|Canton||Fontainebleau (main town)|
|Community association||Pays de Fontainebleau|
|surface||172.05 km 2|
|Residents||14,886 (January 1, 2017)|
|Population density||87 inhabitants / km 2|
Fontainebleau [ fõtɛnblo ] (formerly Folk etymology Fontaine belle eau , actually from Fontaine and blitwald , from the Germanic person named Blit) is a French city with 14,886 inhabitants (at January 1, 2017) in the department of Seine-et-Marne in the region Ile-de -France . It is located 55 kilometers south of Paris and is the capital of the Fontainebleau arrondissement .
The landscape name " Gâtinais français" was used for the historic provinces of France for the region around Fontainebleau. In July 1313, the marriage between Joan of Burgundy and Philip of Valois took place there, who later became Philip VI. Became king of France .
On October 18, 1752, the premiere of the opera Le devin du village by Jean-Jacques Rousseau took place. In 1753, Daphnis et Eglé , a heroic work by Rameau, was created. On October 23, 1754, the opera Anacréon by Jean-Philippe Rameau was premiered. The colony of New Orleans went to Spain in 1762 under the secret Fontainebleau Agreement , which was confirmed in the Peace of Paris in 1763. From 1812 to 1814 Napoleon I held Pope Pius VII prisoner at Fontainebleau.
On October 27, 1807, Spain had to grant the French army marching rights to Portugal in the Treaty of Fontainebleau . The reason was the refusal of the Portuguese King John VI. to attack England after Napoleon's defeat in the Battle of Trafalgar . Portugal was subsequently occupied and the House of Braganza deposed.
In 1810 the Napoleonic Decree of Fontainebleau was issued as one of the follow-up documents to the Berlin Decree . The new Fontainebleau Treaty was signed in 1814. Napoleon abdicated and with the Second Restoration the Bourbons returned to the throne.
In 1948 the nature conservation organization IUCN was founded here in the context of an international conference .
From August 1953 to April 1967 was Fontainebleau headquarters of NATO - Headquarters Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) . Near the city, on Camp Guynemer , was the headquarters of the Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AAFCE) . After France withdrew from the military integration of NATO in 1966, AFCENT was relocated to Brunssum in the Netherlands , the AAFCE was dissolved by 1974.
In 1984 the European Council met in Fontainebleau , whose decisions put an end to Eurosclerosis . The British discount put an end to the longstanding financial dispute within the European Community ; two committees set up by the summit ( ad hoc committee for institutional questions , also known as the Dooge committee, and the committee for "Europe for the citizens" , also known as the Adonnino committee) finally led to the adoption of the Single European Act , the first amendment to the Treaty of Rome . The meeting is therefore considered a milestone in European integration .
- Konstanz in Germany since May 28, 1960: A ship on the Konstanz – Meersburg car ferry therefore bears the name MF Fontainebleau .
- London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in England since 1977
- Siem Reap in Cambodia since June 11, 2000: This city contains the Angkor Wat temple complex .
- Lodi in Italy since 2011
- Sintra in Portugal since March 8, 2016
Fontainebleau is also a member of the Federation of European Napoleonic Cities .
Geography and Transportation
The place had a tram from 1896 to 1953 . This was designed as a catenary system from July 15, 1901 to 1953.
Fontainebleau is on the Paris – Marseille railway line and maintains the joint Fontainebleau-Avon station with its neighboring city . Travel time to Paris is around 40 minutes.
The Fontainebleau-Forêt station, located in the extensive forest area of Fontainebleau, is served by individual trains of the Transiliens R for hikers on weekends and on public holidays in the south direction (see Halt de Fontainebleau-Forêt in the French-language Wikipedia).
- Fontainebleau Castle , built in the 16th century, royal residence since Francis I with important Renaissance furnishings ( School of Fontainebleau ); Place of the first abdication of Napoléon Bonaparte
- Notre-Dame-de-Barbeau ( Abbey of Barbeau ), founded by and burial place of Louis VII.
- Fontainebleau forest , source of inspiration for the Paysage intime painting genre founded by Théodore Rousseau (see also the local Barbizon school of artists ); Grez-sur-Loing artists' colony (neighboring town, e.g. Frederick Delius ); for individual works by Paul Cézanne the origin is assumed here; Verdi (possibly Schiller) placed the first act of the opera Don Carlos (Verdi) at this location, possibly as an allusion to Philip VI. (from Valois) and Johanna from Burgundy as well as son Johann II. with wife Jutta von Luxemburg ; the sandstone blocks in the forest of Fontainebleau are among the most famous and oldest bouldering areas in Europe
- Anne-Marie Barat (1948–1990), organist
- Elisabeth von Valois (1545–1568), daughter of Henry II of France and Caterina de 'Medici
- Francis II (1544–1560), King of France
- Jean-Baptiste Gaston, Duke of Orléans (1608–1660), Duke of several territories
- Joan of Burgundy (around 1293–1348 or 1349), daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy
- Louis of France, Le Grand Dauphin (1661–1711)
Born and deceased (chronological)
- Philip IV (1268--29 November 1314), King of France
- Francis II (born January 19, 1544), King of France
- Henry III. (Born September 19, 1551), King of France
- Nicolò dell'Abbate († 1571), Italian painter
- Louis XIII (Born September 27, 1601), King of France
- Elisabeth de Bourbon (born November 22, 1602), Princess of France, later Queen Isabella of Spain
- Jean-Baptiste Gaston, Duke of Orléans (born April 25, 1608), Duke of various areas
- Giovanni Monaldeschi († November 10, 1657), margrave, servant of the Swedish Queen Christina
- Louis of France, Le Grand Dauphin (born November 1, 1661), prince and heir to the throne
- Florent Carton de Dancourt , (born November 1, 1661), playwright
- Ludwig II of Bourbon, Prince of Condé († December 11, 1686), general and member of the royal family
- Louis-François de Boufflers († August 20, 1711), Field Marshal
- Louis-Auguste Marchand (born July 7, 1774), General of the Infantry
- Nicolas Esquillan (born August 27, 1902), civil engineer
- Katherine Mansfield († January 9, 1923), New Zealand-British writer
- Jean Bouffartigue (born July 16, 1939), Graecist
- Gilbert Leroux (born April 4, 1941), jazz musician
- Alain Pasquier (born August 1, 1942), classical archaeologist
- Patrick Devedjian (1944–2020), politician and lawyer
- François Jacolin (born April 25, 1950), Roman Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Luçon
- Antoine Richard (born September 8, 1960), athlete
- Cyril Despres (born January 24, 1974), enduro racing driver
- Cyrille Aimée (born August 10, 1984), jazz singer
- Florian Carvalho (born March 9, 1989), athlete
- Antoine Caron (1521–1599), painter, stay around 1540, later court painter for Katharina von Medici
- Louise de La Vallière (1644–1710), mistress and mother, lived in the castle
- Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831–1891), German-Russian and later American writer
- Sophus Lie (1842–1899), Norwegian mathematician, researcher of the Lie groups, was imprisoned on site in 1870/71 because he was mistaken for a spy
- Jane Graverol (1897–1984), painter of surrealism
- Patricia Highsmith (1921–1995), writer, lived temporarily in the region
- Louis Malle , director, spent some time in 1944 at the boarding school "Petit Collège" in Avon. It was there that the deadly "betrayal" occurred during the German occupation, which later became the leitmotif in Goodbye, Children .
- Fontainebleau bouldering area (see bouldering )
- INSEAD (Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires)
- École d'application de l'artillerie et du génie, military school
- American Conservatory , Summer Academy of Art and Architecture in the Castle
- Start and finish of the Tour de France 1967
- Racing Club du Pays de Fontainebleau , a football club that was successful under a different name between the mid-1950s and the 1980s
- a branch of the Bundeswehr administration agency in France
- Matthias Blazek, Thierry Colas: L'Histoire des Sapeurs-Pompiers de Fontainebleau . Fontainebleau 1999.
- Manfred Esser, Lionel Walker: Fontainebleau - Regards . PRV Communications, Saint-Fargeau-Ponthierry 1993.
- Maurice Toesca: Les grandes heures de Fontainebleau . Albin Michel, Paris 1984.
- Traditions of the French Military Equestrian Center (Center sportif d'Équitation militaire, CSEM) and the Dragons Regiment No. 8 (original title: Traditions du Center sportif d'Équitation Militaire et du 8e régiment de Dragons ). Special publication No. 1 by the comrade from Fontainebleau , Adelheidsdorf / Münster 2010.
- Fontainebleau Tourist Office website
- Château de Fontainebleau
- Short portrait with pictures on the side of the twin city Richmond (English)
- Statistical data on the location (French)
- Albert Dauzat and Charles Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieu en France, Librairie Guénégaud, Paris, 1979.
- detail: Blazek, Matthias: "The history of NATO in Fontainebleau", in: F-Flagge - Magazin für den Fernmeldering e. V., Volume 37, No. 3/2010, p. 49 ff.
- Horaires Transilien - 09 December 2018 to 14 December 2019. In: Transilien. SNCF, December 9, 2018, accessed January 8, 2019 (French).
- Bundeswehr administrative offices abroad at www.iud.bundeswehr.de