Charles III becomes the new
king of Spain .
|Battle of the Plains of Abraham .|
battle of Kunersdorf
, the way to Berlin is open to Russians and Austrians.
|1759 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1207/08 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1751/52 (turn of the year September 11th / 12th)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1164/65 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2302/03 (southern Buddhism); 2301/02 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1121/22 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4092/93 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1137/38 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1172/73 (turn of the year August 24th / 25th)|
|Jewish calendar||5519/20 (September 21/22)|
|Coptic calendar||1475/76 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2069/70 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2070/71 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1815/16 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Seven Years War in Europe
- Due to the high blood toll of the previous war years, Prussia is no longer able to take offensive actions in the Seven Years' War , rather it has to fight against attacks on the Prussian heartland. Again the Russians under Pyotr Semjonowitsch Saltykow and Austrians under Leopold Joseph Graf Daun try to unite their troops in order to beat Friedrich together.
- April 13 : In the Battle of Bergen , the French troops under Victor-François de Broglie defeat the allied troops from Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Great Britain and Hesse-Kassel under the command of Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , allied with Prussia . But they suffered heavy losses of almost 4,000 men.
- July 23 : The Prussians under Carl Heinrich von Wedel are crushed by the Russians under Pyotr Semjonowitsch Saltykow in the battle of Kay . The Austrian general Gideon Ernst von Laudon took advantage of the new situation to bypass the Prussian positions and establish contact with the Russian army on July 29th . Friedrich II then hands over the supreme command against Daun's troops to his brother Heinrich . With the rest of the troops he advanced towards Kunersdorf.
- July: Russian units under Count Saltykow occupy the city of Frankfurt an der Oder .
- August 1st : The allies Great Britain , Hanover and Prussia under the command of Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel defeat France and the Electorate of Saxony under Louis-Georges-Erasme de Contades in the battle of Minden . However, the victorious allies refrain from pursuing the badly beaten enemy, who withdrew to Kassel in a roundabout way. On the same day, the Prussians also win the battle at Gohfeld .
- August 12th : Frederick II is severely beaten in the battle of Kunersdorf by Austrian and Russian units under the leadership of Saltykow and the Livonian general Freiherr von Laudon . The way to Berlin is open to Russians and Austrians. Four days later, Frederick the Great spoke of the miracle of the House of Brandenburg because of their disagreement about further advancement .
- August 18 : The French Mediterranean fleet is almost completely destroyed by the British victory in the sea battle at Lagos .
- September 10th : In the Stettiner Haff , Prussia loses the first sea battle against a superior Swedish fleet in the Seven Years' War .
- September 25th : In the Seven Years' War the Prussian army wins the battle of Hoyerswerda against the Austrian troops.
- November 20 : The Austrians under Leopold Joseph Graf Daun win the battle of Maxen over Prussian troops under General Friedrich August von Finck and accept the surrender of 12,500 Prussian troops the next day. (called "Finckenfang")
- November 20 : In the naval battle in the Bay of Quiberon , a British squadron wins a decisive victory over a group of French ships of the line . The French fleet can no longer recover from this defeat until the end of the war.
- December 4th : Battle of Meissen
- Carl Eugen von Württemberg donates the Military Carls Order for outstanding services in the Seven Years War.
The war in the colonies
- April 23rd : The British take possession of the island of Guadeloupe in the Seven Years' War . On the previous French colony are sugar cane and coffee grown. With the Peace of Paris in 1763 , the French got Guadeloupe back.
- June 26 : British troops land on the Île d'Orléans in the Seven Years' War . Under the command of James Wolfe , the siege of Québec begins in New France and will last until the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in September.
- July 24th : A French attempt to break through the British siege ring around Fort Niagara on Lake Ontario fails with the devastating defeat in the Battle of La Belle Famille .
- July 25 : The French garrison at Fort Niagara surrenders to the British. At the same time, the French also lose the Battle of Ticonderoga .
- August 9 : François-Gaston de Lévis is sent from Québec to Montreal by General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm to organize the defensive measures there.
- September 13 : The British under James Wolfe defeat the French under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham , thus creating the conditions for the conquest of Québec. Both military leaders are killed in the battle.
- September 18 : The French garrison in Québec surrenders to the British. The new commander in chief François-Gaston de Lévis can only coordinate the withdrawal of the defeated troops to Montreal.
Spain / Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
- August 10 : After the death of the Spanish King Ferdinand VI. his half-brother Karl III follows him . on the throne. In the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , where he previously ruled as Charles IV , his son Ferdinand took over the reign in his place . The enlightened absolutist monarch Karl III. continues the reform policy influenced by the French Enlightenment and begins to reorganize the state finances and to reduce the influence of the church and high nobility.
- Vicento Ferreira de Carvalho , governor of Portuguese Timor , who is hard hit by the Cailaco rebellion in his colony , sells the Lifau exclave in the western part of the island to the Dutch East India Company .
- Sebastião de Azevedo e Brito becomes the new governor of Portuguese Timor .
- September 20 : The Siamese-Burmese War 1759–1760 between the Burma of the Konbaung dynasty under King Alaungpaya and the Kingdom of Ayutthaya under Ekathat begins. The Burmese managed a rapid advance through the Siamese kingdom and they conquered numerous cities on the way towards the capital.
- The Chinese Empire batters after a long struggle the realm of Oirats and divided the Dzungaria in his kingdom one.
- The brothers Johann Heinrich Gravenhorst and Christoph Julius Gravenhorst found the chemical factory Gebrüder Gravenhorst .
science and technology
- Between February and December the Scottish philosopher and physicist Robert Symmer publishes his chiliastic theory of electricity with the fluidum hypothesis in four parts in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society published by the Royal Society in the essay entitled New Experiments and Observations concerning Electricity .
- Elector Maximilian III. Joseph founds the Bavarian Academy of Sciences . Count Sigmund von Haimhausen becomes the founding president of what was initially known as the Churbaierische Akademie .
- Adam Smith published in London in two volumes, the philosophical work The Theory of Moral Sentiments ( Theory of Moral Sentiments ).
After an unsuccessful attempt to find work in Bayreuth, Bernardo Bellotto , known as Canaletto , comes to Vienna in January, where he will stay for two years. During this time a total of 13 pictures were created: presumably six Viennese urban interiors designed as counterparts were created for the imperial court , plus two views of Schönbrunn Palace and Park, a panorama of the city from the Belvedere and four views of Hof Palace .
- Voltaire published under a pseudonym the novella Candide or Optimism , which was immediately banned by the censors in France.
- The first two volumes of the nine-part novel The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman by Laurence Sterne are published.
Music and theater
- November 5th : The world premiere of the musical drama Ippolito ed Aricia by Ignaz Holzbauer takes place in Mannheim.
- November 24th : the world premiere of the opera Der neue Kkrme Teufel by Joseph Haydn takes place in Vienna .
- around 1759: Joseph Haydn completes his second symphony .
- In the canton of Bern , the Economic and Charitable Society of the Canton of Bern OGG and the Cercle de la Grande Société de Berne are founded.
- January 19 : A decree of King Joseph I ordered the confiscation of the property of the Jesuit order in Portugal . The Jesuits are forbidden from leaving their homes and having contact with secular people.
- September 3 : The Jesuit order is banned in Portugal and its possessions at the instigation of Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello, Marquês de Pombal , because he was allegedly involved in an assassination attempt on King Joseph I the previous year . All Jesuits have to leave the country in October.
- September 7th : Pope Clement XIII. points out the dangers that scandals and corruption threaten the Church . In the encyclical Cum primum , the Pope exhorts bishops and priests to observe canonical rights and duties.
- December 20 : The encyclical Appetente sacro by Pope Clement XIII. explains the spiritual benefits of fasting .
January to April
- January 1 : Giuseppe Fossati , Ticino lawyer and translator († 1810 )
- January 5th : Jacques Cathelineau , French wool merchant and leader of the rebels in the Vendée († 1793 )
- January 6 : Wilhelm Ludwig Steinbrenner , German Protestant theologian († 1831 )
- January 15 : Matsudaira Sadanobu , daimyo of the Japanese principality of Shirakawa († 1829 )
- January 21 : Caroline Adelheid Cornelia von Baudissin , German writer († 1826 )
- January 25 : Caroline von Bentheim-Steinfurt , German writer († 1834 )
- January 25 : Robert Burns , Scottish writer and poet († 1796 )
- January 31 : François Devienne , French flautist († 1803 )
- February 1 : Karl Friedrich Hensler , Austrian theater director († 1825 )
- February 3 : Johann Maria Philipp Frimont von Palota , Austrian cavalry general († 1831 )
- February 11 : John Pratt, 1st Marquess Camden , British politician († 1840 )
- February 15 : Friedrich August Wolf , German classical philologist and scholar († 1824 )
- February 20 : Johann Christian Reil , Frisian physician (city physician) and professor in Halle and Berlin († 1813 )
- February 21 : Ludovike Simanowiz , Württemberg painter († 1827 )
- February 22nd : Claude-Jacques Lecourbe , French officer in various European armies († 1815 )
- February 24 : Adrien Duport , French politician († 1798 )
- February 28 : Timoteo Maria Ascensi , Italian bishop († 1828 )
- March 2 : Jean Baptiste Audebert , French naturalist and painter († 1800 )
- March 2 : Friedrich Haeffner , Swedish composer († 1833 )
- March 6th : Johanna Dorothea Stock , German painter, draftsman and copyist († 1832 )
- March 20 : Francis Malbone , American politician († 1809 )
- March 22nd : Hedwig von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , Queen of Sweden and Norway († 1818 )
- April 1 : José de Bustamante y Guerra , Spanish politician and seafarer († 1825 )
- April 13 : Antoni Angelowicz , Ukrainian theologian († 1814 )
- April 13 : Maximilian of Saxony , heir to the Saxon throne († 1838 )
- April 15 : Carl Leberecht Messow , German Protestant clergyman († 1825 )
- April 18 : Jacques Widerkehr , French composer and cellist († 1823 )
- April 19 : August Wilhelm Iffland , German actor, theater director and playwright († 1814 )
- April 24 : Georg Christian Carl Henschel , German entrepreneur († 1835 )
- April 24th : Anton Joseph Stein , Austrian educator and philologist († 1844 )
- April 27 : Mary Wollstonecraft , Irish-English writer, translator, philosopher and women's rights activist († 1797 )
May to August
- May 6 : Josef Karel Ambrož , Bohemian tenor and composer († 1822 )
- May 6 : François Guillaume Jean Stanislas Andrieux , French scholar, poet and lawyer († 1833 )
- May 14 : Alois I , Prince of Liechtenstein († 1805 )
- May 15 : Maria Theresia von Paradis , Austrian pianist, singer, composer and music teacher († 1824 )
- May 17 : John Francis Mercer , American politician († 1821 )
- May 20 : William Thornton , British-American architect and inventor († 1828 )
- May 21 : Joseph Fouché , French politician and Minister of Police († 1820 )
- May 24 : Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach , German composer († 1845 )
- May 25 : Franz Paul von Herbert , Austrian art patron and representative of the Enlightenment († 1811 )
- May 28 : William Pitt the Younger , British Prime Minister († 1806 )
- May 30 : Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Koch , German Protestant clergyman and botanist († 1831 )
- June 4 : Maria Rosa Coccia , Roman composer († 1833 )
- June 19 : Pierre Quantin , French general († 1824 )
- June 21 : Alexander J. Dallas , American politician († 1817 )
- June 24th : Jean Jacques Antoine Caussin de Perceval , French orientalist († 1835 )
- June 24 : John Parker , American politician († 1832 )
- June 25 : William Plumer , American politician († 1850 )
- June 27 : Aloys Hirt , German archaeologist († 1837 )
- July 7 : Isabella Seymour-Conway , British noblewoman and mistress of King George IV († 1834 )
- July 10 : Pierre-Joseph Redouté , French painter († 1840 )
- July 19 : Marianne Auenbrugger , Austrian pianist and composer († 1782 )
- July 22 : Carl Gottfried Theodor Chladenius , German lawyer and mayor († 1837 )
- July 24th : Victor Emanuel I , King of Sardinia-Piedmont and Duke of Savoy († 1824 )
- July 29th : Rosa Dorothea Ritter , mistress of Landgrave Wilhelm IX. of Hessen-Kassel († 1833 )
- July 30th : Marianne Baumann , German actress († 1834 )
- August 9th : Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths , German teacher and co-founder of gymnastics († 1839 )
- August 15 : Jean-Baptiste Jacques Augustin , French painter († 1832 )
- August 24 : William Wilberforce , British MP and opponent of slavery († 1833 )
September to December
- September 12 : Maximilian Josef Montgelas , Bavarian Minister († 1838 )
- September 15 : Maximilian Friedrich Scheibler , German clergyman († 1840 )
- September 19 : Adriana Ferrarese del Bene , Venetian opera singer († 1803 )
- September 19 : William Kirby , English pastor and entomologist († 1850 )
- September 20 : Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles , French politician during the Revolution († 1794 )
- September 21 : Markus Vetsch , Werdenberg freedom fighter, Switzerland († 1813 )
- September 23 : Marie Clothilde of France , Queen of Sardinia-Piedmont († 1802 )
- September 26 : Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg , Prussian field marshal († 1830 )
- October 20 : Chauncey Goodrich , American politician († 1815 )
- October 22 : Louise d'Aumont Mazarin , Princess of Monaco († 1826 )
- October 23 : Sivert Knudsen Aarflot , Norwegian teacher, farmer, naturalist, author, publisher, printer and lensman († 1817 )
- October 25 : Sophie Dorothee von Württemberg , Tsarina of Russia († 1828 )
- October 25 : William Wyndham Grenville , British politician and Prime Minister († 1834 )
- October 26 : Georges Danton , leader of the French Revolution († 1794 )
- October 28 : Andrei Nikiforowitsch Voronichin , Russian architect, sculptor and painter († 1814 )
- November 3 : Giuseppe Gherardeschi , Italian composer († 1815 )
- November 5 : Simon Snyder , American politician († 1819 )
- November 6th : María Teresa de Vallabriga , Spanish nobleman († 1820 )
- November 7th : Jean Antoine Rossignol , general during the French Revolution († 1802 )
- November 10 : Friedrich Schiller , German poet, playwright and historian († 1805 )
- November 25 : Rudolf Rebmann , Swiss farmer and politician († 1837 )
- November 27 : Franz Krommer , Czech composer († 1831 )
- November 29 : Jeremiah Smith , American politician († 1842 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Arabanoo , Aborigine († 1789 )
- Luigi Arduino , Italian farmer and university professor († 1833 )
- Marianne Böheim , German actress († 1824 )
- Jacinto Caamaño , Spanish navigator and explorer († 1825 )
- Johann Christoph Funck , German brewery owner and politician († 1839 )
- Sake Dean Mahomed , Bengali traveler and author († 1851 )
- Juan Martínez de Rozas , Chilean politician and leader of the independence movement († 1813 )
- James White , Irish writer and translator († 1799 )
First half of the year
- January 5 : Thomas Philippe Wallrad d'Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace-Boussu de Chimay , Archbishop of Mechelen (* 1679 )
- January 12 : Anna of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover , Princess Royal and Princess of Orange and Prince Regent of Friesland (* 1709 )
- January 13 : José de Mascarenhas da Silva e Lencastre, Duke of Aveiro , Portuguese nobleman and alleged conspirator (* 1708 )
- January 16 : Placidus Amon , Austrian Benedictine and philologist (* 1700 )
- January 16 : Johann Christoph von Buseck , Commander of the Teutonic Order (* 1687 )
- January 26th : Johanna Katharina von Montfort , princess and regent of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (* 1678 )
- February 9 : Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conti , Duchess of Chartres and Duchess of Orléans (* 1726 )
- February 12 : Muhammad I. ar-Rashid , Bey of Tunis (* 1710 )
- February 13 : Christian Hauschild , German Protestant theologian (* 1693 )
- March 18 : Nicolaus Jonas Sorber , German piece and bell caster (* before 1690 )
- March 27 : August Johann Rösel von Rosenhof , German naturalist, engraver and miniature painter (* 1705 )
- March 30th : Johann von Wespien , German cloth manufacturer and mayor of the imperial city of Aachen (* 1700 )
- April 6 : Johann Gottfried Zinn , German physician and botanist (* 1727 )
- April 11 : Heinrich Gottfried Haferung , German Lutheran theologian (* 1713 )
- April 13 : Johann Casimir von Isenburg-Birstein , Lieutenant General Hesse-Kassel (* 1715 )
- April 14th : Georg Friedrich Händel , German-British composer and opera entrepreneur (* 1685 )
- April 25 : Georg Karl von Dyherrn , Saxon lieutenant general (* 1710 )
- April 30 : Bernardo De Dominici , Italian painter and art historian (* 1683 )
- May 3 : Christian Gottlieb Kluge the Elder , German Protestant theologian (* 1699 )
- May 5th : Anton Dorazil , Bohemian sculptor (* around 1695 )
- May 12 : Johann Michael Winterhalder , German sculptor (* 1706 )
- May 13 : Lambert-Sigisbert Adam , French sculptor (* 1700 )
- May 18 : Johann Christian Schmidt , German sculptor (* 1701 )
- May 22nd : Georg Anton Heintz , Moravian sculptor (* 1698 )
- June 10 : Ludwig Friedrich , Prince of Saxony-Hildburghausen (* 1710 )
- June 12 : William Collins , English poet (* 1721 )
- June 20 : Moritz Adolf Karl of Saxony-Zeitz-Neustadt , Bishop of Königgrätz and Bishop of Leitmeritz, Canon in Cologne and Duke of Saxony-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt (* 1702 )
- June 21 : Sebastián de Eslava y Lazaga , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, viceroy of New Granada (* 1685 )
- June 22nd : Louis de Cahusac , French playwright and librettist, collaborator at the Encyclopédie (* 1706 )
Second half of the year
- July 5 : Magnus Lagerström , Director of the Swedish East India Company (* 1691 )
- before July 25: Johann Christoph Altnikol , German composer and organist (* 1720 )
- July 27th : Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis , French mathematician, geodesist, astronomer and philosopher (* 1698 )
- August 6 : Eugene Aram , British philologist and murderer (* 1704 )
- August 6 : John Maxwell, 1st Baron Farnham , Irish politician and peer
- August 7th : Georg Wilhelm Kirchmaier , Prussian philosopher, rhetorician and linguist (* 1673 )
- August 8 : Carl Heinrich Graun , German composer and singer (* 1704 )
- August 10 : Diego d'Aguilar , Marran financier and court Jew in Vienna (* 1699 )
- August 10 : Ferdinand VI. , King of Spain (* 1713 )
- August 24 : Ewald Christian von Kleist , Prussian poet and officer (* 1715 )
- August 27 : Bampfylde Moore Carew , British impostor and folk hero (* 1693 )
- September 10 : Johann Martin Chladni , German Protestant theologian and historian (* 1710 )
- September 12 : Karl Anton August , Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (* 1727 )
- September 13 : James Wolfe , British general in North America (* 1727 )
- September 14 : Louis-Joseph de Montcalm , French general in North America (* 1712 )
- September 17th : Adalbert II. Von Walderdorff , provost in Blankenau and prince abbot and bishop of Fulda (* 1697 )
- September 18 : Santa Stella , Italian soprano (* 1686 )
- September 30th : Martin Knobloch , German educator and Protestant theologian (* 1684 )
- October 13 : Martin Schipani , German watchmaker (* 1693 )
- October 18 : Louis de Caix d'Hervelois , French gambist and composer (* 1680 )
- October 25 : Johann Juncker , German physician (* 1679 )
- November 16 : Johann Michael Strickner , Tyrolean painter (* 1720 )
- November 24th : Christoph Friedrich von der Osten-Sacken , politician from Courland and regent in the Duchy of Courland and Semgallia (* around 1697 )
- November 29 : Alamgir II , emperor of the north Indian Mughal empire (* 1699 )
- November 29 : Nikolaus I Bernoulli , Basel mathematician (* 1687 )
- December 6th : Marie Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon , Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (* 1727 )
- December 18 : François de Franquetot, duc de Coigny , Marshal of France (* 1670 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Martin Biterich , sculptor from Mainz (* 1691 )
- Carlo Francesco Dotti , Italian architect (* 1670 )
- Göynüklü Ahmed Efendi , Ottoman chronicler and secretary (* around 1650 )
- Julien Le Roy , French watchmaker (* 1686 )
- Hattori Nankaku , Japanese poet and painter (* 1683 )
- Ong Kham , King of the Lao Kingdom of Luang Phrabang, monk and ruler of Chiang Mai and Lan Na in Thailand