Jacques Égide Duhan de Jandun
Jacques Égide Duhan de Jandun (born March 14, 1685 in Jandun , France ; † January 3, 1746 in Berlin ), also Charles Égide Duhan de Jandun or Charles Gilles Duhan de Jandun , last name also du Han , was the educator of Frederick the Great and later Braunschweig librarian in Blankenburg and Prussian privy councilor in the Foreign Affairs Office ( Legation Council ) in Berlin. Duhan's educational influence shaped Frederick the Great's lifelong interest in French culture and way of life.
Live and act
Childhood and youth
The son of a Huguenot nobleman spent his childhood and youth first in Jandun in Champagne and then from 1690 in Berlin. After King Louis XIV's repeal of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau in October 1685, French Protestants had lost their civil and religious rights. Duhan's father, a royal French councilor, had to leave France because of his Calvinist beliefs. He went to Berlin with his family, where he started a civil servant career.
Educator of Frederick the Great
After working as a teacher at the Collège Français of Huguenots in Berlin , Duhan became court master of Count Dohna and educator of one of his sons. In his service Duhan also took part in the siege of Stralsund in 1715 , where he attracted the attention of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I , who thereupon appointed him tutor of his then four-year-old son, Crown Prince Friedrich . In addition to the elementary teacher Hilmar Curas , who taught the Crown Prince to read and write, Duhan was initially only to teach arithmetic, geography and the history of the last hundred years; later, the king specified the prince's timetable in handwritten additions, in which he prescribed the teaching units and daily routine precisely, sometimes in minute intervals. The aim was to prepare for the conduct of state affairs, everything that was aesthetic and general was prohibited. The highly educated Duhan, however, sometimes overran these narrow limits and aroused enthusiasm for philosophical and literary works in his pupils, and did not completely renounce Latin. Without the king's knowledge, Duhan helped the crown prince obtain a library of around 4,000 volumes with mainly French authors. Duhan was responsible for his education until Friedrich's confirmation in 1727; Friedrich also remained closely connected to him. In 1727 Duhan was appointed judge councilor.
Exiled to Memel and Blankenburg
Friedrich Wilhelm made the three former prince tutors responsible for Friedrich's attempt to escape in 1730 and removed them from the vicinity of the Crown Prince. He banished Duhan to Memel , the most remote place in his state. In the summer of 1732 the king allowed the exile to accept a position as librarian with Duke Ludwig Rudolf von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel in Blankenburg, whereby Friedrich had to promise not to address Duhan at a possible meeting. Duhan also became a reader of Ludwig Rudolf's wife Christine Luise in Blankenburg and during her stays in Wolfenbüttel. According to the account books of the ducal chamber authorities, Duhan received an annual pardon from mercy of 400 thalers from October 1735 to April 1740.
Last years of life in Berlin
Three days after his accession to the throne in 1740, Friedrich, who was known that Duhan felt “extremely lonely”, brought him to Berlin with a heartfelt letter. He made Duhan a privy councilor in the Foreign Affairs Office with permission to evade official duties as he pleased. In January 1744 he became an honorary member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences . When Friedrich returned to Berlin on December 28, 1745 after the signing of the peace in Dresden , he interrupted his move in the solemnly illuminated city to visit Duhan at the death bed.
Significance and aftermath
Friedrich's lifelong interest in French culture was significantly influenced by Duhan. How much Friedrich still valued his former teacher in adulthood is evident from the numerous downright heartfelt letters to Duhan; In a poem written in his honor, Friedrich even describes Duhan as his "true father".
The painter Adolph von Menzel recorded the visit of Friedrich on Jacques Duhan's deathbed in one of his woodcuts depicting the life of Frederick the Great. In the - fragmentary - dialogue novel The Sad Story of Frederick the Great by the writer Heinrich Mann , Frederick's educator Jacques Duhan is one of the protagonists.
Duhan wrote several articles on the history of Brandenburg and Prussia.
In 1791 Christian Friedrich Voss published in his publishing house in Berlin Friedrich's the Second, King of Prussia, correspondence before and after his accession to the throne with his court master Duhan de Jandun .
- Monique Dannhauser: From France to Germany. The French Huguenots and their offspring Jacques-Egide Duhan de Jandun, Preceptor of the Prussian King Friedrich II. Translated from the French by Bärbel Lange. Egelsbach; Frankfurt a. M. u. a. 1999 ISBN 3-8267-1168-8
- Dieter Lent: Duhan (also du Han) de Jandun, Jacques Egide . In: Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Dieter Lent u. a. (Ed.): Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon: 8th to 18th century . Appelhans, Braunschweig 2006, ISBN 3-937664-46-7 , pp. 176f. (with archival records from the Wolfenbüttel State Archives )
- Ferdinand Meyer: (Jacques Egide) Duhan de Jandun . In: Famous men in Berlin and their homes. From the 16th century to the time of Frederick the Great . Volume 2, Berlin 1876, pp. 31-35
- French representations of the 18th and 19th centuries
- Histoire de l'Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-lettres , Berlin: Haude & Spencer, 1750, p. 157 
- Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey , Éloges des académiciens de Berlin et de divers autres savans , Berlin: Étienne de Bourdeaux, 1757, B. 1, p. 35 
- Correspondance de Frédéric II avant et après son avènement avec M. Duhan de Jandun , Berlin: Chrétien Frédéric Vos, 1791  - See Eloge académique à M. Duhan , pp. 8–36.
- Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Boulliot , Biographie ardennaise ou Histoire des Ardennais qui se sont fait remarquer par leurs écrits, leurs actions, leurs vertus et leurs unerurs , Paris, 1830, volume 2 , p. 16 
- Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg : Website Preussen. Chronicle of a German State: Short biography of Charles Egide Duhan
- Austrian National Library , Image Archive Austria: Portrait of Duhan de Jandun, Jacques Egide
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library : Database of People from Lower Saxony (search field name: Duhan de Jandun)
- Date of birth and death according to: Werner Hartkopf: The Berlin Academy of Sciences. Its members and award winners 1700–1990 . Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1992, p. 80; Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg: Website Preussen. Chronicle of a German State: Short biography of Charles Egide Duhan .
- Dieter Lent: Duhan (also du Han) de Jandun, Jacques Egide . In: Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Dieter Lent u. a. (Ed.): Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon: 8th to 18th centuries , p. 176
- cf. Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg: Website Preussen. Chronicle of a German State: Short biography of Charles Egide Duhan .
- See Reinhold Koser, Friedrich der Grosse als Kronprinz, Stuttgart 1886, p. 3.
- "Regulations on how my oldest son Friedrich should keep his studies in Wusterhausen" Wusterhausen, September 3, 1721, in: Most gracious father. The crippling of a character in Wusterhausen. Documents from Frederick II's youth, ed. by Frank Schumann, Berlin 1883, p. 24ff. See also Ernest Lavisse, Die Jugend Friedrichs des Grossen 1712–1733, Berlin 1919.
- Cf. Dieter Lent: Duhan (also du Han) de Jandun, Jacques Egide , in: Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Dieter Lent u. a. (Ed.): Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon: 8th to 18th century . Appelhans, Braunschweig 2006, p. 177.
- Reinhold Koser: History of Frederick the Great. Fourth and fifth increased editions , Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachhaben, Stuttgart and Berlin, Vol. 1 1912, p. 167
- Cf. Werner Hartkopf: The Berlin Academy of Sciences. Its members and award winners 1700–1990 . Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1992, p. 80.
- Reinhold Koser: History of Frederick the Great. Fourth and fifth increased editions, Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachhaben, Stuttgart and Berlin, Vol. 2 1913, pp. 232f.
- Friedrich to Duhan de Jandun, Rheinsberg, October 9, 1737, in: Oeuvres de Frédéric le Grand, vol. 17, ed. by JDE Preuss, o. O. 1851, pages 307-310.
- See Heinrich Mann: The sad story of Frederick the Great . Claassen, Düsseldorf 1962. See on this novel z. B. Marei Konow: Heinrich Mann and Friedrich the Great: "The sad story of Frederick the Great", "The King of Prussia" - studies on the genesis and design of the Friedrich material with Heinrich Mann . J. Gross, Heidelberg 1993.
|SURNAME||Duhan de Jandun, Jacques Égide|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Duhan de Jandun, Charles Gilles; du Han, Jacques Egide; Jandun, Charles Gilles Duhan de; Duhan de Jandun, Charles Egide; Duhan de Jandun, Charles E .; Jandun, Charles Egide Duhan de; Duhan de Jandun; Jandun, Duhan de; Jandun, Jacques Égide Duhan de|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Educator of Frederick the Great, Braunschweig librarian in Blankenburg and Prussian legation councilor in Berlin|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 14, 1685|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Jandun , France|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 3, 1746|
|Place of death||Berlin|