from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fontainebleau coat of arms
Fontainebleau (France)
region Île-de-France
Department Seine-et-Marne
Arrondissement Fontainebleau
Canton Fontainebleau (main town)
Community association Pays de Fontainebleau
Coordinates 48 ° 25 '  N , 2 ° 42'  E Coordinates: 48 ° 25 '  N , 2 ° 42'  E
height 42-150 m
surface 172.05 km 2
Residents 14,886 (January 1, 2017)
Population density 87 inhabitants / km 2
Post Code 77300
INSEE code

Fontainebleau Castle

Fontainebleau  [ fõtɛnblo ] (formerly Folk etymology Fontaine belle eau , actually from Fontaine and blitwald , from the Germanic person named Blit) is a French city with 14,886 inhabitants (at January 1, 2017) in the department of Seine-et-Marne in the region Ile-de -France . It is located 55 kilometers south of Paris and is the capital of the Fontainebleau arrondissement . Please click to listen!Play


The landscape name " Gâtinais français" was used for the historic provinces of France for the region around Fontainebleau. In July 1313, the marriage between Joan of Burgundy and Philip of Valois took place there, who later became Philip VI. Became king of France .

On October 18, 1752, the premiere of the opera Le devin du village by Jean-Jacques Rousseau took place. In 1753, Daphnis et Eglé , a heroic work by Rameau, was created. On October 23, 1754, the opera Anacréon by Jean-Philippe Rameau was premiered. The colony of New Orleans went to Spain in 1762 under the secret Fontainebleau Agreement , which was confirmed in the Peace of Paris in 1763. From 1812 to 1814 Napoleon I held Pope Pius VII prisoner at Fontainebleau.

Napoleon's farewell to the Imperial Guard at Fontainebleau (1814)

On October 27, 1807, Spain had to grant the French army marching rights to Portugal in the Treaty of Fontainebleau . The reason was the refusal of the Portuguese King John VI. to attack England after Napoleon's defeat in the Battle of Trafalgar . Portugal was subsequently occupied and the House of Braganza deposed.

In 1810 the Napoleonic Decree of Fontainebleau was issued as one of the follow-up documents to the Berlin Decree . The new Fontainebleau Treaty was signed in 1814. Napoleon abdicated and with the Second Restoration the Bourbons returned to the throne.

In 1948 the nature conservation organization IUCN was founded here in the context of an international conference .

From August 1953 to April 1967 was Fontainebleau headquarters of NATO - Headquarters Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) . Near the city, on Camp Guynemer , was the headquarters of the Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AAFCE) . After France withdrew from the military integration of NATO in 1966, AFCENT was relocated to Brunssum in the Netherlands , the AAFCE was dissolved by 1974.

In 1984 the European Council met in Fontainebleau , whose decisions put an end to Eurosclerosis . The British discount put an end to the longstanding financial dispute within the European Community ; two committees set up by the summit ( ad hoc committee for institutional questions , also known as the Dooge committee, and the committee for "Europe for the citizens" , also known as the Adonnino committee) finally led to the adoption of the Single European Act , the first amendment to the Treaty of Rome . The meeting is therefore considered a milestone in European integration .

Twin cities

Fontainebleau is also a member of the Federation of European Napoleonic Cities .

Geography and Transportation

The place had a tram from 1896 to 1953 . This was designed as a catenary system from July 15, 1901 to 1953.

Fontainebleau is on the Paris – Marseille railway line and maintains the joint Fontainebleau-Avon station with its neighboring city . Travel time to Paris is around 40 minutes.

The Fontainebleau-Forêt station, located in the extensive forest area of ​​Fontainebleau, is served by individual trains of the Transiliens R for hikers on weekends and on public holidays in the south direction (see Halt de Fontainebleau-Forêt in the French-language Wikipedia).


See also: List of Monuments historiques in Fontainebleau


Born and deceased (chronological)

Temporary residents

  • Antoine Caron (1521–1599), painter, stay around 1540, later court painter for Katharina von Medici
  • Louise de La Vallière (1644–1710), mistress and mother, lived in the castle
  • Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831–1891), German-Russian and later American writer
  • Sophus Lie (1842–1899), Norwegian mathematician, researcher of the Lie groups, was imprisoned on site in 1870/71 because he was mistaken for a spy
  • Jane Graverol (1897–1984), painter of surrealism
  • Patricia Highsmith (1921–1995), writer, lived temporarily in the region
  • Louis Malle , director, spent some time in 1944 at the boarding school "Petit Collège" in Avon. It was there that the deadly "betrayal" occurred during the German occupation, which later became the leitmotif in Goodbye, Children .


See also


  • Matthias Blazek, Thierry Colas: L'Histoire des Sapeurs-Pompiers de Fontainebleau . Fontainebleau 1999.
  • Manfred Esser, Lionel Walker: Fontainebleau - Regards . PRV Communications, Saint-Fargeau-Ponthierry 1993.
  • Maurice Toesca: Les grandes heures de Fontainebleau . Albin Michel, Paris 1984.
  • Traditions of the French Military Equestrian Center (Center sportif d'Équitation militaire, CSEM) and the Dragons Regiment No. 8 (original title: Traditions du Center sportif d'Équitation Militaire et du 8e régiment de Dragons ). Special publication No. 1 by the comrade from Fontainebleau , Adelheidsdorf / Münster 2010.

Web links

Commons : Fontainebleau  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Albert Dauzat and Charles Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieu en France, Librairie Guénégaud, Paris, 1979.
  2. ↑ In detail: Blazek, Matthias: "The history of NATO in Fontainebleau", in: F-Flagge - Magazin für den Fernmeldering e. V., Volume 37, No. 3/2010, p. 49 ff.
  3. Horaires Transilien - 09 December 2018 to 14 December 2019. In: Transilien. SNCF, December 9, 2018, accessed January 8, 2019 (French).
  4. Bundeswehr administrative offices abroad at