Johann Juncker

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Johann Juncker

Johann Juncker (born December 23, 1679 in Londorf , Hessen , † October 25, 1759 in Halle (Saale) ) was a German physician and chemist .


Coming from a humble background, Junker attended the royal pedagogy in Gießen and in 1696 went to the University of Marburg , where he completed a philosophical degree. In 1697 he moved to the newly founded University of Halle where he began studying theology. Here he attended the philosophical lectures under Christoph Cellarius and the theological lectures with August Hermann Francke . In June 1701 he accepted a teaching position at the pedagogy at the Hallische Stiftungen, which he initially held until May 1702. In 1707 he continued his work and went to the Principality of Waldeck as an informator, where he married the abbess of the evangelical women's foundation in Schaaken in the year mentioned. He lived with her in Schwarzenau, where he studied medicine and also practiced medicine.

In 1716, Francke brought Juncker back to Halle , handing him over the medical supervision of the entire foundation. He pursued his studies further and received his doctorate on January 27, 1717 under Alberti as a doctor of medicine. On June 29, 1729 he became a full professor of medicine and held this position until his death. His grave is on Halle's Stadtgottesacker (arch 17). Junker had also participated in the organizational tasks of the university and had been the prorector of the Alma Mater in the winter semester of 1740 and 1755/56 .


The always humble Junker was one of the most ardent defenders of the Halle doctor Georg Ernst Stahl , who founded the phlogiston theory of cremation. This also had an impact on his literary work. His textbooks, which contained the teachings of steel, were widely used. His chemistry handbook is to be regarded as the main work. One of his first acts was the building of the foundations' own hospital. To treat the sick, he increasingly called on students in the higher semesters, who were thus able to gain practical experience. Juncker introduced bedside teaching and made the foundation hospital across national borders one of the most respected training facilities for prospective doctors. In 1729 he received a full professorship at the medical faculty. In addition to practical health care, Juncker devoted himself to public health care in a large number of generally understandable articles and defended the duty against the poor to give them medicines for free.


Juncker was married three times. His first marriage was in 1707 with Charlotte Sophie the Countess of Waldeck and Pyrmont (born January 28, 1667, † September 6, 1723 in Halle), the daughter of Count Christian Ludwig. His second marriage was in 1725 with Anne Elisabeth, the daughter of the administrator in Jägerdorf Johann Philipp Lichtenberg. From this marriage only the daughter Philippine Louise survived, who married the doctor Peter Nicolai Neugart in April 1743. Juncker concluded his third marriage on April 17, 1727 with Christiane Elenore, the daughter of the Elector Saxon colonel Philipp Wilhelm von Bomsdorf. From this marriage came the physician Friedrich Christian Juncker (born May 13, 1730 in Copenhagen † July 27, 1770 in Halle), who was also a Halle professor of medicine.


  • Conspectus formularum medicarum: exhibens tabulis XVI tam methodum rationalem quam remediorum specimina, ex praxi Stahliana potissimum desumta, et therapiae generali accomodata / auctore Joanne Junckero. - Halae Magdeburgicae: Orphanotropheum, 1723. Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf
  • Conspectus Chemiae Theoreticae-Practicae / Complete treatise of chemistry according to its teaching = concept and practice, in it the theory of nature, especially of the minerals, the natural body first components, behavior towards each other, properties, powers and use, for well-founded and useful application in the art of pharmacy, other arts and crafts, housekeeping and common life, mainly carried out according to Becher's and Stahl's basic teachings, and with this, as well as other famous Chemicorum experiences are confirmed. / by D. Johann Juncker, the Medicin public teacher at the Friedrichs = University. Translated from Latin into German. First part. Halle, in relocation of the Waysenhaus, 1749. In the same volume: Zweyter Theil plus register.


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