Calendar overview 1685
Edict of Potsdam, the Great Elector granted
the French Huguenots a safe home.
|James II./VII. becomes King of England and Scotland .||James Scott leads the Monmouth Rebellion against him .|
|1685 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1133/34 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1677/78 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1090/91 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2228/29 (southern Buddhism); 2227/28 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1047/48 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4018/19 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||1096/97 (turn of the year 27/28 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5445/46 (September 28-29)|
|Coptic calendar||1401/02 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1995/96 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1996/97 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1741/42 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
England / Scotland
- February 6th : With the death of Charles II without legitimate descendants, his brother James II becomes King of England and - as James VII. - of Scotland . He will be crowned on April 23 at Westminster Abbey .
- George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys is elevated to Lord Chancellor by James II .
- June 20 : James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, declares himself the illegitimate son of the late ruler Charles II to be King of England , who is meanwhile ruled by the already crowned king brother James II . The instigated Monmouth rebellion fails in the Battle of Sedgemoor on July 6th with troops loyal to the king. The captured Duke will be executed on July 15th according to the Bloody Assizes .
Holy Roman Empire
- April 18 : Landgrave Karl von Hessen-Kassel issues the Freedom Concession , according to which French religious refugees receive certain advantages when settling in his country.
- May 16 : After the death of Charles II , Philipp Wilhelm becomes the new Elector Palatinate .
- August 16 : During the Great Turkish War , imperial troops defeat an Ottoman army in the Battle of Gran .
- November 8th : In the Edict of Potsdam , dated October 29th (according to the Julian calendar), the Great Elector grants the French Huguenots privileges and a secure home in Brandenburg .
- May 19 : After 22 years in the Blue Tower , political prisoner Leonora Christina Ulfeldt is released in Copenhagen . She was charged with participating in the political intrigues of her husband Corfitz Ulfeldt .
- October 18 : Louis XIV. Stands by the Edict of Fontainebleau , the Edict of Nantes on. With the new edict, Ludwig declares the Catholic commitment to the state religion and issues a general ban on Protestantism. The French Reformed Church is hard hit by the ban because it is consistently enforced. Many French Huguenots flee to Protestant countries, especially the Netherlands, Switzerland and Prussia. Soon after, the Camisards revolt began .
- October 5 : Brandenburg conquers its Arguin colony in what is now Mauritania.
- Louis XIV issues the Code Noir for dealing with slaves in the colonies.
- January 17th : The Armenian Johannes Theodat is the first to receive an imperial privilege for the public serving of coffee and subsequently opens the first Viennese coffee house in his house on Haarmarkt .
- June 29th : An edict by the Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm leads to the foundation of the Berlin Stock Exchange .
- Beginning of the leather goods industry: tanneries in Saarlouis -Roden from 1685 to 1904.
- December: The French King Louis XIV grants the Marquis Charles Henri Gaspard de Lénoncourt , who rules the Barony of Dillingen , permission to build an ironworks with a furnace at the gates of the Saarlouis fortress . The Dillinger Hütte is founded .
science and technology
- The Halle grammar school director and later history professor Christoph Cellarius (1638–1707) publishes the textbook Historia universalis, in antiquam, medii aevi novam divisa , in which the tripartite division of world history into ancient , medieval and modern times is recorded in a textbook for the first time.
Culture and society
- The first fire extinguishing regulations with firemen are issued in Vienna and the oldest professional fire brigade in the world is founded.
First half of the year
- January 19 : Sebastián de Eslava y Lazaga , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Granada († 1759 )
- February 2 : Amand von Buseck , Prince-Bishop in Fulda († 1756 )
- February 4th : Wilhelmine von Grävenitz , mistress of Duke Eberhard Ludwig († 1744 ), Duke of Württemberg
- February 9 : Francesco Loredan , 116th Doge of Venice († 1762 )
- February 11 : Willibald Krieger , German Jesuit, theologian, philosopher and physicist († 1769 )
- February 12 : George Hadley , English physicist († 1768 )
- February 17 : Johann Gottfried Gregorii alias Melissantes , German geographer and polymath († 1770 )
- March 5 : Georg Friedrich Händel , German composer († 1759 )
- March 12 : George Berkeley , Irish theologian and philosopher († 1753 )
- March 17 : Jean Marc Nattier , French painter († 1766 )
- March 26 : Johann Alexander Thiele , Saxon painter and etcher († 1752 )
- April 18 : Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de La Jonquière , French admiral and Governor General of New France († 1752 )
- April 30 : Hermann Friedrich Teichmeyer , coroner († 1744 )
- June 14 : Charlotte Wilhelmine von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld , Countess von Hanau-Münzenberg († 1767 )
- June 25 : Johann Michael Hoppenhaupt , German sculptor and builder († 1751 )
- June 30 : John Gay , English writer († 1732 )
- June 30 : Dominikus Zimmermann , Bavarian plasterer and master builder († 1766 )
Second half of the year
- August 18 : Brook Taylor , British mathematician († 1731 )
- August 31 : Samuel Urlsperger , German Lutheran theologian († 1772 )
- October 1 : Charles VI. , Holy Roman Emperor († 1740 )
- October 8 : Carl Aigen , Austrian painter († 1762 )
- October 12 : Ishida Baigan , Japanese scholar and philosopher († 1744 )
- October 24th : Charles Alston , Scottish medic and botanist († 1760 )
- October 26 : Domenico Scarlatti , Italian composer († 1757 )
- October 30 : Gottlob Adolph , German hymn poet († 1745 )
- November 3 : Theophilus Grabener , German educator († 1750 )
- November 15 : Balthasar Denner , German painter († 1749 )
- December 8th : Johann Maria Farina , Italian chemist, inventor of Eau de Cologne († 1766 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Benedikt von Ahlefeldt , Privy Councilor, Chancellery President and Chamberlain of Duke Karl Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf († 1739 )
- Jean-Pierre Bergier , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1743 )
- Mary Cowper , English lady-in-waiting and diarist († 1724 )
- Sai Setthathirath II , King of the Lao Kingdom of Lan Chang († 1730 )
- Dorothee Elisabeth Tretschlaff , Brandenburg maid, probably the last victim of the witch hunt in Brandenburg († 1701 )
Born around 1685
First half of the year
- January 5th : Herman Saftleven , Dutch painter (* 1609 )
- January 26 : Johann Michael Nicolai , German violonist and composer (* 1629 )
- January 28 : David Mozart , Augsburg mason and architect (* 1620 / 22 )
- February 6 : Charles II , King of England, Scotland and Ireland (* 1630 )
- February 20 : Gottfried Olearius , German Protestant theologian (* 1604 )
- February 24th : Isabella Clara of Austria , Duchess of Mantua (* 1629 )
- March 10 : Werner Theodor Martini , German legal scholar (* 1626 )
- March 11th : Marx Augustin , bank singer, bagpiper and impromptu poet (* 1643 )
- March 26 : Go-Sai , 111th Emperor of Japan (* 1638 )
- March 30th : Friedrich Casimir von Hanau , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1623 )
- April 8 : Sassoferrato , Italian painter (* 1609 )
- April 29 : Luc d'Achery , French librarian and historian (* 1609 )
Second half of the year
- July 14th : Johann Caspar Bauhin , Swiss doctor and botanist (* 1606 )
- July 15 : James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth , illegitimate son of Charles II of England (* 1649 )
- September 7th : Johann Stefan Wydżga , Bishop of Warmia, Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland-Lithuania (* 1610 )
- September 18 : Christoph Alois Lautner , victim of the witch trials in Moravia (* 1622 )
- October 1 : Kanō Yasunobu , Japanese painter (* 1614 )
- October 3 : Juan Carreño de Miranda , Spanish painter (* 1614 )
- October 3 : Johann Heinrich Roos , German painter (* 1631 )
- October 12 : Christoph Ignaz Abele , Austrian legal scholar and court official (* 1627 )
- October 30 : Michel Le Tellier , French statesman (* 1603 )
- November 4 : Albrecht Sigismund of Bavaria , Prince-Bishop of Freising (* 1623 )
- November 9th : Louis Armand I. de Bourbon , Prince of Conti (* 1661 )