 1820) July 7:
- Franziska Lang , German soubrette, dancer and actress († 1800) July 9:
- July 11th: Friederike Riedesel zu Eisenbach , German nobleman and author († 1808)
- July 16: Giuseppe Piazzi , Italian astronomer, mathematician and theologian († 1826)
- July 16: Peter Villaume , German theologian and educator († 1825)
- July 23: Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid , Spanish general and politician, Viceroy of New Spain († 1786)
- July 25: Maria Francisca Benedita of Portugal , Princess of Beira († 1829)
- July 26th: Hanns Moritz von Brühl , Prussian director of the Chausseen († 1811)
- July 30th: Louise du Pierry , French astronomer
- James Wyatt , British builder († 1813) August 3:
- August 10: Johann Friedrich Wenthin , German organ builder († 1805)
- August 22: Johan Heinrich Knuth , Danish landowner, chamberlain and privy councilor († 1802)
- August 22: Anna Katharina Schönkopf , Leipzig host's daughter and childhood sweetheart Johann Wolfgang von Goethe († 1810)
- August 26: James Brice , American politician, governor of Maryland († 1801)
- September 12: Michele Arditi , Italian lawyer and classical archaeologist († 1838)
- September 15: Karl Gesenius , German theologian, lawyer and collector († 1829)
- September 25: Luise Mejer , Hanoverian citizen († 1786)
- September 26: Johann Carl Friedrich Dauthe , German architect and engraver († 1816)
- September 28: William Jones , English Indologist and lawyer, judge at the Supreme Court in Calcutta († 1794)
- September 28: Giovanni Punto , Bohemian horn player, violinist and composer († 1803)
- September 29: Ernst Ludwig Gerber , German composer and author († 1819)
- William Billings , American composer († 1800) October 7:
- October 20: Werner Marx , Prussian vicar general in Cologne († 1806)
- October 24: Edmond Dubois-Crancé , French politician and general († 1814)
- October 27: Maria Antonia von Branconi , mistress of the Hereditary Prince Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand of Braunschweig, friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and owner of several estates († 1793)
- October 29: Claus Fasting , Norwegian editor and critic († 1791)
- October 29: Charles II August , Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken († 1795)
- Elisabeth Christine Ulrike von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Crown Princess of Prussia († 1840) November 9:
- November 12: Jacques Alexandre César Charles , French physicist and aviation pioneer († 1823)
- November 12: Tiradentes , Brazilian freedom fighter against the Portuguese colonial power in Minas Gerais († 1792)
- November 15: Joseph Quesnel , Canadian composer, writer and actor († 1809)
- November 17: Ludwig Wilhelm Alexander von Hövel , Baden State Minister († 1829)
- November 18: Maria Leopoldine von Anhalt-Dessau , Princess of Lippe-Detmold († 1769)
- November 21: Carl Georg Riedesel zu Eisenbach , President of Parliament and Hereditary Marshal of the Hessian Landgraves († 1819)
- November 22nd: Bernt Anker , Norwegian merchant († 1805)
- November 24: Christian Heinrich Schmid , German legal scholar, literary scholar and rhetorician († 1800)
- November 27: Increase Sumner , American lawyer and politician († 1799)
- December 19: Maria Magdalena Keverich , citizen of Trier, mother of Ludwig van Beethoven († 1787)
- December 20: Miguel José de Azanza , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, Viceroy of New Spain († 1826)
- December 30th: François-André Vincent , French painter and draftsman († 1816)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Marie-Emmanuelle Bayon Louis , French composer, pianist and salonnière († 1825)
- Elisha Lawrence , American politician, governor of New Jersey († 1799)
- Murata Harumi , Japanese poet and Kokugaku scholar († 1812)
- Louise-Jeanne Tiercelin de La Colleterie , French noblewoman, mistress of the French King Louis XV. († 1779)
Born around 1746
- Susanna Abraham , German clerk and founder († 1821)
January to April
- Jacques Égide Duhan de Jandun , educator of Frederick the Great, Braunschweig librarian in Blankenburg and Prussian privy councilor in the Foreign Affairs Office (* 1685) January 3:
- Christian Hagmaier , German Protestant theologian, rector of the University of Tübingen (* 1680) January 4th:
- January 21: Gottfried Kirchhoff , German organist and composer (* 1685)
- January 23: Peter Zorn , German Lutheran theologian, historian, Graecist and Hebrew (* 1682)
- Matthias Desubas , French preacher and evangelical martyr (* 1720) February 2:
- Jan Albertsz van Dam , Dutch mathematician, astronomer, surveyor and poet (* 1670) February 7th:
- February 11: Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov , Russian politician and field marshal (* 1667)
- February 22nd: Guillaume Coustou the Elder , French painter and sculptor (* 1677)
- Johann Veit Hauck , Austrian painter (* 1663) March 4:
- Christoph Aegidius von Negelein , Mayor of Königsberg (* 1668) March 7th:
- March 10: Friedrich Wilhelm , Duke of Saxony-Meiningen (* 1679)
- March 18: Anna Leopoldowna , Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Grand Duchess and Regent of the Russian Empire (* 1718)
- March 20: Nicolas de Largillière , French painter (* 1656)
- March 22nd: Karl Sebastian Flacker , Austrian-Bohemian sculptor (* 1679)
- March 24th: Joseph Franz Valerian von Arco , Prince-Bishop of Chiemsee (* 1686)
- March 28: Bernhard Walther Marperger , German Lutheran theologian (* 1682)
- March 30th: Jean-Joseph Fiocco , Flemish composer and conductor (* 1686)
- March 30th: Ignaz Kögler , German Jesuit and China missionary (* 1680)
- April 11th: Sadiq Muhammad Khan I , Nawab of Bahawalpur
- April 14: Ernst Ferdinand , Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (* 1682)
- April 15: Francisco Caporale , Italian composer and cellist (* around 1700)
May to August
- Antonio Pollarolo , Italian organist and composer (* 1676) May 4th:
- Thomas Hanmer, 4th Baronet , British politician and editor of the works of Shakespeare (* 1677) May 7th:
- May 14: Franz Conrad Romanus , Mayor of Leipzig (* 1671)
- May 15: Andreas Adam , German architect (* 1699)
- May 16: Johann Adolf II , Duke of Saxony-Weißenfels and Prince of Saxony-Querfurt (* 1685)
- May 16: Moshe Chaim Luzzatto , Jewish philosopher and Kabbalist (* 1707)
- May 22nd: Franz Michael Hueber , Austrian painter (* before 1685)
- May 25: Johann Gottfried Schaumburg , German legal scholar (* 1703)
- Hacı Beşir Ağa , head eunuch from Ethiopia at the Sultan's court in Istanbul (* around 1655) June 3:
- Friedrich III. , Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg (* 1673) June 8:
- Giacomo Leoni , Italian architect in England (* 1686) June 8th:
- June 13: Elias Hößler , German organ builder (* 1663)
- June 14th: Colin Maclaurin , Scottish mathematician, geodesist and geophysicist (* 1698)
- Philip V , King of Spain, King of Sardinia and King of Sicily and Naples (* 1683) July 9:
- July 22nd: Maria Theresia Rafaela of Spain , Dauphine of France (* 1726)
- July 26: Friedrich Karl von Schönborn-Buchheim , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg and Imperial Vice Chancellor (* 1674)
- July 28: John Peter Zenger , German-American publicist and publisher (* 1697)
- July 30th: Francesco Trevisani , Italian painter (* 1656)
- Christian VI. , King of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Schleswig and Holstein and Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst (* 1699) August 6:
- Margherita de L'Épine , opera singer (soprano), Handel interpreter (* around 1680–1683) August 8:
- August 13: Israel Traugott Garmann , Saxon Evangelical Lutheran theologian, pastor and master's degree (* 1684)
- August 16: Giuseppe Gonzaga , Duke of Guastalla (* 1690)
- August 27: Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer , German composer and musician (* 1662)
September to December
- Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Torcy , French diplomat and foreign minister (* 1665) September 2:
- September 10: Maximilian Ulrich von Kaunitz , imperial diplomat and governor of Moravia (* 1679)
- September 20: Johann Arnold de Reux , vicar general and official of the Archbishop of Cologne (* 1665)
- Anna Margareta Pfeffer , German poet (* 1679) October 6:
- October 12: Augustin Friedrich Walther , German physician, anatomist and botanist (* 1688)
- October 14: Domenico Alberti , Venetian singer and composer (* around 1710)
- Johann Ludwig II , Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (* 1688) November 5:
- November 23: Georg Wilhelm Steller , German doctor and scientist (* 1709)
- Johann Harper , Swedish painter (* 1688) December 4:
- December 10: Teodorico Pedrini , Italian missionary, harpsichordist and composer (* 1671)
- December 14: José Antonio de Mendoza Caamaño y Sotomayor , Spanish colonial administrator, Viceroy of Peru (* 1667)
Exact date of death unknown
- Jechiel Heilprin , rabbi, yeshiva leader, Talmudist and chronicler of Judaism (* around 1660)
- Francis Hutcheson , Irish-Scottish philosopher and economist (* 1694)
- Grizel Steevens , Anglo-Irish benefactress (* 1653)
- Vittoria Tarquini , called La Bombace , Italian opera singer (* around 1670)