Calendar overview 1749
Green Park is Fireworks Music
by George Frideric Handel premiered.
Clara is used
by the French King Louis XV. admired.
|1749 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1197/98 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1741/42 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1154/55 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2292/93 (southern Buddhism); 2291/92 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1111/12 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4082/83 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1127/28 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1162/1163 (New Year 10/11 December)|
|Jewish calendar||5509/10 (September 12/13)|
|Coptic calendar||1465/66 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2059/60 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2060/61 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1805/06 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
South East Asia
- Spring: Inta Pom becomes king of the Lao kingdom of Luang Prabang after the death of his father Inthasom . After eight months he resigns in favor of his older brother Sotika Kuman .
- November 18 : Gaspar da Costa and Topasse , allied with Portugal , attack the Dutch fortress of Kupang , into which several rebellious Liurais have fled. The attack fails despite an enormous superiority. The topasse then withdraw to Penfui .
- November 9 : On the island of Timor it comes to the battle of Penfui . Dutch soldiers and their allies defeat a Portuguese force including the allied Topasse under Gaspar da Costa. The seed for the subsequent division of the island by both colonial powers is thus laid.
- Shah Ruch , grandson of Nadir Shah from the Afsharid dynasty , defeats his uncle Ebrāhim Shah Afshār , takes him prisoner and has him blinded. He then ascends the peacock throne as Shah of Persia and makes Mashhad his capital. He brings the influential cleric Sulaiman to his court in order to have the descendant of the former ruling dynasty of the Safavids under his control. However, he was convinced by several nobles at court to overthrow the Shah at the end of the year, to have him blinded as well, and to ascend the throne as Sulayman II .
- June 25th : Several Bernese craftsmen and traders around Samuel Henzi gather in Sulgenbach and jointly draft a referendum on the reorganization of Bern . This includes the following points, among other things: The traditional guild constitution should be retained as such, civil servants should only be elected by the people for a certain period of time, the state budget should be billed annually and publicly, the archives should be opened, all posts should be made for the citizens of the city , Offices and positions in politics, administration and the military are open and the applicable laws should also be observed by the patricians. On July 2nd, the student Friedrich Ulrich betrays the so-called Henzi conspiracy to the authorities . The Bern government reacted very quickly, fearing that the "uprising" would spread to the country. On July 3rd, the whole city was secretly searched for the "conspirators". On July 4th, troops marched into the city and around 70 "conspirators" were arrested. Henzi and two others were sentenced to death a few days later and beheaded on July 17th . Others are either placed under house arrest or banned. Only Gabriel Fueter and Gottfried Kuhn can evade arrest.
- August 15 : The Treaty of Paris regulates border adjustments between France and Geneva . The towns of Chancy and Avully , among others, are growing in Geneva , while France is receiving the Gex territory .
- January 3rd : Kjøbenhavnske Danske Post-Tidender , the forerunner of today's Danish newspaper Berlingske Tidende, is published in Copenhagen .
- November 20 : Gottfried Christian Albrecht Sievers founds the Sievers'sche pharmacy near Salzgitter .
science and technology
- Denis Diderot publishes the essay Letter on the Blind for Use by the Sighted , for which he is imprisoned by Lettre de cachet from July 24th to November 3rd in the state prison in the Donjon of Vincennes .
- October 29 : Guillaume Le Gentil discovered in the constellation Andromeda as Messier 32 designated dwarf galaxy .
- The erotic epistle novel Fanny Hill by John Cleland appears in London and causes a scandal. The book is banned and Cleland is placed under arrest.
Music and theater
- January 27th : The world premiere of the opera Artaserse by Baldassare Galuppi based on the libretto by Pietro Metastasio takes place at the newly opened theater next to the Burg on Michaelerplatz in Vienna.
- February 4th : The world premiere of the first version of the opera Artaserse by Niccolò Jommelli , also based on Pietro Metastasio's libretto, takes place at the Teatro Argentina in Rome.
- Niccolò Jommelli was appointed Maestro coadiutore (Vice-Conductor) of the Cappella Giulia at St. Peter's Basilica by decree of April 20th , where he was to begin his service on January 1st of the following year.
- February 10 : The oratorio Susanna by George Frideric Handel is premiered at the Theater Royal in Covent Garden in London.
- March 17th : The oratorio Solomon by George Frideric Handel is premiered at the Theater Royal in Covent Garden , London.
- April 27 : To celebrate the end of the Austrian War of Succession through the Peace of Aachen , the British King George II has a fireworks display in London's Green Park . The fireworks music by Georg Friedrich Handel , which was premiered on the occasion of the event, is received with enthusiasm.
- Johann Sebastian Bach completes the final version of his B minor Mass .
- With the Magnificat , Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach applies to succeed his seriously ill father Johann Sebastian Bach as Thomas Cantor in Leipzig.
- January: The rhinoceros Clara makes an appearance in front of Louis XV in Paris . However, the French king turned down an offer to sell from the owner Douwe Mout van der Meer . At the end of the year, Clara will be embarked from Marseille to Naples after an extensive tour of France . The rumor soon arises that van der Meer and his rhinoceros drowned on the crossing.
- June 24th : The Norwegian Order of Freemasons is founded.
- October 1st : Duke Ernst Friedrich III. von Sachsen-Hildburghausen donates the Order of the Happy Covenant on the occasion of his wedding to Louise of Denmark .
- October: The Monday Club , Berlin's oldest education society, is founded. The "Klubb" offers a forum for conviviality and discussion across class and professional barriers. Statesmen, lawyers, theologians, philologists, artists, physicians, writers and booksellers meet weekly for a joint meal and lively conversation.
- May 5th : With the encyclical Peregrinantes Pope Benedict XIV declares the year 1750 a holy year .
- After the death of Abraham Bedros I Ardzivian on October 1, Hagop Bedros II Hovsepian becomes the second Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenian Catholic Church .
- The radical pietistic writing Nordic Collections, which contain various examples of a living and true godliness in the kingdom of Sweden , by Lars Segerholm are published in Swedish for the first time.
- April 13 : The two British ships of the line HMS Pembroke (60 cannons) and HMS Namur (74 cannons) sink in a cyclone off the coast of southeast India . 850 of 864 crew members die.
nature and environment
- 23 June : A landslide in the Vaudois Alps leads to the formation of the southern rock face of the mountain Les Diablerets . Around 50 million cubic meters of rock slide off. The Lac de Derborence continues to be dammed.
- The meteorite Krasnoyarsk , the first known meteorite find in Russia, falls to the earth near the city of the same name .
January to March
- January 1 : José María Chacón , Spanish rear admiral and governor of Trinidad († 1833 )
- January 9 : Viktoria Hedwig Karoline von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym , Baroness von Bärental and Marquise de Favras († 1841 )
- January 10 : Christian Gottlieb Gmelin , German pharmacist († 1809 )
- January 13 : Friedrich Müller , German painter, engraver and poet († 1825 )
- January 14 : James Garrard , American politician, governor of Kentucky († 1822 )
- January 16 : Vittorio Alfieri , Italian poet and playwright († 1803 )
- January 19 : Kasimire von Anhalt-Dessau , Princess of Lippe-Detmold († 1778 )
- January 24 : Charles James Fox , British politician († 1806 )
- January 27 : Franz Karl Alter , German linguist († 1804 )
- January 29 : Christian VII , King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein († 1808 )
- February 1 : Franz II. Xaver von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Krautheim , German Cardinal and Prince-Bishop of Gurk († 1822 )
- February 7 : Benjamin Ogle , American politician, governor of Maryland († 1809 )
- February 22nd : Johann Nikolaus Forkel , German organist and music historian († 1818 )
- February 23 : Elisabeth Mara , German opera singer († 1833 )
- March 3 : Françoise Eléonore Dejean de Manville, Comtesse de Sabran , French nobleman and Salonnière († 1827 )
- March 5 : Friederike von Alvensleben , German actress († 1799 )
- March 9 : Honoré Gabriel de Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau , French aristocrat and revolutionary, politician, physiocrat, writer and publicist († 1791 )
- March 10 : Lorenzo da Ponte , Italian poet and librettist († 1838 )
- March 25 : Johanne Friederike Lohmann , German writer († 1811 )
- March 28 : Pierre-Simon Laplace , French mathematician, physicist and astronomer († 1827 )
April to August
- April 2 : David Ramsay , American historian and politician († 1815 )
- April 4 : Charlotte Christine Buissine , Hessian civil servant daughter , mistress of Landgrave Wilhelm IX. von Hessen-Kassel, later Elector Wilhelm I of Hessen
- April 10 : Johann Theodor Reinke , German engineer († 1825 )
- April 11 : Adélaïde Labille-Guiard , French painter and founder of the first Parisian women's school for painters († 1803 )
- April 11 : Johann Emanuel Samuel Uhlig , German stocking maker and organist († 1822 )
- April 13 : Jean Trembley , Swiss mathematician and philosopher († 1811 )
- April 19 : Ōta Nampo , Japanese writer († 1823 )
- April 29 : Heinrich Guttenberg , German engraver († 1818 )
- May 4 : Charlotte Turner Smith , English writer, poet and translator of French prose († 1806 )
- May 5th : Jean-Frédéric Edelmann , Alsatian harpsichordist and composer, revolutionary († 1794 )
- May 12 : Caroline von Uechtritz , German nobleman and author († 1809 )
- May 15 : Levi Lincoln , American lawyer and politician, Governor of Massachusetts and Attorney General of the United States († 1820 )
- May 16 : Nikolai Abramowitsch Putjatin , Russian philosopher and philanthropist († 1830 )
- May 17th : Edward Jenner , English country doctor and immunologist, developer of the smallpox vaccination († 1823 )
- May 22nd : Valentin Sonnenschein , German sculptor, painter and plasterer († 1828 )
- June 15 : Georg Joseph Vogler , German composer, organist, priest, music teacher and music theorist († 1814 )
- June 17 : Arnold Nicolai Aasheim , Norwegian doctor and physicist († 1800 )
- June 30 : Laurenz Janscha , Austrian-Slovenian painter and etcher († 1812 )
- July 16 : Cyrus Griffin , American politician, President of the Continental Congress († 1810 )
- August 3 : Domenico Alberto Azuni , Sardinian historian and legal scholar († 1827 )
- August 21 : Edvard Storm , Norwegian poet and teacher († 1794 )
- August 28 : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , German poet and scholar († 1832 )
- August 31 : Alexander Nikolajewitsch Radishchev , Russian philosopher and writer († 1802 )
September to December
- September 1 : Lorenz Leopold Haschka , Austrian poet († 1827 )
- September 2 : Joseph Allen , American politician († 1827 )
- September 7th : Anton Matthias Sprickmann , German writer and lawyer († 1833 )
- September 8 : Mariano Álvarez de Castro , Spanish general († 1810 )
- September 8 : Dominique Joseph Garat , French politician, journalist, philosopher and writer († 1833 )
- September 8 : Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron, duchesse de Polignac , French noblewoman, favorite of Marie Antoinette and governess of the royal children († 1793 )
- September 8 : Marie-Louise of Savoy-Carignan , French noblewoman, Princess of Lamballe, lady-in-waiting of Marie Antoinette († 1792 )
- September 11 : Justus Perthes , German bookseller and publisher († 1816 )
- September 19 : Jean-Baptiste Joseph Delambre , French astronomer († 1822 )
- September 25 : Abraham Gottlob Werner , German mineralogist († 1817 )
- October 27 : William Byron , British politician († 1776 )
- October 2 : Auguste Dorothea von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , abbess of the imperial free secular monastery Gandersheim († 1810 )
- October 13 : Christoph Casimir Lerche , General Staff Physician and personal physician to the Russian Emperor Alexander I († 1825 )
- October 14 : Erik Pauelsen , Danish draftsman, engraver and painter († 1790 )
- October 18 : Johann Gotthelf Leberecht Abel , German doctor and art collector († 1822 )
- October 22 : Cornelis van der Aa , Dutch bookseller and writer († 1815 )
- November 3 : Daniel Rutherford , Scottish chemist and botanist († 1819 )
- November 5 : Adélaïde-Marie Champion de Cicé , French religious and founder of the Society of the Heart of Mary († 1818 )
- November 6 : Heinrich XIV. Reuss zu Greiz , Austrian envoy to Prussia († 1799 )
- November 7 : Christian Gottlieb Gmelin , German legal scholar († 1818 )
- November 11th : Caspar Josef Carl von Mylius , Cologne patrician, soldier in Austrian service († 1831 )
- November 15 : Wenzel Leopold Chlumčanský von Přestavlk , Bishop of Leitmeritz and Archbishop of Prague († 1830 )
- November 17 : Nicolas Appert , French confectioner and inventor († 1841 )
- November 17 : Johann Erich Biester , German philosopher († 1816 )
- November 23 : Edward Rutledge , American politician, signatory of the Declaration of Independence († 1800 )
- December 2 : Elisabeth Berenberg , Hamburg banker († 1822 )
- December 3 : Francisco Javier de Lizana y Beaumont , Spanish bishop, Archbishop of Mexico and Viceroy of New Spain († 1811 )
- December 8 : Peder Anker , Norwegian statesman and landowner († 1824 )
- December 17 : Domenico Cimarosa , Italian opera composer († 1801 )
- December 19 : Benjamin Geithner , Protestant clergyman († 1829 )
- December 22nd : António Botelho Homem Bernardes Pessoa , Portuguese nobleman and governor of Portuguese Timor and Solor († 1810 )
- December 24th : Karl Gottfried Hagen , German pharmacist and universal scholar († 1829 )
- December 27th : Sophie Eleonore von Kortzfleisch , German writer († 1823 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- William Black , doctor, pharmacologist, medical historian and first known medical statistician († 1829 )
- John E. Colhoun , American politician († 1802 )
- Thomas Daniell , English painter and etcher († 1840 )
- Ganku , Japanese painter († 1839 )
- Ioan Piuariu-Molnar , Transylvanian ophthalmologist and writer († 1815 )
Born around 1749
- Sophie Wilhelmine Scheibler , Brandenburg cookbook author († before 1829)
First half of the year
- January 11 : Jan Karel Kovář , Bohemian fresco painter (* around 1709 )
- January 30th : Ernst Christoph von Manteuffel , envoy and cabinet minister, Habsburg secret agent, writer and patron (* 1676 )
- January 31 : Roger Morris , English architect (* 1695 )
- February 1 : Françoise Marie de Bourbon , Duchess of Chartres and Duchess of Orléans (* 1677 )
- February 3 : André Cardinal Destouches , French composer (* 1672 )
- before February 7th: Peter Monamy , British painter (* 1681 )
- February 7th : Joseph Ruffini , German painter
- February 8 : Jan van Huysum , Dutch painter (* 1682 )
- February 9 : Anselm Franz von Ingelheim , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg (* 1683 )
- February 12 : Valentin Ernst Löscher , German Lutheran theologian and hymn poet (* 1673 )
- February 27th : Daniel Cajanus , Polish cavalryman, one of the greatest people of his time (* 1704 )
- March 6 : Moritz Bodenehr , German engraver (* 1665 )
- March 8 : Nicolas Fréret , French historian (* 1688 )
- March 31 : Johann Heel , south German painter (* 1685 )
- April 10 : Gottfried Anshelm von Lindenau , German manor owner (* 1693 )
- April 14 : Balthasar Denner , German painter (* 1685 )
- April 23 : Johann Siegmund Kirchmayer , German Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1674 )
- April 27th : Mechitar of Sebasteia , Armenian Apostolic, later Armenian Catholic clergyman and founder of the order (* 1676 )
- May 23 : Joachim Wagner , German organ builder (* 1690 )
- May 27 : Maria Caroline Charlotte von Ingenheim , Bavarian lady-in-waiting and favorite of the later Elector or Emperor Karl Albrecht of Bavaria (* 1704 )
- May 28 : Pierre Subleyras , French painter (* 1699 )
- May 30th : Sophie Charlotte of Hessen-Kassel , Duchess of Mecklenburg (* 1678 )
- June 11 : Johann Bernhard Bach the Elder , German composer (* 1676 )
- June 13 : Jan Frans van Bloemen , Flemish painter (* 1662 )
- June 13 : Balthasar Nick , German builder (* 1678 )
- 13 / June 14 : John Norris , British naval officer (* 1670 / 71 )
- June 21 : Maria Renata Singer von Mossau , nun and superior in the Unterzell monastery, victim of the witch persecution in the Würzburg monastery (* 1679 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : William Jones , Welsh mathematician (* 1675 )
- July 12 : Charles de la Boische , French naval officer and governor of New France (* 1671 )
- July 15 : Johann Michael Funcke , Erfurt book printer and publisher (* 1678 )
- July 17 : Samuel Henzi , Swiss writer, politician and revolutionary (* 1701 )
- July 19 : Armand I. Gaston Maximilien de Rohan-Soubise , French Cardinal, Bishop of Strasbourg and Grand Chaplain of France (* 1674 )
- August 4th : Johann Elias Greifenhahn , German university professor (* 1687 )
- August 7th : Daniel Gottlieb Treu , German violinist and composer (* 1695 )
- August 13 : Johann Elias Schlegel , German poet, lawyer and poetry theorist (* 1719 )
- August 25th : Anton Passauer , leader of the Bavarian popular uprising of 1705
- August 29 : Matej Bel , Hungarian-Slovak historian, Lutheran theologian, educator and historian (* 1684 )
- September 7th : Johann Jacob Heidegger , Zurich Impresario in London (* 1659 )
- September 10 : Émilie du Châtelet , French mathematician, physicist, philosopher, translator and women's rights activist (* 1706 )
- September 17 : Johann Friedrich Penther , German mathematician and architectural theorist (* 1693 )
- September 27th : August Müller , German Evangelical Lutheran theologian (* 1679 )
- September 28th : Christian , non-ruling Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (* 1700 )
- October 1 : Abraham Bedros I. Ardzivian , Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenian Catholic Church (* 1679 )
- October 4 : Franz von der Trenck , Prussian officer and militant (* 1711 )
- October 9 : Luís da Cunha , Portuguese diplomat (* 1662 )
- October 10 : Jost Christian zu Stolberg-Roßla junior , German military in the service of the Empress of Russia and then the King of Prussia (* 1722 )
- October 19 : William Ged , Scottish inventor (* 1690 )
- October 26 : Louis-Nicolas Clérambault , French composer and organist (* 1676 )
- November 9th : Gaspar da Costa , leader of the Topasse in West Timor
- November 11th : Friedrich Wilhelm II. , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Prussian Field Marshal General and Governor of Berlin (* 1687 )
- November 14th : Maruyama Gondazaemon , Japanese sumo wrestler (* 1713 )
- November 27th : Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel , German Kapellmeister, composer and music theorist (* 1690 )
- November 29th : Ernst II. Leopold , Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg (* 1684 )
- December 1 : Maximilian Trumler , Hungarian-Austrian stonemason (* 1705 )
- December 4th : Claudine Guérin de Tencin , French Salonnière (* 1682 )
- December 5th : Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye , French-Canadian officer, fur trader and explorer (* 1685 )
- December 19 : Francesco Antonio Bonporti , Italian priest, violinist and composer (* 1672 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Elisabeth Catharina von Barckhaus , German citizen's wife and founder (* 1696 )
- Ebrāhim Shah Afshār , Shah of Persia from the Afsharid dynasty
- Inthasom , King of Luang Prabang in Laos
- Alessandro Magnasco , Genoese painter (* 1667 )
- Nikolaus Gottfried Stuber , German painter (* 1688 )