Calendar overview 1754
Dorothea Christiane Erxleben becomes Germany's first
female doctor with a doctorate .
|Maria Anna of Austria , Queen of Portugal , dies.|
French and Indian War
begins in North America with the conflict over Acadia .
|1754 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1202/03 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1746/47 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1159/60 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2297/98 (southern Buddhism); 2296/97 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1116/17 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4087/88 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1132/33 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1167/68 (turn of the year 17th / 18th October)|
|Jewish calendar||5514/15 (September 16/17)|
|Coptic calendar||1470/71 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2064/65 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2065/66 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1810/11 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- April 17th : North American colonies: The French drive British troops out of the area of what is now Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, where they wanted to build a fort , and build Fort Duquesne there .
- May 28 : The battle of Jumonville Glen begins the French and Indian War in North America. British militias from the colony of Virginia , allied with the Iroquois , under the command of the young officer George Washington, defeat a French force. The French commander Joseph de Jumonville dies under circumstances that have not yet been fully clarified. Probably after the battle he is slain by the Seneca leader Tanaghrisson to prevent a peace agreement between the British and the French.
- On July 3, outnumbered French forces from Fort Duquesne lock Washington's forces in the hastily built Fort Necessity and force their surrender to free withdrawal.
- June 19 to July 11 : Representatives of the British colonies in North America and the Iroquois League in the city of Albany in the colony of New York meet at the Albany Congress : The negotiations include the termination of the British-Iroquois Covenant Chain , which has existed since 1677 Alliance against the French in New France , headed by the Mohawks . Because of the looming French and Indian War, the British want to negotiate the relationship between the British colonies and the Indian tribes and the French and are making a first attempt to conclude a union treaty. The alliance with the Iroquois is restored after concessions by the British. However, the plan for closer political cooperation between the colonies is proving difficult. Virginia, the largest of the British colonies, is boycotting Congress, and North, South Carolina and New Jersey are not sending participants. A draft of a political union of the colonies , prepared by Benjamin Franklin in the lead, was approved by the delegates who had traveled, but not ratified by a single colony. Nevertheless, the Albany Congress is generally regarded as the forerunner of the union of the United States that was actually completed later with the American Revolution .
- December 13th : Mahmud I , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire , dies of heart disease. His successor will be his 55-year-old half-brother Osman III. who had been imprisoned in the Kafes Princes' Prison since he was five and was not prepared for a possible government. The constant latent mortal danger and isolation in detention have affected his mental health as well as his intellectual abilities. The sword girdle takes place on December 22nd.
- In India, the Second Carnatic War between Great Britain and France , which had been going on since 1751, ends with a defeat for the French. Commander-in-chief Joseph François Dupleix is ordered back to France.
- July 2nd : The Leedes Intelligencer has its first edition in Leeds .
- Abraham and Caspar Kersten found the Kersten Brothers banking house in Elberfeld .
- Duke Karl I of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel founds the Braunschweigische Landesbrandversicherungsanstalt on the model of the Hamburger Feuerkasse .
- The Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Brandkasse is founded.
- The moral weekly Der Freund appears for the first time in Ansbach , the result of the meetings of a group of friends, including Johann Peter Uz , Johann Friedrich von Cronegk and Johann Zacharias Leonhard Junkheim .
science and technology
- John Canton recognizes the electrical influence , which he can explain at the same time as Johan Carl Wilcke in 1758 .
- The Scottish doctor Joseph Black discovered carbon dioxide .
Teaching and Research
- May 6 : Dorothea Erxleben is her doctoral examination and the first doctorate woman and first female doctor in Germany.
- October 31 : Columbia University in New York is founded as King's College.
- At the suggestion of Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz-Rietberg, Maria Theresia founds the Kk Academy for Oriental Languages in Vienna, from which the Diplomatic Academy Vienna developed more than 200 years later .
- The academy of non-profit science in Erfurt is founded.
Zedler's Universal Lexicon
- Volume 68, the fourth supplementary volume, is the last volume of Zedler's Universal Lexicon .
- Duke Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel founds the Duke Anton Ulrich Museum in Braunschweig , today one of the largest and most important art museums in Germany. In the same year the ducal art and natural history cabinet is opened.
- The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen is founded.
- The Royal Society of Arts is founded in London .
Music and theater
- February 5 : The baroque opera Artemisia by Johann Adolph Hasse based on a libretto by Giovanni Ambrogio Migliavacca is premiered at the Opera House at the Zwinger in Dresden. Teresa Albuzzi-Todeschini sings the title role, other roles are sung by Angelo Amorevoli and Giuseppe Belli . In the shadow of Hasse's grand opera Solimano last year, however , the work goes under.
- June 19 : L'Huomo , a Festa Teatrale with music and dance based on the French opera poem L'Homme created by Wilhelmine von Bayreuth , is performed on the occasion of Wilhelmine's brother Friedrich the Great's visit to the Margravial Opera House in Bayreuth in the Italian setting by the Munich Vice Kapellmeister Andrea Bernasconi premiered. Baldassare Galuppi and Johann Adolf Hasse contributed arias to the work. The sets are by Carlo Galli da Bibiena .
- September 24th : Le cinesi , an opera buffa in one act by Christoph Willibald Gluck based on the libretto by Pietro Metastasio , is premiered on his estate Schloss Hof as part of a festival given by Joseph Friedrich von Sachsen-Hildburghausen in honor of Empress Maria Theresa .
- October 23 : The world premiere of the first variant of the opera Anacréon by Jean-Philippe Rameau based on a libretto by Louis de Cahusac takes place in Fontainebleau .
- The libretto Il ciclope of Pietro Metastasio premiered in private at the Viennese court. The composer of the first setting is not known.
- Early autumn: The traveling opera Girolamo Bon is invited by the Princes of Thurn and Taxis to perform at the Roßmarkt in Frankfurt am Main until 1755 and performs the great and serious Opera or Pastorale Il Leucippo by Johann Adolf Hasse .
- Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg publishes the second part of his music theory textbook Abhandlung von der Fuge .
- In the Russian Empire , offenders are deported to a penal colony in Siberia for the first time .
- Moses Mendelsohn meets Gotthold Ephraim Lessing for the first time .
- June 26 : Pope Benedict XIV publishes the encyclical Cum religiosi aeque . With this apostolic letter he addresses the archbishops, bishops and priests in Italy and exhorts them to intensify pastoral work and to promote the spread of Christian teaching.
- August 1st : The papal encyclical Quod provinciale is addressed to the bishops and missionaries of the ecclesiastical province of Albania . With this apostolic letter, which bears the subtitle On the use of Muslim names for Christians , Benedict XIV warns again clearly against this and explicitly orders that no Catholic should be given a Muslim name.
Historical maps and views
January to April
- January 3 : Daniel Rogers , American politician, governor of Delaware († 1806 )
- January 4 : Carl Gustav Ludwig von Moltke , German squire, chief hunter and chamberlain († 1838 )
- January 15 : Jacques Pierre Brissot , French revolutionary and one of the leaders of the Girondins († 1793 )
- January 21 : Johann Kaspar Riesbeck , German writer active in Switzerland († 1786 )
- February 2 : Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord , French statesman and diplomat, Prince of Benevento and Duke of Dino († 1838 )
- February 3 : Juan Ruiz de Apodaca , Spanish officer, governor of Cuba and viceroy of New Spain († 1835 )
- February 8 : Isaac Tichenor , American lawyer and politician, Governor of the Republic of Vermont, judge at the Vermont Supreme Court († 1838 )
- February 17th : Nicolas Baudin , French explorer († 1803 )
- February 19 : Vincenzo Monti , Italian writer († 1828 )
- February 20 : Stephen R. Bradley , Vermonter / American politician († 1830 )
- February 23 : Johann David August von Apell , German composer, writer, theater director and secret chamber councilor († 1832 )
- February 24 : Johann Jakob von Wittgenstein , German lawyer, businessman, banker and politician († 1823 )
- February 26 : Gebhard Anton von Krosigk , German civil servant and landowner († 1840 )
- February 28 : Gheorghe Șincai , Transylvanian theologian, historian and Romanist († 1816 )
- March 17 : Jeanne-Marie Roland de la Platière , French revolutionary († 1793 )
- March 21 : Christian Ludwig Schübler , Mayor of Heilbronn († 1820 )
- March 23 : Jurij Vega , Slovenian mathematician in the service of the imperial army († 1802 )
- March 29 : Adam Joseph Onymus , German Catholic clergyman and university lecturer († 1836 )
- March 30th : Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier , French physicist and aviation pioneer († 1785 )
- March 31 : Karl Gottlob Hausius , German Protestant clergyman and writer († 1825 )
- April 1 : Ewald Georg von Massow , Prussian Minister of State and Governor for Silesia († 1820 )
- April 9 : Antonín František Bečvařovský , Bohemian organist, pianist and composer († 1823 )
- April 17 : Nikolai Semjonowitsch Mordwinow , Russian admiral and politician († 1845 )
- April 20 : Peter Carl Wilhelm von Hohenthal , German lawyer and Saxon minister († 1825 )
- April 22 : José Antonio Pavón y Jiménez , Spanish botanist († 1844 )
May to August
- May 1 : Bernhard Heinrich Overberg , German Catholic theologian and educator († 1826 )
- May 7 : Joseph Joubert , French moralist and essayist († 1824 )
- May 10 : John Sinclair , Scottish economist and politician († 1835 )
- May 11 : Johann David Beil , German actor and playwright († 1794 )
- May 12 : Franz Anton Hoffmeister , German composer and music publisher († 1812 )
- May 20 : Elisa von der Recke , Baltic German poet and writer († 1833 )
- May 23 : Andrea Appiani , Milanese painter († 1817 )
- May 24 : Giacomo Conti , Italian violinist and composer († 1805 )
- May 31 : Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon , French Revolutionary General, Marshal and Peer of France († 1818 )
- June 1 : Ferdinand Karl of Austria-Este , Archduke of Austria and Governor General of Lombardy († 1806 )
- June 7th : Maria Ernestine Esterházy Starhemberg , Hungarian-Austrian noblewoman († 1813 )
- June 11 : Anton Anreith , German sculptor († 1822 )
- June 12 : Isaac René Guy Le Chapelier , French politician († 1794 )
- June 13 : Franz Xaver von Zach , German-Austrian astronomer, geodesist, mathematician, science historian and officer († 1832 )
- June 17 : Sophie Schwarz , German-Baltic writer († 1789 )
- June 18 : Anna Maria Lenngren , Swedish writer († 1817 )
- June 19 : Jean-Baptiste Meusnier de la Place , French mathematician and general († 1793 )
- June 20 : Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt , Hereditary Princess of Baden († 1832 )
- June 20 : Julius Georg Paul du Roi , German lawyer and director of the Braunschweig Poor's Asylum († 1825 )
- June 21 : Caroline Louise von Klencke , Prussian poet († 1802 )
- June 28 : Claude François de Malet , French general († 1812 )
- July 5 : Henriette von Oberkirch , Alsatian noblewoman († 1803 )
- July 8 : Franz Troglauer , Bavarian robber captain and poacher in the Upper Palatinate and Franconia († 1801 )
- July 11th : Thomas Bowdler , English doctor and editor of a censored Shakespeare edition († 1825 )
- July 12 : Alois von Beckh-Widmanstätten , Austrian printer and scientist († 1849 )
- July 13 : Johann August von Veltheim , German officer in British service († 1829 )
- July 20 : Bernhard Christoph d'Arien , German playwright and librettist († 1793 )
- July 20 : Antoine Louis Claude Destutt de Tracy , French philosopher and politician († 1836 )
- July 31 : Johann Jakob Atzel , German architect († 1816 )
- July 31 : Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Herrosee , German hymn poet († 1821 )
- July 31 : Bon-Adrien-Jeannot de Moncey , French general and Marshal of France († 1842 )
- August 2 : Pierre L'Enfant , French artist and scientist, urban planner of Washington, DC († 1825 )
- August 8 : Luigi Marchesi , Italian opera singer and castrato († 1829 )
- August 17 : Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron , French politician († 1802 )
- August 21 : William Murdoch , Scottish inventor († 1839 )
September to December
- September 1 : August Hermann Niemeyer , German theologian, pedagogue, librettist, poet, travel writer, Protestant hymn poet and Prussian educational politician († 1828 )
- September 6 : Jacob Christoph Rudolph Eckermann , German Protestant theologian and university lecturer († 1837 )
- September 9 : William Bligh , British naval officer and Governor of New South Wales († 1817 )
- September 9 : Johann Karl Gottlob von Nostitz-Jänkendorf , German landowner († 1840 )
- September 13 : Heinrich Ernst Güte , German Protestant theologian and pastor († 1805 )
- September 18 : Peter Joseph Glutz-Rüchti , Swiss politician († 1835 )
- September 19 : Johann Christoph Bathe , German legal scholar († 1818 )
- September 23 : Anna Barbara von Stetten , German benefactor and founder († 1805 )
- September 24 : Friedrich Johann Jakob Bartruff , German military cartographer and officer († 1833 )
- September 26 : Joseph Louis Proust , French chemist († 1826 )
- September 29 : Giuseppe Antonio Mainoni , French general († 1807 )
- September 29 : Theodor Gotthold Thienemann , German Lutheran theologian († 1827 )
- October 1 : Paul I , Duke of Holstein-Gottorf, Emperor of Russia and Grand Master of the Order of Malta († 1801 )
- October 2 : Louis de Bonald , French statesman and philosopher († 1840 )
- October 20 : James Hillhouse , American politician († 1832 )
- October 25 : Bartolomeo Gerolamo Gradenigo , Italian politician, Mayor of Venice († 1828 )
- October 25 : Richard Howell , American politician, governor of New Jersey († 1802 )
- October 29 : Franz I , Count of Erbach († 1823 )
- October 30 : Philippe-Antoine Merlin , French politician († 1838 )
- November 5 : Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo , Italian nobleman and seafarer in Spanish service († 1810 )
- November 6 : Friedrich I , King of Württemberg († 1816 )
- November 8th : Martin Johann Wikosch , Austrian educator († 1826 )
- November 16 : Johanna Sacco , Austrian actress and dancer († 1802 )
- November 18 : Helene Charlotte von Friedland , Brandenburg nobleman and landlady († 1803 )
- November 19 : Karl , Duke of Saxony-Meiningen († 1782 )
- November 25 : Heinrich Sander , German teacher and writer († 1782 )
- November 27 : Georg Forster , German naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, translator, journalist and revolutionary († 1794 )
- November 30th : André Boniface Louis Riquetti de Mirabeau , French nobleman and opponent of the revolution († 1792 )
- December 2 : Francisco Javier Venegas , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain († 1838 )
- December 4 : Friedrich Julius Heinrich von Soden , German writer, theater director, publicist and politician († 1831 )
- December 8 : Michael Weber , German Protestant theologian († 1833 )
- December 23 : John Habersham , American politician († 1799 )
- December 25th : Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte , French politician and general († 1840 )
- December 28 : William Austin , British medic and surgeon († 1793 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Christian von Aicholt , Carinthian nobleman, governor of Inner Austria († 1838 )
- Johann Beck , German actor and playwright
- John Jordan Crittenden Sen. , American officer and politician († 1806 )
- Jean Noel Destréhan , American politician and planter († 1823 )
- Anna Vittoria Dolara , Roman nun and miniature painter († 1827 )
- Usman dan Fodio , military and religious leader of the Qadiriyya-Tariqa, founder of the Sokoto Caliphate († 1817 )
- Peter Haas , German engraver († after 1804)
- Wade Hampton , American landowner, general and politician († 1835 )
- Sofie Huber , German actress († after 1783)
- Johann Christoph Kaffka , German composer, violinist and opera singer († 1815 )
- Marie-Victoire Lemoine , French painter († 1820 )
- Francisco Montalvo y Ambulodi , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, Viceroy of New Granada († 1822 )
- Tekle Haymanot II , Emperor of Ethiopia († 1777 )
First half of the year
- January 9th : Johann Erhard Straßburger , German Baroque architect and master builder in Gotha (* 1675 )
- January 10 : Edward Cave , English printer, editor and publisher (* 1691 )
- January 12th : Georg Sigismund Green the Younger , German Protestant theologian (* 1712 )
- January 28 : Ludvig Holberg , Danish-Norwegian poet (* 1684 )
- Francis Coventry , English writer and cleric (* 1725 ) January:
- February 2 : Tilmann Joseph Godesberg , German priest and official in the Archdiocese of Cologne (* 1690 )
- February 5 : Nicolaus Samuelis Cruquius , Dutch hydraulic engineer and cartographer (* 1678 )
- February 21 : Johann Jakob Schnell , German composer, court music director and music publisher (* 1687 )
- March 4 : Leopold Philipp Karl Joseph , Duke of Arenberg, Aarschot and Croÿ, Imperial Field Marshal (* 1690 )
- March 6 : Henry Pelham , British Prime Minister (* 1694 )
- March 11th : Rabe Ludwig von Dalwigk , Hesse-Kassel officer and governor of the fortress Ziegenhain (* 1683 )
- March 14 : Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée , French playwright (* 1692 )
- March 22nd : Johann Heinrich Peters , German stone sculptor (* 1697 )
- April 5 : Diamante Maria Scarabelli , Italian opera singer (* 1675 )
- April 7th : Johann Ludwig Schlosser , German Lutheran theologian and chief pastor of St. Katharinen (* 1702 )
- April 8 : José de Carvajal y Lancaster , Spanish Prime Minister (* 1698)
- April 9 : Freiherr Christian von Wolff , German polymath, lawyer, mathematician and philosopher (* 1679 )
- April 15 : Jacopo Riccati , Venetian mathematician (* 1676 )
- April 27 : Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard , educator and chief stewardess at the imperial court in Vienna (* 1675 )
- April 28 : Giovanni Battista Piazzetta , Venetian painter and etcher (* 1682 )
- May 2 : Wenzel Chotek von Chotkow , Austrian governor in the Kingdom of Bohemia (* 1674 )
- May 3 : Joachim Daniel Jauch , German engineer officer, architect and builder in Poland (* 1688 )
- May 10 : Samuel Walther , German writer, educator and historian (* 1679 )
- May 23 : Sophie Eleonore Walther , German writer (* 1723 )
- June 7 : Nicolai Eigtved , Danish court builder, architect and interior designer (* 1701 )
- June 9 : Louis Caravaque , French painter (* 1684 )
- June 12 : Johann Friedrich Nolte , German pedagogue and philologist (* 1694 )
- June 21 : Johann Baptist Martinelli , Austrian builder and architect (* 1701 )
- June 22nd : Nicolas Siret , French composer, organist and harpsichordist (* 1663 )
- June 28 : Martin Folkes , English mathematician and numismatist (* 1690 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Philippe Néricault Destouches , French comedy poet (* 1680 )
- July 7th : Charles-Nicolas Cochin the Elder , French draftsman, etcher and engraver (* 1688 )
- July 21 : Joseph Saint-Pierre , French architect (* around 1709 )
- August 14 : Maria Anna of Austria , Austrian Archduchess and Queen of Portugal (* 1683 )
- August 17 : Hans Christoph Friedrich von Hacke , Prussian lieutenant general and city commander of Berlin (* 1699 )
- September 3 : Giovanni Biagio Amico , Sicilian architect (* 1684 )
- September 16 : Joachim Beccau , German poet and opera librettist (* 1690 )
- September 18 : Charles-Antoine Leclerc de La Bruère , French playwright and historian (* 1714 )
- September 19 : Johann Peter van Ghelen , Austrian printer and bookseller (* 1673 )
- September 22nd : Rudolf Franz Erwein von Schönborn , German politician and diplomat, also composer (* 1677 )
- October 4th : Tanaghrisson , leader of the Iroquois Seneca
- October 5 : Safdarjung , north Indian provincial ruler (* around 1708 )
- October 6 : Adam Falckenhagen , German lutenist (* 1697 )
- October 8 : Henry Fielding , English novelist, satirist, playwright, journalist and lawyer (* 1707 )
- October 13 : Hark Olufs , German navigator and author (* 1708 )
- October 15 : Christian Ludwig von Löwenstern , German painter, poet and composer (* 1701 )
- October 28 : Friedrich von Hagedorn , German poet (* 1708 )
- Johann Christian Hertel , German composer, violinist and viol virtuoso (* 1697 or 1699 ) October:
- November 12th : Joseph Benedikt von Rost , Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Chur (* 1696 )
- November 13 : Adam Friedrich von Löwenfinck , German porcelain and faience painter (* 1714 )
- November 25th : Johann Andreas von Franken-Siersdorf , Prussian Vicar General in Cologne (* 1696 )
- 25 November : Karl Philipp von Greiffenclau zu Vollrads , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg (* 1690 )
- November 27 : Abraham de Moivre , French mathematician (* 1667 )
- December 1 : Jean Joseph Vinache , French sculptor (* 1696 )
- December 12th : Wu Jingzi , Chinese writer (* 1701 )
- December 13 : Mahmud I , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1696 )
- December 19 : Georg Anton Gumpp , Austrian master builder (* 1682 )
- December 22nd : Jakob Oeckhl , Austrian master builder (* 1670 )
- December 27 : Charles Craven , British governor of the Province of South Carolina (* 1682 )
Exact date of death unknown
- François Boch , Lorraine iron caster and founder of a porcelain factory (* 1700 )
- David Casley , English bibliographer (* around 1681/82)
- Nicola Conti , Neapolitan composer (* around 1710 )
- John Jefferys , English watchmaker (* 1701 )
- Gaetano Maria Schiassi , Italian composer and violinist (* 1698 )
- Bartholomäus Seuter , Augsburg goldworker, enameller, porcelain and faience painter and dealer, silk dyer, engraver and publisher (* 1678 )
- Václav Spourný , Czech composer