|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Freiburg|
|Height :||405 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||54.11 km 2|
|Residents:||84,760 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||1566 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||78462, 78464, 78465, 78467|
|Primaries :||07531, 07533|
|License plate :||KN|
|Community key :||08 3 35 043|
|LOCODE :||DE KON|
|City structure:||Old town and 14 other districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Ulrich Burchardt ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Konstanz in the district of Konstanz|
Konstanz (pronunciation [ ˈkɔnʃd̥ants ], , standard German also [ ˈkɔnstants ], Alemannic [ ˈkoːʃd̥əts, ˈxoʃd̥əts ] and similar) is the largest city on Lake Constance and a district town in the district of Konstanz . The former free and imperial city belongs to the Federal Republic of Germany and lies on the border with Switzerland . Constance has been a major district town since April 1, 1956 and forms a regional center within the Hochrhein-Bodensee region in the Freiburg administrative region of the state of Baden-Württemberg . There are two universities in Konstanz, the University of Konstanz and the University of Konstanz Technology, Business and Design (HTWG). The history of the place goes back to Roman times.
Konstanz is located on Lake Constance , at the outflow of the Rhine from the upper part of the lake, directly on the border with Switzerland ( Canton Thurgau ). The neighboring Swiss town of Kreuzlingen has grown together with Konstanz, so that the state border runs right through the middle between individual houses and streets, but also to the Tägermoos along the Grenzbach or Saubach. When the weather is good you can see the Alps , especially when there is a foehn .
On the left (south) side of the Rhine are the old town and the Paradies district ; the newer districts, however, are on the right (northern) side of the Rhine, on the Bodanrück peninsula between the Untersee and the Überlinger See . The old town of Constance and the districts adjoining it to the west are the only areas in Germany that are south of the Seerhein, on the "Swiss side". This area is also - next to the Kollerinsel near Brühl - one of the two regions on the left bank of the Rhine in Baden-Württemberg.
The urban area has 34 kilometers of shoreline and comprises 1.31 km² of water. The lowest point is the lake level at(mean water level), the highest point at is at Rohnhauser Hof in Dettingen.
Neighboring communities, i.e. communities directly adjacent to the urban area of Konstanz, are the communities Reichenau (mainland areas) and Allensbach in the district of Konstanz as well as Kreuzlingen , Gottlieben (no land border, the border runs in the middle of the Seerhein), Tägerwilen (district Tägermoos ) in the canton of Thurgau ( Switzerland). Meersburg ( Bodenseekreis ) is separated from Konstanz by Lake Constance, but is connected to Konstanz by a car ferry that runs around the clock and takes 15 minutes to cross.
The urban area of Konstanz is divided into 15 districts . These are partly formerly independent communities that were incorporated into Konstanz , and partly also to districts whose names have emerged in the course of the development or which have been named after a special reference point.
The 15 districts with area and population:
[district profile 2018, report 6/2018]
|010||Old town||129.1216||12,064||city center on the left bank of the Rhine||with the Niederburg including Dominican Island , Stadelhofen,
train station ( DB , SBB )
|020||paradise||63.2034||6.161||city center on the left bank of the Rhine||City expansion in the 19th century to the west, former fishing village|
|030||Petershausen-West||181.8892||15,616||suburban||Train station (DB, VHB )|
|035||Petershausen-East||163.4805||7.187||suburban||with Eichhorn, Musikerviertel, Salzberg, Sierenmoos|
|040||Königsbau||107.2120||6,194||suburban||with Pfeifferhölzle, Sonnenbühl, Sonnenhalde, Stockäcker|
|060||Staad||94.0913||1,813||suburban||Car ferry Konstanz – Meersburg|
|070||Furstenberg||175.8485||12,433||suburban||with Berchengebiet, Elberfeld; Train station (VHB)|
|080||Wool mat||1026.0229||6,795||suburban||with Eichbühl, Öhmdwiesen; Train station (VHB)|
|090||industrial area||492.4143||1.108||suburban||with Oberlohn, Stromeyersdorf, Unterlohn
and the bird protection islands Mittler or Langbohl and Triboldingerbohl
|100||Egg||314.2647||761||suburban||with Hohenegg, University of Konstanz|
|110||Litzelstetten||511.3703||3.814||Suburbs||with the former monastery of St. Katharina and the island of Mainau|
|120||Dingelsdorf||643.4243||2.131||Suburbs||with Oberdorf, Fließhorn (campsite), Klausenhorn (campsite)|
|130||Dettingen||1075.6934||3,334||Suburbs||with Dobel or Mühlhalden (formerly Dobel- or Mühlhalder Mühle) and Rohnhauser Hof|
|140||Wallhausen||174.9133||1,147||Suburbs||with courtyard and brick courtyard|
The districts of Konstanz also have a long history. They mainly belonged to the Reichenau monastery and later came to the Kommende Mainau of the Teutonic Order and with this in 1805 to Baden . Here they belonged to the office of Konstanz , from which the district of Konstanz emerged in 1939. Only the city center (districts Altstadt and Paradies) is on the left bank of the Rhine , all other districts are on the right bank of the Rhine . The changes and destruction caused by railroad construction in the 19th century and retail trade and road construction in the 20th century are sometimes drastic.
Districts on the left bank of the Rhine
The district of the old town goes - according to the division by the city administration - far beyond the historical old town within the former city walls and comprises a large part of what the people of Constance consider to be paradise. The old town district therefore has significantly more area and inhabitants than the Paradies district on the left bank of the Rhine . Through backfilling in the shallow water area of Lake Constance, Constance has repeatedly gained land. Examples are the market place and the former fish market in the 13th and 14th centuries. The old town of Konstanz is better preserved than that in many other cities in Germany, partly because it was not significantly damaged either in the Thirty Years' War or in the Second World War . The number of surviving buildings from the Middle Ages , when the city was in its prime, is large.
The Niederburg within the old town is the oldest part. The area extends between Münster , Konzilstraße, Seerhein and Unterer Laube, the former city moat. The canons' courts settled here near the minster. Niederburg is home to the Niederburg jester society. Today, wine bars, bookbinders , art glasses , other craftsmen, authorities, the Dominican convent Zoffingen , the district court , the notary's office, the Konstanz city theater and the Konstanz hospital winery are located in the winding streets .
The suburb of Stadelhofen within the old town is bordered by Bodanstrasse, the Swiss border, the station area and Döbeleplatz. At the Schwedenschanze the Swedes were prevented from conquering Constance during the Thirty Years War. With the connection of Baden to the German Customs Union , Stadelhofen temporarily became a customs exclusion area . Georg Elser , whose attempt on Hitler failed, was arrested at the Schwedenschanze while he was fleeing - a bust commemorates him. The LAGO shopping center with a supraregional catchment area (also far into Switzerland) was built on Bodanstrasse.
Districts on the right bank of the Rhine
Petershausen was probably created together with the monastery of the same name and was also an independent village community, which was integrated into the city of Constance as a suburb as early as 1417 , included in the city wall in the 15th century and administered by a captain. The associated imperial monastery Petershausen was abolished in 1802 in the course of secularization .
The Wollmatingen district was first mentioned in 724 as "VValamotinga" and in 811 as "Walmütingen".
The district Staad as a former fishing village on the lake has long been through the ferry Konstanz-Meersburg with the other on the side of the here beginning Überlinger lake lying Meersburg connected.
The Allmannsdorf district was first mentioned in 722 as "Alamantiscurt". It lies above Staad . Landmarks are the former town hall on Mainaustraße, the former water tower on Allmannshöhe (now a youth hostel ) and the Lorettokapelle on Lorettohöhe; the Kreuzkirche was designed by Bauhaus student Hermann Blomeier.
From August 1947 until the demolition in December 1961 there was a barrack camp in Egg at Mainaustrasse 252 for East German expellees and refugees with the aim of integrating them into Constance.
The suburb of Litzelstetten was first mentioned in 839 as "Luzzilonssteti". In the 14th century the two places "Oberdorf" and "Unterdorf" were distinguished.
The suburb of Dingelsdorf was first mentioned in 947 as “Thingoltesdorf”, and Wallhausen , which lies behind it from Konstanz, was first mentioned in 1187 as “villa Walarhusin”.
The suburb of Dettingen was first mentioned in 811 as "Tettingen". In 839 the place came to the Reichenau monastery . Reichenauer Ministeriale ruled the town in the 12th century . There were two castles, Alt-Dettingen and Neu-Dettingen , which had been lost since the 14th century at the latest. The Reichenau still held the high court over the place into the 18th century . The Lower Court had been under the Mainau Order of the Teutonic Order since the 15th century.
There are four marks :
|District||Area in ha||Incorporation|
|6660||Constancy||3005||Allmannsdorf Jan. 1, 1915
Wollmatingen Aug. 1, 1934
|6661||Dettingen||1250||Apr 22, 1975|
|6662||Dingelsdorf||644||Jan. 1, 1975|
|6663||Litzelstetten||512||Dec. 1, 1971|
|City of Constance||5411||-|
|6664?||Day moss||154||March 28, 1831|
In addition, Tägermoos, with an area of 154 hectares, belongs to Konstanz as the fifth district , but this is on the left bank of the Rhine and on the sovereign territory of Switzerland. Their special status is laid down in a state treaty of 1831.
The former communities of Dettingen (today under the name Dettingen-Wallhausen), Dingelsdorf and Litzelstetten are also localities within the meaning of the Baden-Württemberg municipal code, each with a local council and a local administration.
According to the state development plan for Baden-Württemberg, Konstanz is designated as a regional center . This also takes on the tasks of the central area for the communities of Allensbach and Reichenau . In addition, there are links with the Canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.
Due to its location on Lake Constance, Konstanz has a typical Lake Constance climate, so it is somewhat milder in winter than in most regions of Germany. In summer, however, high temperatures and little wind can easily lead to humid conditions . Since Lake Constance acts as a heat store, there are only relatively few frost days in winter (approx. 80), but often there is extensive fog - and high fog layers that often do not dissipate for days or even weeks. 95 of the 160 cloudy days on average are between October and February. There is a snow cover ~ 30 days a year, mainly in January and February. These two months are also the coldest at 0.4 and 1.2 ° C, respectively. The warmest months are July and August with 18.7 and 18.1 ° C, respectively. With 946 mm of precipitation, Konstanz is one of the rainy cities in Germany.
|Constance (442 m), 2015–2020|
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Constance (442 m), 2015–2020
Source: weatheronline.de - wetter.de
In Konstanz, too, the climate is changing noticeably due to global warming . Recordings from the private weather station in Kressbronn show that the temperature increased by 0.5 ° C in the years 2007-2014 compared to the measurement period 1981-2010, and the number of hours of sunshine by almost 360 to 2061 hours per year (WeatherOnline records but only an increase of about 110 hours). This makes Konstanz one of the sunniest cities in Germany.
Historical spellings for Konstanz
Constance has been given very different names over the years. Ulrich Büttner and Egon Schwär have put together this variety of names that are no longer in use today:
"Chostanze (1251), Chostentz (1341), Constancia (762), Constantia (912), Constantiae (980), Constantie (762), Constantiensi (1159), Constantiensis (1286), Costencz (1483), Constanz (1579) , Costentz (1300), Costentz (1341), Costenz (1291), Costenze (1283), Costintz (1312), Costintze (1319), Costinze (1251), Konstanz (1274), Kostenz (1290), Kostenz (1336) , Kostenze (1279), Kostenze (1327), Kostinze (1272), Kostnitz (1353). "
Already at the end of the 2nd century BC Chr. Settled Celts , probably from the tribe of the Helvetii , in the area of today's Lower Castle. Under Emperor Augustus , the area around Lake Constance was conquered for the Roman Empire shortly before the turn of the century and from then on belonged to the province of Raetia .
There are also some indications of Roman settlement north of the Rhine in today's urban area. The name of the place on the Münsterhügel is not known for sure. In the Geographike Hyphegesis of Claudius Ptolemaeus (around 160 AD), however, a settlement called Drusomagus is mentioned (Ptolem. Geogr. 2,12,3), which a research group identified in 2010 as today's Constance. The first stone buildings were built here in the 2nd century, and the settlement was fortified twice in the 3rd century.
A turning point in the city's history came around the year 300: In late antiquity , after the Romans had abandoned the Dekumatland , Constance was the site of a border fortification on the left bank of the Rhine (see Danube-Iller-Rhine-Limes ). Traces of a powerful late Roman fortress, the castle Constantia , with walls and octagonal intermediate tower from the 4th century were on Cathedral Square since 2003 excavated . Today, a small part of them can be viewed through a one-meter high glass pyramid and (as part of guided tours) they can be walked underground. This late Roman stone fort Constantia primarily served the defense against plundering Alemanni and the control of the Rhine crossing. Obviously, under the protection of this military installation - as is usually the case - the civilian settlement also blossomed. Constantia does not seem to have been insignificant. The Roman baths not far from the fortress , which also date from the 4th century, are unusually large for this period.
The name of the late antique complex also testifies to its importance, because the place, which belonged to the newly formed province of Raetia prima in the course of the Diocletian reforms of the empire , was named after a Roman emperor. On the one hand, Constantius I comes into question , who had won around 300 victories over the Alamanni and once again secured the borders of the Roman Empire on the Rhine and Danube. Since the late Roman fort Tasgetium , located not far from Konstanz near today's Stein am Rhein , can be dated to the period between 293 and 305 through an inscription, there is much to suggest that Constantia was also built around this time. According to other researchers, Konstanz, however, bears the name of his grandson, the Emperor Constantius II , who also fought against the Alamanni in 354 and 355 on the Rhine and in the Raetia and was probably also in Konstanz, which may have been named after him on this occasion .
Presumably, Emperor Gratian visited Constantia in 378 when he moved east on the south bank of Lake Constance. According to the Notitia dignitatum , a late antique list of troops, written around 420, the Roman troops stationed in Constance and Bregenz were subject to a praefectus numeri Barcariorum (Not. Dig. Occ. 35, 32).
The first recorded mention of the place name Constantia dates from around 525 and can be found in the Latin travel guide of the Romanized Ostrogoth Anarid.
Early middle ages
After the end of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, the former Roman province of Raetia, and with it Constance, came under the rule of Odoacer . After his death in 493, the Ostrogothic Empire gained control over the Raetia prima by 536 , which continued to be ruled from Ravenna during this time . In 537, the Ostrogothic King Witiges had to cede the area to the Frankish King Theudebert I in return for his support against the Eastern Roman Empire ( Gothic War (535–554) ). This made Constance part of the Merovingian Empire .
Probably around 585, the bishop Maximus moved from Vindonissa (today Windisch ), which was a little restless during the migration period, to the more protected Konstanz area and became the city lord. It was around this time that a first predecessor of today's cathedral was built, partly on the foundations of the late antique fortress.
Constance was on the way from medieval Germany over the Graubünden Alpine passes to Italy , so that it benefited from the increasingly flourishing long-distance trade in the Middle Ages. As a result, the city was expanded several times to the south, and the port was relocated several times. Constance was at the center of the linen trade ("Tela di Costanza").
Konrad von Konstanz , also Konrad I von Altdorf (* around 900; † November 26, 975) was bishop in the diocese of Konstanz from 934 to 975 and has been venerated as a Catholic saint since 1123 . Stays in Rome made him decide to bring the urban topography of Constance into line with that of Rome. Under the influence of Rome's patriarchal basilicas , for example, Konrad had a St. Paul's Church built analogous to San Paolo fuori le mura . In the immediate vicinity, the church of St. John was built according to San Giovanni in Laterano . He had the Laurentiuskirche (later Ratskapelle St. Lorenz; no longer existent today) located in front of the city renewed. Under the impression of his pilgrimages in Jerusalem , he then had the Mauritius rotunda built as a replica of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher , which now served as a regional pilgrimage destination. He set up a community of twelve canons for this chapel , which is located right next to the choir of the cathedral church . established pen at St. Stephen's Church only existed for a short time.
Imperial City (1192–1548)
The increasingly autonomous citizens of the city fought for their own position in 1192 and 1213, independent of the previous city lord - the bishop - and - according to some historians - finally received the status of a free city or imperial city . An imperial city is defined by imperial immediacy , which specifically means that it did not have to pay any taxes to the respective sovereign, but all taxes directly to the emperor , i.e. the empire . Since the city of Constance demonstrably paid half of its taxes to the emperor and half to the bishop, it may not be classified as a pure free city or imperial city.
The Konstanzer Pfennig was minted from silver in the episcopal mint from 1250–1270. Within the round bulge and the round pearl border was the bust of a bishop with miter and stole and with a crook and lily scepter. It was embossed on one side with a diameter of 21 mm and a weight of 0.56 g. In 1295 Konstanz acquired the right to mint and minted the so-called Eternal Pfennig , which was no longer subject to the annual revocation of coins .
At the height of its economic and political power, the city built a department store on the port in 1388 as a warehouse and transhipment center, today's council building . With the development of the Gotthard Pass , trade flows increasingly shifted to the route via Zurich - Basel , so that the city's development stagnated in the late Middle Ages . Therefore, the Gothic building fabric of the city was largely spared from later redesign. The most important trade and export goods were raw, bleached canvas , which was widely known under the name of Konstanz canvas (tela di Costanza).
Council of Constance
The Council of Constance took place from 1414 to 1418 . The council building , in which only the conclave of the papal election took place, still stands today on the shores of Lake Constance, right next to the Konstanz harbor and train station. The actual meeting room was the bishop's cathedral , today's cathedral . The election of Martin V on November 11, 1417 was the only papal election north of the Alps . At the same time, the occidental schism of 1378 was ended here with the deposition of the anti-popes and the execution of the Czech reformer Jan Hus . Rome was confirmed and established as the seat of the Pope. In 1417, the burgrave of Nuremberg received the Mark Brandenburg as a fiefdom from King Sigismund on the Obermarkt .
Jan Hus was imprisoned in the round tower of the island monastery facing the lake (today the island hotel on the Dominican Island ) and later in the castle of the Bishop of Konstanz in Gottlieben . On July 6, 1415, the reformer was burned at the stake as a heretic on the occasion of the council , and his ashes were thrown into the Rhine . The trial took place in Constance Cathedral. Hus was not given an opportunity to comment in detail on the charges. The promise of safe conduct of King Sigismund was broken. The execution was carried out by the secular powers after a final appeal by the king's emissary to revoke it .
The Hus monument on the arbor in Constance opposite the Luther Church was designed by Adéla Kacabová. It was set up and inaugurated in 2015. It is a gift from the Czechoslovak Hussite Church to the city of Konstanz. The three meter high stone monument has the year 1415 engraved in its base and shows blazing fire flames in the middle part. The head of the monument is a symbolic chalice as a symbol of truth and reconciliation. The silhouette of the monument is reminiscent of the tower figure in a chess game, which symbolizes law and truth.
A black, transverse boulder with the golden inscription Johannes Hus on the presumed medieval place of execution (in the street Zum Hussenstein, now named after it , on the Brühl, west of the old town, near the Swiss border) reminds of this. The boulder known as Hussenstein also reminds of Jerome of Prague, who was also executed at the Council of Constance on May 30, 1416 . Therefore, Jerome of Prague is engraved on the other side of the stone.
The Hus Museum in the Hussenstrasse named after Hus near the Schnetztor with documents on Hus and the Hussite movement was long considered one of the places where Jan Hus stayed at the beginning of the Council of Constance and was set up in 1923 by the Prague Museum Society to commemorate the reformer. The name of the Jan-Hus-Haus (student dormitory) also recalls the Reformation theses of Jan Hus and his fate in Constance.
In the 13th century the city was no longer just called Constantia , but also partly Costanze and Kostinz . In the 15th century the latter became the name Costnitz due to a reading error , which led to the fact that the Council of Constance is often referred to in literature as the Council of Costnitz . From 1895 on there was therefore a Kostnitzer Straße in Berlin-Wilmersdorf before its name was changed to Konstanzer Straße in 1908 . In Czech the place is still called Kostnice today.
Constance would have liked to join the Swiss Confederation in the 15th century , but the rural towns of today's Switzerland did not allow this because they feared the cities would dominate. If Konstanz had become a federal city at that time, it would today, instead of Frauenfeld, be the capital of Thurgau , its natural southern hinterland. A curious consequence of this is the unique fact that the Constance district of Tägermoos lies on Swiss territory, which was last contractually agreed in 1831. As a result, Konstanz joined the Swabian Federation with a heavy heart . In 1529 the city belonged to the representatives of the Protestant minority ( Protestation ) at the Reichstag in Speyer . Their citizenship demanded the unhindered spread of the evangelical faith. In 1527 Konstanz was reformed under Ambrosius Blarer and Johannes Zwick and subsequently joined the Schmalkaldic League . The bishops of Constance moved to Meersburg in Meersburg order.
Constance falls to Austria
Emperor Charles V started a war against the Protestants in 1546, which he won in 1547. Konstanz did not want to accept the defeat of the Protestants in the Schmalkaldic War , but instead negotiated his imperial freedom and religious freedom until 1548. On August 6, 1548, the emperor declared Constance to be a city without rights by means of an imperial ban in a document that was printed and issued in Augsburg. Spanish troops tried to take Constance, but only got as far as Petershausen. On August 6, 1548, the citizens of Constance successfully repulsed Spanish troops from Emperor Charles V in front of the Rhine Gate. After the siege by the Austrians a few weeks later, Konstanz capitulated on September 13, 1548 and thereby fell to Austria. It lost its Free City status .
In 1439, more than 4000 people died of an illness in Konstanz. The plague epidemics of the 16th century in the Lake Constance area also affected Konstanz in 1518, 1519, 1529 and 1541/1542. Margarete Blarer cared for those suffering from plague in the hospital on Dominican Island and died of the plague herself in 1541. In the years 1611/1612 a third of the Constance population died of the plague.
Habsburg period (1548–1806)
When, after the discovery of America, the transalpine trade, to which the city owed its wealth, slowly lost its importance because the international trade routes shifted, this also affected Konstanz.
After the capitulation in 1548, Constance was incorporated into the Habsburg Front Austria through a gift from Emperor Charles V to his brother Ferdinand and was re - Catholicized in the course of the Counter-Reformation . It lost its importance and became a rural town in Upper Austria . However, the prince-bishops kept Meersburg as their royal seat.
Until 1806 Konstanz belonged to Upper Austria. The city served the Habsburgs as a bulwark against further expansion of the Confederation to the north. In order to consolidate the Catholic consciousness, a Jesuit college was founded with a papal bull in 1604 against resistance in the city . This grammar school, which Franz Anton Mesmer also attended from 1746 to 1750, still exists today as the humanistic Heinrich Suso grammar school.
During the Thirty Years' War , Constance was besieged by the Swedes in 1633, but the core city was not captured (see Naval War on Lake Constance 1632–1648 ). To commemorate the stuck advance of the Swedes, next to the bridge from the mainland to Mainau, the “Swedish Cross”, mounted on a Swedish cannon barrel, can be viewed in Lake Constance.
In order to promote the economically depressed Constance, the government of Front Austria settled Huguenot emigrants from Geneva in the city in 1785 , who had to leave their homeland for ideological and economic reasons. These included Jacques Louis Macaire de L'Or (1740-1824) and his family. In addition to the first bank in the former Constance he straightened Constance " Dominicans Island a" Indienne - factory with Indigo a -Färberei. With this textile company, he laid the foundation for the most important branch of industry in Konstanz in the 19th and 20th centuries.
During the First Coalition War , French revolutionary troops under General Jean-Victor Moreau (1763–1813) occupied Constance for two months in 1796. In the Second and Third Coalition Wars, French troops took Constance again in 1799 and 1805, respectively. As a result of the repeated occupations of the city, Constance became impoverished and its population decreased. This happened less because of direct combat operations than because of the high costs of billeting , equipping and feeding alternating French and Austrian soldiers.
Baden period (1806–1952)
Grand Duchy of Baden
In 1816 there was a famine in Constance and the Lake Constance area. In 1817 the Tägermoos , the Briel, the Paradies district and over half of the market place were flooded by the floods of Lake Constance .
On March 28, 1831, the Grand Duchy of Baden and the Canton of Thurgau concluded an agreement on the adjustment of the border in Tägermoos , so that this has (again) been a district of the city of Konstanz.
In the Baden Revolution , the Hecker train started with a moderate response from Constance. The German Republic is said to have been proclaimed on April 12, 1848 , although none of the three Konstanz newspapers that reported on the speech in question did not mention this.
In 1863 Konstanz was connected to the Mannheim-Basel-Konstanz trunk line of the Baden State Railways . This triggered - together with the freedom of trade proclaimed in Baden in 1862 - an economic upswing, the population grew rapidly and most of the medieval city wall was torn down . The trenches were filled in with the rubble, and the city park - called Stadtgarten - was filled with excavated material from the enlarged harbor basin towards the lake. Modernization measures were initiated and carried out between 1866 and 1877 by the Mayor of Konstanz, Max Stromeyer , for example the construction of the Seestrasse, the port, the railway connection to Switzerland and the school reform.
Remnants of the last city wall can still be seen on the lower arbor (there as a reconstruction), on the Schnetztor and, since it was uncovered in 2008, also along the newly created Schlachttorgasse. On the banks of the Rhine there is the Rheintorturm near the Rhine bridge (see picture) and the Powder Tower at the level of the Lower Arbor - the Schnetztor has been preserved in the southwest corner of the city.
During the First World War , the external border between the German Empire and Switzerland was sealed off so that the still lively relationship between the city and its traditional hinterland Thurgau was severely restricted. Commuters from Constance no longer came to Kreuzlingen, Thurgau farmers no longer came to the weekly markets in Constance, and smuggling arose. The upswing since the early days was thus ended.
On August 5th and 6th, 1914, about 6000 Italians were stranded in Konstanz after the outbreak of World War I and Italy's declaration of neutrality on August 2nd, 1914, from Germany via Switzerland to Italy. Switzerland then opened the border for rail travel to Italy. From March 1915, around 180,000 seriously injured prisoners of war from the First World War were exchanged between Konstanz and Lyon .
time of the nationalsocialism
In 1935, Konstanz became a city district within the meaning of the German municipal code and four years later a district-free city when it was spun off from the district of Konstanz. The city remained the seat of the district administration of the district of Constance .
According to the resolution of the German Reichstag on the Enabling Act of March 24, 1933, Jews were excluded from the public service, from associations and from professions. As early as 1933, SA men prevented visitors to Jewish shops and practices from entering. Signs on benches, shops, inns and at the Horn outdoor pool excluded Jews from using and visiting. The systematic persecution of Jews began with the Nuremberg Laws in 1935. Jews then sold their residential and commercial buildings below their value and emigrated. From 1938 "aryanization sales" were only possible with state approval, after the deportation in 1940 the property was subsequently expropriated and auctioned.
A flight tax of 25% was levied. During the first arson attack on the Konstanz synagogue in 1936, the building was saved by the volunteer fire brigade. The seven damaged Torah scrolls were buried in the Jewish cemetery . During the Reichspogromnacht in 1938 , the Constance synagogue was set on fire by members of the General SS , Section XIX Constance, under SS-Oberführer Walter Stein . The fire brigade was not allowed to fight a fire this time. On the contrary, attempts were made to open the roof hatches of the synagogue to give the fire a better draft. The synagogue was then blown up by the SS-Einsatzstruppe III./SS-Standarte Germania from Radolfzell. 16 male Jews were brought to the Dachau concentration camp . From 1938 a Jewish property tax was levied. Some families in Constance managed to flee to Switzerland, Palestine, England, USA, Argentina and Asian countries until 1939. The Swiss cantons of Lake Constance sealed themselves off. In 1933 there were 433 Jews living in Konstanz and 120 in 1940. Of these, 112 were brought to Camp de Gurs in the south of France .
On the evening of November 8, 1939, Georg Elser was arrested in Constance when he was trying to flee to Switzerland. Elser had previously placed a bomb in Munich to kill Adolf Hitler , but this one had escaped the attack by chance.
Jews, prisoners of war, forced laborers and German deserters attempted to escape on the Saubach. It was possible to escape by jumping over the Saubach until 1938. Refugees who made it to Thurgau were extradited to Germany.
When the Second World War broke out, Grenzbachweg was closed. From the end of 1939, a border fence was erected on the Swiss side from Kreuzlinger Zoll to the Wiesenstrasse crossing and from the railway line to the lake to keep refugees away. From the end of 1939, the Germans erected a three meter high fence from the Emmishofer Zoll to the Saubach estuary in the Seerhein in order to interrupt the flow of information to France via Switzerland. Now the official border crossings had to be used. On May 10, 1940, the day of the German invasion of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg , the border to Switzerland and also to Tägermoos was closed. The vegetable farmers from Paradise were no longer allowed to cultivate their fields in the Tägermoos.
On October 22, 1940, 110 Jewish residents of Konstanz were deported to the Gurs concentration camp in southern France, the last eight to Riga , Izbica and Theresienstadt between 1941 and 1944 . Most of them were murdered in the camps.
During the Second World War , Konstanz, although it was also an industrial location, was spared from allied bomber attacks, unlike other cities on Lake Constance such as Friedrichshafen. In the so-called “ Bomber's Baedeker ” the industry of Konstanz was described as “insignificant” with a few exceptions. From November 7, 1940 to September 12, 1944, Switzerland, too, had ordered a mandatory blackout . The blackout there was lifted by the Federal Council on September 12, 1944 due to the risk of accidental attacks on Swiss cities . This was also the result of the erroneous bombing of Schaffhausen on April 1, 1944, according to Allied pronouncements . As a result, the blackout of the old town of Konstanz on the left bank of the Rhine was lifted by the German side. The unobtrusive borderline between the old town of Constance and Kreuzlingen was further blurred. Now the Swiss government has been advocating sparing the German city. The districts on the right bank of the Rhine, which are clearly separated from Swiss areas by the Seerhein, continued to be darkened, but were not attacked despite companies like Degussa and Stromeyer .
Of the soldiers fell in World War II: 1701 from Konstanz, 21 from Litzelstetten, 24 from Dingelsdorf and 33 from Dettingen-Wallhausen, 370 are listed as missing . There were also prisoners of war and cripples.
French zone of occupation
Constance was taken almost without a fight on April 26, 1945. Only a few machine gun shots were fired at the remnants of the German garrison fleeing into internment in Switzerland, but they did no damage. SS formations flooding into the city were shipped to Bregenz via the port. The occupation without a fight goes back to negotiations that took place on the night of April 25, 1945 on Swiss territory in the Trompeterschlössle in Tägermoos between Mayor Leopold Mager, City Councilor Franz Knapp and Police Chief Petersen from Constance, as well as French and Swiss officials, in particular Otto Raggenbass , were led. The 5th French Panzer Division of the 1st French Army reached Constance via Radolfzell and Allensbach and drove from Spanierstrasse over the Old Rhine Bridge to the Marktstätte. For their own protection, the French occupation forces took four hundred Konstanz men hostage in the monastery barracks on the Rhine bridge on May 6, 1945 . School lessons were suspended for several months. Soldiers gave chocolate and cookies to children. From November 1945 ferries were available again, and from June 1946 the “Roter Arnold” bus ran again between Konstanz-Bahnhof and Konstanz-Staad. This connection was used for hamster rides across the lake.
In the post-war period Konstanz belonged to the state of southern Baden within the French occupation zone . French troops were stationed in three barracks - the monastery barracks directly at the Rhine bridge, the Jägerkaserne and the Chérisy barracks . On July 18, 1978, the last French unit was passed.
Constance in the state of Baden-Württemberg
In 1952, through the union of Baden , Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern , Konstanz became a city in the new state of Baden-Württemberg . From then on it belonged to the administrative district of South Baden . In 1953 it was reintegrated into the district of Konstanz at its own request and when the Baden-Württemberg municipal code came into force on April 1, 1956, it was declared a major district town by law .
With the founding of the university in 1966, a new upswing in the city was initiated, which, in contrast to many other regions in Germany, is still going on at the beginning of the 21st century. The presence of numerous students and scientists has noticeably changed the city.
During the district reform in 1973 , Konstanz became the center of the enlarged district of Konstanz, which was also assigned to the new Upper Rhine-Bodensee regional association.
In 1978 the first Heimattage of Baden-Württemberg took place in Constance .
The incorporations with population at the time of incorporation:
|Jan. 1, 1915||Allmannsdorf (with Egg, Hard, Hinterhausen, Sierenmoos, Sonnenbühl and Staad)||circa 1600|
|Aug 1, 1934||Wollmatingen (with Fürstenberg and today's industrial area)||approx. 3600|
|Dec. 1, 1971||Litzelstetten||1970: 1794|
|Jan. 1, 1975||Dingelsdorf (with Oberdorf)||1970: 1061|
|Apr 22, 1975||Dettingen (with Wallhausen)||1970: 2464|
Constance only had a few thousand inhabitants in the Middle Ages and early modern times . Only during the council of 1414-1418 were an estimated 10,000-40,000 people housed in the city. The population grew only slowly and fell again and again due to the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. The plague epidemics in 1348 and 1518 and a famine in 1513 claimed numerous lives. Only with the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century did the population grow very quickly. In 1806 only 4,400 people lived in the city, in 1900 there were already 21,000. By 1950 that number had doubled to 42,000.
Several incorporations in the early and mid-1970s brought an increase from around 10,000 people to 70,000 inhabitants in 1975. On June 30, 2005, the official population for Constance was 80,980 according to an update by the Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office (only main residences and after comparison the other state offices). This was an all-time high. After the significant "population decline" according to ZENSUS 2011 is no longer one of the 100 largest municipalities in Germany .
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Until 1833 it is mostly an estimate, then census results (¹) or official updates from the State Statistical Office. From 1871, the information relates to the “local population”, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the location of the main residence”. Before 1871, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey procedures.
¹ census result
As a result of the 2011 census, the official population was revised downwards significantly. Since then, this number has risen sharply due to immigration.
According to a statistical calculation, between 93,300 and 98,500 inhabitants could live in the city in 2035.
Religions and ideological associations
According to the 2011 census , 24.0% of the population were Protestant, 39.2% Roman Catholic and 36.8% either belonged to another religious community or no religious community under public law, or remained without information. As of December 31, 2019, 20.4% of the population were Protestant, 34.0% of the residents were Catholic and 45.6% belonged to another religion or denomination, were not affiliated to a public religious community or were without information.
At the end of the 6th century, Konstanz became the seat of a diocese ( Diocese of Konstanz ) that belonged to the ecclesiastical province of Mainz . The city was the seat of an archdeaconate . From 1522, the Reformation initially found some followers. The council even closed several monasteries in 1526 and Catholic services were banned in 1529. But after the transition to Austria in 1548, Constance had to return to the old faith ( re-Catholicization ). The majority of the Protestants went to Switzerland. A small minority remained in the city. Nevertheless, Konstanz remained predominantly Catholic until the 19th century. In 1785 a Protestant community was founded by immigrants from Switzerland, but in 1796 it was dissolved again. In 1820 a Protestant congregation emerged again.
The Catholic residents belonged to the Diocese of Constance until 1821 and then came to the newly established Archdiocese of Freiburg . This was created in the course of a state church regiment exerted by the state in order to allow the diocese boundaries to coincide with the political boundaries of the Grand Duchy of Baden. The fact that the Vicar General Ignaz Heinrich von Wessenberg , who was elected bishop, was not accepted by the Vatican because of his liberal views also contributed to the dissolution of the Diocese of Constance, whose historical area extended far beyond Baden . Constance became the seat of a deanery (see Archdiocese of Freiburg # diocese structure ).
Roman Catholic Church
In addition to the parish of the cathedral , several Catholic parishes have emerged in the course of history, some of which can also be traced back to earlier monasteries. Today there are the following Catholic parishes and communities in the city:
- Together with the parish of St. Stephan and the parish of the Holy Trinity, the cathedral parish forms the pastoral care unit of Konstanz-Altstadt.
- The parish of St. Gebhard Petershausen, together with the parishes of St. Suso and Brother Klaus, form the pastoral care unit of Konstanz-Petershausen.
- The parishes of St. Martin and St. Gallus together form the pastoral care unit of St. Martin and St. Gallus.
- The parishes of St. Peter and Paul Litzelstetten, St. Verena Dettingen (with St. Leonhard Wallhausen) and St. Nikolaus Dingelsdorf (with St. Cross Oberndorf) also form a joint pastoral care unit (Bodanrück).
Some of these parishes or churches have a very old tradition. The church of St. Stephan is mentioned for the first time in 615. At that time it was located south of the city and was possibly a cemetery church. In the 10th century it became the parish church of the civil parish. The pillar basilica was redesigned in baroque style in 1770. The Dreifaltigkeitskirche was the church of an Augustinian hermit monastery , which was dissolved in 1797. Then the church belonged to the hospital. In 1813 the parish was united with St. Jodok and Paul. At that time the church received a small tower. The former Jesuit church between the cathedral and the city theater has been the parish church of the old Catholic community founded in 1873 as the Christ Church since 1904 .
More recent are the Catholic Church of St. Gebhard, which was built in 1928/30 north of the former monastery of the same name, but was its own parish as early as 1920, the Church of St. Suso, built in 1937/38 and raised to a parish in 1957 (new building of the church in 1975) , the Bruder-Klaus-Kirche , built in 1955 as the first church after the Second World War in Konstanz and raised to the parish of St. Nikolaus von Flüe in 1962, the Maria-Hilf church , built in 1967 (parish since 1970) and the St. Gallus church, Built in 1971.
In the districts of Constance there are other Catholic parishes that also belong to the Dean's Office of Constance. The community of St. Martin Wollmatingen has a church that was rebuilt in 1960. It still has Gothic elements. Allmannsdorf used to belong to Wollmatingen. The local church of St. George, Our Lady, Peter and Paul, Pankratius and Martin was raised to a parish in the 16th century. The Catholic Church of St. Verena Dettingen was initially a branch of Dingelsdorf and was raised to a parish in 1740. The late Gothic church was redesigned in baroque style in 1779. The St. Leonhard Wallhausen chapel belonging to the parish was built in 1714. The Catholic Church of St. Nikolaus Dingelsdorf is a late Gothic hall church with a west tower added later. The Catholic Church of St. Peter and Paul Litzelstetten was initially also a branch of Dingelsdorf and was raised to a parish in 1826. The late Gothic church was redesigned in baroque style in the 18th century, but the nave was torn down in 1978 and then rebuilt. The Mariae Himmelfahrt Church on the island of Mainau , which was once politically part of Litzelstetten, was built between 1732 and 1739.
There are also other smaller churches and chapels. The Schottenkapelle on Schottenplatz served as the cemetery chapel on the Schottenfriedhof, which was the main cemetery in Constance from May 1785 to April 30, 1870. Also the chapel of St. Martin in Paradise (built in 1922). The St. Lorenz chapel on the Obermarkt, which was probably built in the 13th century, was later converted into a council chapel and profaned in 1839. For the numerous monasteries and monastery complexes cf. the Structures section.
The Protestant parish of Konstanz, founded in 1820, named itself after Martin Luther . The congregation first celebrated their services in the former Capuchin Church, then in the former Jesuit Church before the Luther Church was built in 1873. The Paulus parish was established in 1918. In the 1930s a wooden church was built in this parish, initially intended as a temporary measure . After the successful renovation and redesign of the interior, the Pauluskirche (wooden church) was ceremoniously handed over to its destination again on the 1st of Advent 2007 with great sympathy from the people of Constance. The Ambrosius Blarer parish split off from the Luther parish in 1947. Further parishes emerged from the three parishes.
A parish of its own was established in Allmannsdorf in 1957. Before that, the Protestants were looked after by the Paulus parish in Constance. In 1958 Allmannsdorf got its own church (Kreuzkirche). The Petruspfarrei split off from the Paulus parish for the Petershausen-West district in 1974, for which a separate church with a community center was built next to the main cemetery. On the 1st of Advent 2006, the two parishes Paulus and Peter will be reunited to form a common congregation, which bears the name "Evangelical Peter and Paul congregation Constance". The Protestants in Wollmatingen were initially looked after by the Paulus parish. In 1935 its own parish was established after its own church had been built in 1934. The congregation is divided into the Christ Parish and the St. John's Parish, which was separated from it in 1976. Both parishes have been reunited in a group office since 2010 . Litzelstetten was also supplied by Wollmatingen; In 1969/70 the place received its own church (Church of the Resurrection), at which its own parish was established in 1971. The Protestants from Dettingen and Dingelsdorf are looked after by the neighboring community of Allensbach. All the evangelical parishes mentioned in the Konstanz city area belong to the dean's office of Konstanz of the Evangelical Church in Baden with the dean's seat in the Wollmating parish.
Parishes of the Association of Evangelical Free Churches
The Association of Evangelical Free Churches is represented by four parishes in Constance. It includes the Evangelical Free Church Baptist Congregation on Lorettosteig, the Adventist Congregation on Schottenstrasse, the Evangelical Methodist Church Congregation Am Briel, as well as the Lakeside Church Konstanz belonging to the BFP on Schneckenburgstrasse.
In addition to the churches and free churches mentioned, there is also an old Catholic parish in Konstanz , which in the first few years after its foundation (1874) comprised around 60% of the population of Konstanz, but most of them have returned to the Roman Catholic Church.
The church of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Congregation is the Schottenkapelle in Schottenstrasse, the community is called Evangelical Lutheran Markus Congregation .
Other religious communities with Christian roots
In medieval Constance, Jews were at times very welcome, but at times they were also the target of persecution. Between 1200 and 1450 they received civil rights and took part in the daily life of the city of Constance. Many Jews lived in Münzgasse, where traces of a mikveh can still be seen today. The synagogue was also located in the old town.
The Powder Tower, located on the Seerhein , used to be known as the “Judenturm” because the city's Jewish population was captured several times and sometimes had to live in this tower for years. In 1537 the Jewish community was completely expelled during the Reformation. Only in 1847 was a Jewish settlement approved again in Constance; In 1862 the Emancipation Act came into force in Baden , whereupon the Israelite religious community was brought back to life in Constance in 1863. In 1875 it had 251 members, in 1895 already 528, about 2.5% of the city's population. In 1882/83 a synagogue was built in today's Sigismundstrasse . In 1936 an arson attack was carried out on the synagogue; During the Reichspogromnacht in 1938, it was set on fire and finally destroyed by the SS disposable troops III./SS-VT “Germania” stationed in Radolfzell . Diagonally across from the former synagogue, directly behind the Dreifaltigkeitskirche , there is a memorial for the 108 citizens of Konstanz who were deported to the Gurs internment camp in southern France and to the Auschwitz extermination camps on October 20, 1940 as part of the so-called Wagner-Bürckel campaign because of their Jewish faith -Birkenau or Sobibor were murdered.
On the site of the synagogue, Sigmund Nissenbaum (1926–2001), a Jewish businessman and founder of the Konstanz Israelite community, built a residential and office building that also includes a prayer room in the 1960s. The Jewish community became independent in 1986; in 1989 it had around 50 members. Due to the growing Jewish life in Konstanz after the immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s, the number of members increased to 320 members in 2018.
The prayer room was expanded in 1999 to a small synagogue, which, like this one, has been part of today's Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Konstanz Kdö.R. since the 1960s . (IKG) is available. Services take place on every Shabbat and on all Jewish holidays . Here at Sigismundstraße 19 you will also find the community office and community center of the IKG, as well as the Dr.-Erich-Bloch-und-Lebenheim-Bibliothek ( Judaica ) of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde.
For a number of years, the prayer room of the liberal Jewish community, which was also supported by the Upper Council of the Israelites of Baden, was being established in the upper arbor .
The disagreement between the two organizations (Israelitische Kultusgemeinde and Jewish community in the process of being established) (including about the role of women in the community) long delayed the construction of a new synagogue on a piece of land made available by the city.
The synagogue community offers its members a wide range of learning opportunities in Torah and tradition, conducts services on Shabbat and on all Jewish holidays , and offers programs for children, students, and senior citizens. The university group Morasha Konstanz at the university is affiliated with the community and represents students and young professionals in Konstanz. Morasha Konstanz belongs to Morasha Germany and is part of the Association of Jewish Students Baden (BJSB).
On November 9, 2016 in the Sigismundstraße 8, the construction work to build a new synagogue and began mikvah , not far from the site of the 1938 synagogue destroyed in the Sigimsundstraße 19. The building owner was Jewish Religious Community Baden . The city of Konstanz provided the building site free of charge and contributed 155,000 euros to the construction costs of 5 million euros. On November 10, 2019, the 81st anniversary of the destruction of the Old Synagogue in 1938, the New Synagogue in Konstanz was inaugurated in the presence of numerous guests of honor. Speakers were u. a. the Vice-President of the Central Council of Jews in Germany , Abraham Lehrer and Baden-Württemberg's Prime Minister Winfried Kretschmann . During a joyous procession, the Torah scrolls were symbolically carried from the location of the former synagogue to the new building on Sigismundstrasse, around 50 meters away.
In October 2001 the Mevlana Mosque of the Turkish-Islamic community (Ditib) was opened in the Petershausen district . The approximately 3,000 Muslims in Constance have their own house of prayer with a 225 square meter prayer room, a dome ten meters in diameter and a 35 meter high minaret, one of the highest in Germany.
The Buddhist Diamond Way Center of the Karma Kagyu has existed in Constance since 1984 , founded by Ole Nydahl and under the spiritual patronage of the 17th Karmapa Thaye Dorje . There are also groups of other Buddhist schools.
There are several Masonic lodges in Konstanz .
The Johannisloge Constantia for Confidence is subordinate to the Grand Lodge of the Old Free and Accepted Masons of Germany . It is an association registered since 1909 at Schottenstrasse 69 with 40 members and openness to a higher order principle.
The Jan Amos Comenius Perfection Lodge and the Sovereign Chapter Pons Libertatis, work according to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite .
The women's box Drei Lichter zum See is the first and so far only women's box on Lake Constance.
The Konstanz lodges maintain close ties in particular to Switzerland.
The Lodge Imperia at Constance of the Druids in Constance's Paradies district is linked to brotherhood, charity, human rights, tolerance and charity, i.e. humanity.
For a long time Konstanz was traditionally politically conservative and liberal , as is usual in southern Baden . With the establishment of the university in 1966, there was a strong social liberal impact, which was expanded around 1990 with a stronger green orientation (see also the current composition of the municipal council). In 1996, Horst Frank , Germany's first green mayor, was elected in Constance and was re-elected in 2004. Since September 10, 2012, Uli Burchardt, a Christian Democrat, has been mayor of Konstanz.
The council shall, in accordance with § 25 paragraph 1 sentence 2 Municipal Code the term "city council". In addition to the Lord Mayor, it consists of 40 local councils / councils from the following parties / lists . Konstanz is the first city in Baden-Württemberg to broadcast local council meetings as a podcast on the Internet.
The city council in the composition after the 2014 local elections met as planned on July 3, 2014 for the constituent meeting and thus replaced the previous city council.
|Party / list||Share of votes||+/- % p||Seats||+/-|
|Free Green List (FGL)||31.8%||+ 8.2||13||+ 3|
|CDU||18.4%||- 6.7||7th||- 3|
|SPD||12.2%||- 6.0||5||- 2nd|
|Free Voters Constance (FWK)||12.4%||- 0.9||5||± 0|
|Young Forum Constance (JFK)||10.3%||+ 3.4||4th||+ 1|
|FDP||7.7%||+ 0.8||3||± 0|
|Left list Konstanz (LLK)||7.1%||+ 1.0||3||+ 1|
Local councils and local administration
The localities of Dettingen-Wallhausen, Dingelsdorf and Litzelstetten have their own local councils, which advise on issues relating to the localities; Their decisions should be heard and taken into account as far as possible in municipal or administrative decisions of the city as a whole.
Local elections June 2009:
|● Litzelstetten:||FWG : 4 (± 0),||CDU : 3 (± 0),||SPD : 3 (± 0)|
|● Dettingen / Wallhausen:||CDU : 6 (± 0),||SPD : 4 (± 0),||FWG : 4 (± 0)|
|● Dingelsdorf:||CDU : 5 (+ 1),||SLWD * : 3 (−1),||FWG : 2 (± 0)|
Local elections June 2014:
|● Litzelstetten:||CDU : 4 (+1),||SPD : 3 (± 0),||FWL ** : 3 (−1)|
|● Dettingen / Wallhausen:||CDU : 8 (+2),||SPD : 6 (+2)|
|● Dingelsdorf:||CDU : 5 (± 0),||SLWD * : 3 (± 0),||FWG : 2 (± 0)|
* Social-liberal voter community Dingelsdorf ** Free voters Litzelstetten
Local elections June 2019:
|● Litzelstetten:||CDU : 4 (± 0),||SPD : 2 (−1),||FWL ** : 4 (+1)|
|● Dettingen / Wallhausen:||CDU : 7 (−1),||SPD : 7 (+1)|
|● Dingelsdorf:||CDU : 4 (−1),||SLWD * : 4 (+1),||FWG : 2 (± 0)|
* Social-liberal voter community Dingelsdorf ** Free voters Litzelstetten
The localities each have a mayor and a local administration.
In the Middle Ages , the court and council in Constance were in one hand, chaired by the bailiff . After the transfer to Austria in 1548, the city bailiff managed the official business. In part, he also took on the duties of city governor. The city court consisted of a judge who was elected by the small council and twelve assessors from the small and large council. In 1785 Austria replaced the city government with a magistrate with a mayor and five paid councilors.
After the annexation to Baden in 1805, judicial matters were transferred to the state. At the head of the city was the mayor, who worked full-time from 1818, a city council and a 32-member citizens' committee. From 1870 the mayor and council were directly elected. In 1874 the mayor was elected by the citizens' committee, which consisted of 96 city councilors. He had a nine year term. He was supported by a mayor and a city council of 14 members. From 1933, the mayor, mayor, alderman and city council were appointed by the Reich governor. After the Second World War, several mayors were appointed in succession by the French occupying forces. In 1946, for the first time, the population re-elected a city council that elected the mayor.
Today the mayor is directly elected by the electorate for a term of eight years. He is chairman of the municipal council. His general deputies are the first and second aldermen, each with the official title of mayor .
The Lord Mayor Horst Frank ( GREEN ) was last re-elected on July 25, 2004 in the second ballot for a second eight-year term. The councilors are Andreas Osner ( SPD ), until June 2013: Claus Boldt ( CDU ) and Karl Langensteiner-Schönborn (since February 2014, building mayor; previously Kurt Werner (independent)). In 2012 Frank decided not to run again. Uli Burchardt (CDU) was elected the new Lord Mayor of Konstanz in the second ballot and was sworn in on September 10, 2012.
- 1810–1832: Johann Anton Burkart
- 1832–1849: Karl Hüetlin
- 1849–1851: In the wake of the Baden Revolution , the government of the Grand Duchy of Baden appointed various “mayor's administrators”.
- 1851–1861: Karl Steiner
- 1861–1861: Karl Hüetlin
- 1861–1866: Jakob Stadler
- 1866–1877: Max Stromeyer
- 1877–1888: Otto Winterer
- 1888–1914: Franz Weber
- 1914–1919: Hermann Dietrich ( National Liberal Party , from 1918: DDP )
- 1919–1933: Otto Moericke
- 1933–1945: Albert Herrmann
- 1945: Josef Benz, Vinzenz Kerrle, Hans Schneider, acting Lord Mayors
- 1946: Fritz Arnold ( SPD ), acting
- 1946–1957: Franz Knapp ( CDU )
- 1957–1959: Alfred Diesbach ( SPD )
- 1959–1980: Bruno Helmle ( CDU )
- 1980–1996: Horst Eickmeyer ( FWG )
- 1996–2012: Horst Frank ( Greens )
- since September 10, 2012: Ulrich Burchardt ( CDU )
coat of arms
Blazon : A continuous black cross under the red shield head in silver.
The black cross is derived from the red bishop's cross (of the original city lord, the prince-bishop of Constance ). The red ribbon (zagel) on the upper edge is the so-called blood ribbon, which symbolizes the blood jurisdiction of the former free imperial city. The right to own trumpeters, the sealing with the red wax of the emperor, kings and cardinals as well as the red bar above the city coat of arms was donated by King Sigismund in 1417 .
Constance has twinning partnerships with the following cities :
- Fontainebleau near Paris (France) since 1960
- Richmond upon Thames , a borough of London (United Kingdom) since 1983
- Tábor near Prague (Czech Republic) since 1984
- Lodi near Milan (Italy) since 1986
- Suzhou in Jiangsu Province near Shanghai (China) since 2007
Further connections exist to:
- Pančevo near Belgrade (Serbia)
Suzhou: Suzhou is also located on a lake, Taihu Lake , which is four times larger than Lake Constance. The symbol of the exchange with the metropolis of Suzhou is the bus stop in the traditional Chinese pavilion style in the Konzilstraße. It is a gift from Suzhou City. A professional exchange takes place in the fields of sewage treatment plants and Chinese medicine. A student exchange between students from the Ellenrieder-Gymnasium Konstanz and Chinese students is being carried out.
Konstanz is the project coordinator in the city network learning administrations , which connects eight cities from Germany, Austria and Switzerland DA-CH around Lake Constance across borders. In November 2014, the authorities in the district of Konstanz and the canton of Thurgau carried out a cross-border security drill in order to identify the consequences of a long-term, area-wide power failure.
Protests by the Germany-wide Fridays for Future movement have been taking place in the city on Lake Constance since February 2019 . Following the suggestion of this, the Konstanz municipal council unanimously passed a resolution on May 2, 2019 to declare a climate emergency .
This is linked to further measures to limit the causes of man-made climate change at the municipal level. Since then z. B. the question of whether there should still be fireworks at the Konstanzer Seenachtfest . As an immediate measure, the Lord Mayor Uli Burchardt (CDU) has stopped the procurement of his next company car and decided to do without one in the future. In future, municipal council resolutions will have to be checked for their climate impact.
On July 23, 2020, the climate target “Constance climate-positive 2030” was rejected by a narrow majority of one vote in the municipal council. The decision was criticized by Fridays for Future .
Culture, sports and sights
Constance belongs within the Alemannic language area to the Seealemannic dialect of Lower Alemannic , while the neighboring Höri and southern Hegau are already in the area of High Alemannic according to the old dialect maps .
- The hall of the Jesuit grammar school, built between 1607 and 1609, which was converted into a theater in the 19th century , is considered to be the oldest theater in Germany that is still used today.
- The Konstanzer Puppenbühne existed from 1998 to 2019 and then moved to Schlewig-Holstein.
- The communal art and culture center K9 in the former Paulskirche has offered a rich program of cabaret (cabaret autumn since 1999), comedy (comedy spring since 2004), the monthly open stage “SplitterNacht” (since 2004), many concerts and dance since 1990.
- The Kunstverein Konstanz is the oldest art association in the Lake Constance area and one of the oldest art associations in Germany (in 14th place). Even when it was founded in 1858, the main interest was to create a forum for contemporary art in Konstanz - to this day the Kunstverein Konstanz is the only institution that exclusively offers exhibitions on contemporary art.
- The Wessenberg Gallery houses the municipal art collection in the cultural center at the Münster. The inventory of the house includes a bundle of around 450 hand drawings from the collection of the banker Wilhelm Brandes. Exhibitions there mainly have a regional focus.
- There are also several commercial galleries, including the Geiger Gallery on the Fischmarkt, which presents an international program with solo exhibitions by artists such as Heinz Mack , Otto Piene , Mel Ramos and Daniel Spoerri .
- The Archaeological State Museum Baden-Württemberg in the convent building of the former Benedictine Abbey Petershausen shows a cross-section of the state's history by means of a representative selection of archaeological finds.
- The Lake Constance Museum of Nature shows the history of Lake Constance, the aquatic exhibition on the lake and its environment, as well as the flora and fauna in the habitats of the lake and the Lake Constance landscape. The geological exhibition "Stones on the River" is located in the outdoor area.
- The Botanical Garden of the University of Konstanz offers around 1,400 plant species in show greenhouses and outdoor areas as well as two educational trails on the subjects of forest ecology and invasion biology.
- The Hus Museum shows pictures and documents on the Hussite movement and the life and work of Jan Hus .
- The Rosgarten Museum is a museum for art, culture and history of the Lake Constance region founded in 1870. It is located in the former guild house of the Konstanz butchers , built in 1454 . It also contains the preserved guild hall and an exhibition hall with the original furnishings from the time the museum was founded.
- The Sea Life Center shows, among other things, the underwater world of the Rhine and Lake Constance. The underwater journey leads from the source of the Rhine in the Alps and follows its course over Lake Constance and Rotterdam to the North Sea. An eight meter long acrylic tunnel leads through the middle of the 320,000 liter Red Sea basin. Blacktip reef sharks , two green sea turtles and moray eels swim overhead.
- The Städtische Wessenberg-Galerie is located in the Kulturzentrum am Münster and shows art from the 19th and 20th centuries.
An important and popular sport in Konstanz, with which the city draws nationwide attention, is handball . The merger of the handball department of TV Konstanz and the handball club HC DJK Konstanz in the 1980s began the continuous rise of HSG Konstanz , which led the syndicate for three seasons up to the 2nd handball league in the early 2000s . After the southern German championship in the 2015/16 season with over 1000 fans per season home game behind them, the HSG returned to the Bundesliga lower house. A year later, they managed to stay ahead of the league with 35:41 points. Once again, the average number of spectators increased significantly to 1,300 per home game - the best figure for a newcomer and eleventh place in the league. In the 2018/19 season, the HSG returned to the 2nd Bundesliga after winning the South German Championship again and successfully mastered promotion relegation against HC Empor Rostock. In addition, the HSG Konstanz, as one of Germany's leading youth sponsors, has very successful youth work and maintains unique nationwide partnerships with the University of Excellence Konstanz and the HTWG Konstanz to promote top-class sport, under which exclusive scholarships are awarded to young, motivated talents.
One of the oldest sports clubs in Konstanz is probably the Konstanz section of the German Alpine Club , founded on March 21, 1874 , with (as of December 31, 2018) 9668 members, it is probably the largest club in Konstanz. The section operates the Gauenhütte ( Vorarlberg ) at and the Konstanzer Hütte ( Verwall ) at , as well as two climbing facilities, the "uniBloc" Hochschulsport Konstanz , and the Radolfzell DAV climbing center Bodensee with an area of 2500 m² and a height of 18 meters.
17 Konstanz soccer teams from eight clubs take part in association games. The footballers of the DJK Konstanz , which is the oldest football club in the city, were founding members of the Oberliga Baden-Württemberg in 1978 and belonged to the league until 1981. The SC Konstanz-Wollmatingen and the SG Dettingen-Dingelsdorf play in the Landesliga Südbaden.
The basketball men's team of the TV Konstanz increased in 2010 under the name HolidayCheck Baskets for more years as part of the first Regional Southwest to the 2. Bundesliga Pro B on. After the immediate relegation in 2011 with the championship in the Regionalliga Südwest 2012, the rise again succeeded. After the basketball players, now called ifm BASKETS, were again unable to stay in the league, they have been playing in the Southwest Regionalliga again since the 2013/14 season.
Rugby has been played in Konstanz since the mid-1990s. The Rugby Club Konstanz (RCK) plays in the Baden-Württemberg regional league. The student team from the two universities in Konstanz is very successful, providing two of the most successful teams in Germany in recent years at the annual German University Sports Championship (DHM). The greatest success with the men was the German championship title in 2004 as well as the runner-up title in 2005 and third place in 2007. After the runner-up in 2004, the women’s team won the German championship in 2011.
At Tannenhof, in the Allmannsdorf district, the runway of the Konstanzer Roll- und Eissportclub e.V., founded in 1953, has been located since 1955. V. (KREC). There the training of figure skating and roller hockey takes place, which is played on roller skates . The figure skaters train in cooperation with the Kreuzlingen ice skating club in the Bodensee-Arena ice rink .
The rowing club “Neptun” Konstanz is also successful, having already produced three athletes who have gone to the Olympic Games - two of them came back with a gold medal. At the German championships and the German youth championships medals can be won almost every year and the rowers of Neptune are also represented at world championships at regular intervals.
In addition, the city of Konstanz is home to the Lacrosse Club Konstanz e. V., one of the few lacrosse teams in Germany. The club was founded in early 2009 and established itself in the second Bundesliga south.
- Stadtgarten : In 1863 Konstanz was connected to the Mannheim-Basel-Konstanz trunk line of the Baden State Railways. Together with the freedom of trade proclaimed in Baden in 1862, this triggered an economic boom and large population growth and led to the decision to tear down the city wall. The city park of Konstanz, called Stadtgarten , is an artificially raised area immediately south of the Dominican Island . The backfill took place from 1863 with ruins of the city wall. The area is around 2.7 hectares . The site of the city garden was originally to be built upon , at the request of the then mayor Max Stromeyer . After his resignation, however, this plan was rejected. The city garden was opened in 1879.
- Herosé-Park : On the other side of the Rhine, in Petershausen am Seerhein, is the Herosé-Park, which was created in the eastern part of the site of the former Herosé textile factory .
- Hoerlé-Park : Located in the Staad district of Constance . It extends over a length of approx. 600 meters along the shores of Lake Constance and has a size of approx. 0.5 km². There are u. a. a playground, a lawn and the opportunity to swim in Lake Constance. The park was donated by a Huguenot family. After the death of the entrepreneur Eugène Hoerlé (1861–1941), the park area was incorporated into the non-profit “Hoerlé Pahud Foundation”, whose aim is to preserve the park for the general public. The foundation has leased the park to the city of Konstanz.
- In the Paradies district there is the Hussenstein, a large boulder with an inscription that commemorates the Czech church reformer Jan Hus and his companion Hieronymus von Prag . These were sentenced to death for heresy at the Council of Constance and, according to tradition, burned at the place of the memorial stone. Financed by donations, the stone was laid in 1863 at the end of an avenue. Every year on July 6th, the anniversary of Hus's death, a memorial service is held here. The city of Constance also takes part in the Hus memorial ceremony in Prague.
- A cycle of paintings by Johannes Grützke below the balcony commemorates the Baden Revolution and Friedrich Hecker's appeal .
- Two memorial stones in German and Hebrew on the Jewish cemetery , part of the main cemetery in Konstanz on Wollmatinger Strasse, commemorate a synagogue fire in 1936 and the burial of the Torah scrolls, as well as the final destruction of the synagogue by SA men during the November pogrom in 1938 .
- A memorial plaque in the synagogue room of a Jewish commercial building at 19 Sigismundstrasse informs about the destruction of the Jewish community and its place of worship
- In the vicinity of the former synagogue location, an obelisk commemorates the Jews murdered by the Nazis.
- In front of various houses in the city, Stolpersteine (brass plates embedded in the floor) by the artist Gunter Demnig have been remembering the citizens of Konstanz who were deported, murdered or fled during the National Socialist regime and who lived or worked there. In addition, the lives of the victims were researched, documented and revealed the actions of the perpetrators and the traumatisation and disadvantage of family members and descendants. Victim groups were Jews, politically persecuted, people in the resistance, victims of the T4 / “euthanasia” campaign, religiously persecuted, Sinti, homosexuals and deserters.
- In the Suso-Gymnasium on Neuhauser Strasse , a plaque commemorates the Catholic priest and pacifist Max Josef Metzgers , who was executed in 1944 for his activities.
- At the Schwedenschanze there is a bronze bust in memory of Georg Elser , who was arrested at the border fence shortly before the unsuccessful assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler in Munich's Bürgerbräukeller while fleeing to Switzerland .
- The Riesenberg Chapel (114 chapel) on the top of the Riesenberg was inaugurated on August 30, 1925 ( 6th Baden Infantry Regiment "Kaiser Friedrich III." No. 114 , which was stationed in Konstanz in the Jäger barracks. The names of the 3,200 fallen are recorded on oak boards. Among the soldiers of the 6th Baden Infantry Regiment Kaiser Friedrich III. No. 114 were also volunteers from Switzerland. ). It commemorates the fallen of the First World War of the
The largest cemetery in Constance is the main cemetery . The Jewish cemetery (Konstanz) is located on the site of the main cemetery . Other cemeteries are Allmannsdorfer Friedhof , Wollmatinger Friedhof, Litzelstetter Friedhof and the Konstanz-Dettingen cemetery.
Constance is the seat of the Southwest German Philharmonic . Other musical institutions are: the Concerto Constanz chamber orchestra , the Jazzclub Konstanz e. V., the University Orchestra, two big bands, several brass music clubs and the Symphonic Choir Constance, the vocal ensemble Constance, the Bach Choir, the Chamber Choir, the University Choir, the Jazz Choir Constance, the female choir zoff voices, dezibella -Konstanzer female choir, several male choirs, male choirs, a senior choir, a singers' association, a shanty choir and a gay and lesbian choir. The Niederburg fanfare train, founded in 1980, is the city's oldest fanfare train that still exists.
The chamber opera has been performed in the courtyard of the town hall every August for around 20 years .
The Wollmatinger Ried nature reserve is located near Constance and is one of the most important resting and wintering areas for migratory birds . A second monument is the Teufelstisch , a rock needle under the surface of the Überlinger See , which is in front of the wall in front of Wallhausen .
- The traditional costume association Alt-Konstanz keeps the memory of the clothes of the wealthy Constance bourgeoisie around 1850 alive. The women wear the typical golden wheel hood of the Lake Constance area made of bobbin lace .
Carnival ( Fasnet ) is celebrated annually in January / February . The year above, the “Blätzlebuebe fountain” on Blätzleplatz near Hussenstrasse is reminiscent of a striking carnival beer from the “Konschdanzer Fasnet”. Traditional Konschdanzer Fasnetlieder are sung in Alemannic dialect.
On a Tuesday in January or February, the Carnival session (Konstanz Carnival from the Council) takes place with 800 costumed spectators. It is broadcast by SWR / SR television on the third television program. The text contributions are more or less in Konstanz Alemannic, but are seen throughout Germany.
On the Wednesday before Shrovetide Sunday at 8:00 pm, the “Community of Masked Associations and Guilds in Constance” will be held between Schnetztor and Obermarkt. This is also the start of the Konstanz Carnival. The train route runs over the streets Hussenstraße, Kanzleistraße, Tirolergasse, Münzgasse, Wessenbergstraße to the Obermarkt. Around 2500 mask wearers from Konstanz, Allensbach , Reichenau and Überlingen take part. "Butze" is the Middle High German word for terrifying figure.
At 1:00 p.m. on Schmotzige Dunschtig , the Jacobin Tribunal of the Jacobins Constance takes place on the Obermarkt in the open with around 1500 spectators. The respective "accused" comes from the region. It's a foolish trial in the Jacobin tradition. After that, at 3:00 p.m., the “Laugelegumperzunft Konstanz” will erect the fool's tree on the Obermarkt. At 7:00 p.m. the parade in the Niederburg starts at Inselgasse / corner of Schreibergasse and Rechtsgasse. The move takes you via Konradigasse, Klostergasse, Rheingasse, Münsterplatz, Wessenbergstraße and ends at Stephansplatz. The participants are around 3,000 students from eleven schools in Konstanz. All are dressed in white (night) shirts. Six fanfare trains bring atmosphere to the train. Four to eight larger than life white shirtglonker dolls (Gole von Goliath) are carried along. During the parade, the school groups show around 52 banners on which typical teacher-student conflicts are depicted in ridiculous verses.
This is followed by the big parade on Carnival Sunday at 1:00 p.m., around two hours long, with around 4,000 participants in around 75 groups and with up to 25,000 visitors. The Zugweg leads from Lutherplatz over the Laube, Stephansplatz, Fischmarkt, Marktstätte, Rosgartenstraße to the Holy Trinity Church.
At the beginning of June 2009, after a decade-long break, the water sports event International Lake Constance Week was held again in Konstanz for the first time . Building on its more than 100-year-old tradition, the Lake Constance Week is a social platform on which, in addition to the exhibition mile with presentations of new developments in water sports and propulsion, there is also a harbor festival with cultural and sporting events - sailing regattas, rowing competitions, water ski cups, classic car pit stops, harbor concerts and shows - there.
On the second weekend in June there is a large two-day cross-border flea market. It stretches across Kreuzlinger Strasse, Laube, and the banks of the Rhine to the new Rhine bridge. 1,000 dealers present and 80,000 visitors come. As a special feature, there is a night flea market from Saturday to Sunday.
On the second weekend in August, the Seenachtfest ( called Fantastical in Kreuzlingen ) will be held at the same time as the neighboring Swiss town of Kreuzlingen . The crowning glory is a large fireworks display that is fired from gravel ships on the lake - alternately from both cities and usually together at the finale. In addition, tens of thousands of visitors from the wider area regularly come.
In addition, there are: the wine festival in July and many district festivals in the summer months.
The Christmas market and New Year's Eve swimming take place in December. The DLRG New Year's Eve swim for sport and rescue divers and swimmers in neoprene suits leads at the end of December in around 5 degrees Celsius cold water over 1.5 kilometers from the Konstanz gondola port under the old Rhine bridge to the Rheinstrandbad. About 200 swimmers take part.
Konstanz belongs to the Hegau-Bodensee transport association and, due to its location on the border, is an end point for long-distance transport of the Deutsche Bahn and the Swiss Federal Railways. The cross-border local rail transport is carried out by the Swiss company Thurbo , a subcontractor of SBB . The completed motorway connection on the Swiss side means that Konstanz is well connected to Switzerland in terms of car traffic. On the German side, a corresponding connection with the widening of the B33 to four lanes is under construction. Konstanz is connected to the northern shore of Lake Constance by a frequent ferry. This connection primarily serves local commuters and tourists.
In the inner city of Constance's old town, access to the lake is hindered by the historical rail route between the old town and the lake and by a busy road ring that surrounds the old town.
Konstanz has a commercial airfield , the nearest passenger airports are the German airport Friedrichshafen (30 km by ferry), the Swiss airport St. Gallen-Altenrhein (40 km), the Swiss airport Zurich- Kloten (75 km) and the Stuttgart airport (150 km) km) and Basel-Mulhouse Airport (150 km), in the border triangle between Germany, Switzerland and France.
An airport in Constance was founded in 1910 . In 1919 Konstanz was the first southern German city with regular public passenger flights to Berlin , and later to Munich and Stuttgart . The number of passengers in 1923 was twelve times as high as two years earlier. Constance developed into a "main traffic base" for the future air traffic network. From 1925 to 1940, Deutsche Lufthansa operated a scheduled flight between Konstanz and Frankfurt am Main .
Road / ferry
The federal highway 33 connects Konstanz with Radolfzell and on to Singen , from there connection to the German motorway network via the federal highway 81 towards Stuttgart . The Konstanz – Meersburg car ferry connects Konstanz with Meersburg , the northern shore of the lake and the B 33 / B 30 with Ravensburg and Ulm . Following the B 33, the Swiss Autobahn 7 leads in the direction of Frauenfeld , Zurich and the main road 13 in the direction of Rorschach , Chur into Ticino and in the other direction Schaffhausen . The Swiss main road 1 leads via Zurich and Bern to Geneva , the main road 16 , which begins at Gottlieber Zoll, leads via Wil and Wildhaus to Buchs .
There are several long-distance bus routes to and from Konstanz, including to Berlin via Munich, Nuremberg and Leipzig.
In local rail transport, the S-Bahn- like train service " Seehas " connects Konstanz with Radolfzell , Singen and Engen . In Konstanz itself, the Konstanz train station and the Petershausen, Fürstenberg and Wollmatingen stops are served. An additional Seehas stop at the bus node "Sternenplatz" is planned for the foreseeable future. The Konstanz train station is the terminus of the Hochrheinbahn . The station is served by regional trains (IRE and RE) from Karlsruhe , which are operated by DB REGIO AG and which run under the name "Schwarzwaldexpress" or "Schwarzwaldbahn". A daily pair of intercity trains to Hamburg and in the summer months also to Stralsund was discontinued in December 2014; since then there is only one intercity train from the direction of Cologne / Emden on Friday and Saturday to Constance, and on Saturday and Sunday in the opposite direction. In Singen there is a connection to Intercity trains to Zurich and Stuttgart . Since December 2017, there have been direct IC connections between Konstanz and Stuttgart that run twice a day.
The "Swiss train station" next to the Konstanz train station is the direct link to the Swiss railway network. In long-distance traffic, the SBB InterRegio 75 connects Constance with Zurich and Lucerne every hour . In regional traffic , there has been a direct RegioExpress connection to Romanshorn and St. Gallen since 2015 , which runs every hour in 2018; there are also regular trains of the St. Gallen S-Bahn to Weinfelden (line S14).
The city belongs to the transport association Hegau-Bodensee . There are express bus routes to Friedrichshafen (city center and airport) and Ravensburg several times a week . The bus network of Stadtwerke Konstanz connects the districts on the left and right of the Rhine every 15 or 30 minutes during the day. It is also a feeder to the Staad-Meersburg ferry and to the ship connections to Überlingen from Wallhausen. The neighboring town of Kreuzlingen is also connected by a cross-border bus line.
All year round, catamaran ships run every hour to Friedrichshafen (around 45 minutes), the car ferry from Konstanz-Staad to Meersburg and ships from Wallhausen to Überlingen . In summer and, to a limited extent , in winter, there are other boat connections that mainly serve tourism. These connect Constance with Meersburg, Lindau, Bregenz , Überlingen, Schaffhausen , Radolfzell, Kreuzlingen and the island of Mainau .
From the port of Constance, there is a private passenger boat trip in the summer on a circular route to Constance-Seestrasse, Bodensee-Therme, the Swiss Bottighofen and back to Constance-Hafen.
In May 2004, the former Baden-Württemberg Minister of Transport Ulrich Müller stated that, thanks to the acquisition of the Bodensee-Schiffsbetriebe, the Konstanz public utility was the most efficient and lucrative inland shipping company in Central Europe and that it offered a range of local public transport that was better than that of the state capital.
Economy and Infrastructure
Business and science location
Over 3,300 companies with more than 33,500 employees make up the science and business location Konstanz. There are 10,000 employees in the manufacturing sector, while there are around 23,500 in the service sector. Many Swiss companies set up a branch or subsidiary in Constance due to its proximity to the border.
Major employers in Konstanz are:
The city of Konstanz has its own operations, Bodenseeforum, disposal operations, technical operations and the cultural sector. The Stadtwerke Konstanz GmbH operate buses, ferries, water supply, energy supply and the Bodensee enterprises (BSB). The Konstanz waterworks is located in Konstanz-Staad . The drinking water is taken from Lake Constance from a depth of 40 meters and has a temperature of 6 ° C. It goes through three microfilters and a sand filter. Small amounts of iron and ozone are required for cleaning and a small amount of chlorine dioxide to protect the network. The purified water is pumped into three elevated tanks. In an emergency, Kreuzlingen can also be supplied. Konstanz uses 17 million liters every day.
The science sector with the University of Konstanz and the University of Konstanz Technology, Economy and Design are located in Konstanz.
The Konstanz health association operates the clinic and the Vincentius Orthopedic Specialist Clinic.
Communication and information technology. Siemens is represented by Siemens Logistics with the areas of logistics for mail sorting systems, parcels, air freight and flight luggage.
The media industry with the Südkurier and the district office are located in Konstanz.
Biotechnology (GATC Biotech), mechanical engineering as well as regenerative and alternative energies ( Sunways , 1993–2014) are also represented.
Tourism as well as meetings and congresses are also an important economic factor. In 2011, almost 280,000 travelers visited Konstanz with an average length of stay of 2.3 days. The number of day visitors in 2009 was 6.1 million people.
The Hotel Barbarossa became a hotel and restaurant at the beginning of the 20th century and is located on the Obermarkt. The council restaurants are in the council building at the harbor.
Authorities and courts
Konstanz is the seat of the district of Konstanz , the Chamber of Industry and Commerce and the Chamber of Crafts Hochrhein-Bodensee. The city also has a district court , a regional court , a social court and a public prosecutor's office . Konstanz is the seat of a Federal Employment Agency that has been responsible for the districts of Lake Constance, Ravensburg and Konstanz since 2012. Konstanz is also the seat of the dean's office of Konstanz of the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the church district of Konstanz of the Evangelical Church in Baden .
Constance on the left and right of the Rhine is connected by several bridges over the Seerhein . They are in the following order down the Rhine:
- Rheinbrücke Konstanz , also known as the Old Rhine Bridge, which directs road and rail traffic on the right bank of the Rhine into the city center.
- Fahrradbrücke (Konstanz) , a bridge for pedestrians and cyclists.
- Schänzlebrücke , also known as the Neue Rheinbrücke, a bridge for long-distance traffic on the federal highway 33 towards the Swiss motorway.
Neighborhood with Kreuzlingen
The agglomeration of Konstanz-Kreuzlingen has a population of around 115,000 (2005). Many people in Constance have their purchases in the neighboring Swiss city or in its vicinity. Conversely, the people of Kreuzlingen often get their daily needs in Constance. Kreuzlingen and Konstanz work together on some occasions, for example the Seenachtfest , the GEWA trade fair, and the two-day flea market .
In 1831, the Tägermoos treaty stipulated the border course as following the former outer moat. The border was later recognizable by boundary stones and garden fences. According to the border treaty of September 21, 1938, a high fence was erected on the Swiss side in autumn 1939 from the main toll to Wiesenstrasse and from the port toll to the shore of Lake Constance . In addition, in the winter of 1939/1940 the German Wehrmacht built a three-meter-high fence with an incline and barbed wire (Wehrmacht fence) from the Seerhein via the Gottlieber Zoll to the Emmishofer Zoll. From May 1940, when the invasion of France began, the border was closed. After the war, the Wehrmacht fence was removed by one meter. The fence was removed during the construction of the motorway toll and is only preserved as a memorial at the border crossing to Tägermoos. The fence towards the lake was also dismantled and the border was marked by the works of art by Johannes Dörflinger .
Since Switzerland is not part of the European Monetary Union , the two cities still have different currencies, the euro (€, EUR) and the Swiss franc (Fr., CHF). There is also a border fence (partially dismantled), border crossings, customs controls and restrictions on the movement of goods and money. Since Switzerland joined the Schengen area in December 2008 , identity checks have only been carried out in exceptional cases. However, valid identification documents must be carried when crossing the border. The border fences were abolished.
In the post-war period, Kreuzlingen was a shopping city for the people of Constance. Today Konstanz is the shopping city for the Swiss border region.
The closure of the German-Swiss border in response to the COVID-19 pandemic could be seen most clearly between Konstanz and Kreuzlingen . Couples and families met every day at this border crossing in order to keep in contact with one another over high fences. After the protest against the border closings in April 2020 became louder, politicians from both countries also publicly called for the easing. On May 13th, the German Interior Minister Horst Seehofer finally announced that border controls are expected to end on June 15th.
Kreuzlingen and Konstanz jointly built the Bodensee-Arena , an ice rink. There are also common supply facilities (electricity network, gas supply, sewage network, bus transport).
Kreuzlingen has its wastewater treated in the Konstanz sewage works and participated in its construction. Both cities have their own waterworks, but they are connected by an emergency water pipe. Constance city buses drive into Kreuzlingen and are connected to the city bus network. Joint exercises and, if necessary, joint operations are carried out by the Konstanz and Kreuzlingen fire brigades. Konstanz delivered gas to Kreuzlingen from 1869 to 1937 and since 1982, with an interruption in between.
Border crossings (customs)
Zoll Emmishofer Tor only carries out customs formalities during limited opening hours. It connects the two cities of Konstanz and Kreuzlingen.
The Gottlieber Zoll is used in regional traffic between Constance-Paradies, Tägermoos and Gottlieben. Here a section of the border fence 2.5 meters high has been left as a memory. This border fence was erected by the Germans from winter 1939/40 to seal off Germany (to prevent the flow of information via Switzerland to France and to prevent the escape of Jews and the politically persecuted). The Swiss area of Tägermoos , which historically and legally belongs to Konstanz , is still managed today in cooperation with the Swiss authorities of Konstanz.
Customs Kreuzlinger Tor has been closed to motorized traffic on a trial basis since the end of 2013 and since Easter 2014 to calm traffic in the surrounding residential areas.
Pedestrian / bicycle crossings
The Little Venice border crossing is located directly on the lakeshore and is only open to pedestrians and cyclists: the border fence was erected in autumn 2006 in the area of the 280-meter-long section of the German-Swiss border on the Bay of Constance ( Little Venice ) between Constance and Kreuzlingen demolished, but the border is monitored by cameras and patrols. Instead of the fence , the Konstanz / Kreuzlingen art border was inaugurated directly on the border (one half on German, the other half on Swiss territory) with 22 eight-meter-high sculptures by the artist Johannes Dörflinger .
The Wiesenstrasse border crossing is only open to pedestrians and cyclists. The street bears the same name in Konstanzer and Kreuzlinger area.
- The Südkurier is a regional daily newspaper based in Constance for the regions of north-western Lake Constance , the Upper Rhine and the Black Forest .
- seemoz - online magazine on Lake Constance: critical - unruly - informative. Worth reading from culture and politics for the Lake Constance area and friendly foreign countries. Appears on weekdays.
- Konstanzer Anzeiger, publisher: Anzeiger Südwest GmbH ( Südkurier )
- Official Journal: since January 2018, publisher: City of Konstanz
- akzent - The magazine for the large city of Lake Constance. Ed .: akzent Verlags GmbH (belongs to the Schwäbische Zeitung publishing house , Schwäbischer Verlag ).
- New Times - Russian-German newspaper in Konstanz for all groups of Russian-speaking population, current news from the cultural life of the Lake Constance region, integration issues, religion and education. Ed .: Tatjana Reichert / Verein Neue Zeiten e. V./Verein Russian School "Znaika" e. V. in Constance.
- Russische Zeitung - newspaper of the Lake Constance region for German-Russian cultural understanding, maintaining the Russian language and culture, forum for Russian speakers. Ed .: Alina Titova / Russischer Club e. V. Konstanz, Russian newspaper.
- QLT. say: [cult]. Kultblatt since 1979. Ed .: Qlt media UG (limited liability)
Former publications based in Konstanz
- The football magazine kicker was founded by Walther Bensemann in Konstanz and initially published there.
- Konstanzer Stadtmagazin, publisher: Südkurier (discontinued in March 2007)
- E1NS - The limitless magazine for Constance | Kreuzlingen was published 2010–2012 in Konstanz and the neighboring Kreuzlingen as a fortnightly magazine.
Radio and television
Konstanz is the seat of the local radio station, Radio Seefunk , and there are broadcasting studios from SWR Bodenseeradio and Radio 7 on site. The Freie Radio Radio Wellenbrecher has existed since 2005 . The student body is represented with its own media by Uni-Radio Knatterton and the student television campus TV and Fischersbraut. The regional TV station Regio TV Bodensee is also represented with a studio in Constance.
Constancy in films
- Eva Mattes and Sebastian Bezzel investigated as Klara Blum and Kai Perlmann in the ARD crime series Tatort from 2002 to 2016 in Konstanz and the Lake Constance region.
The University of Konstanz , founded in 1966, is the youngest and smallest of the nine so-called elite universities with the subjects of natural sciences, humanities, law, economics and administrative sciences. Furthermore, there has been a technical college since 1971, today a college for technology, business and design, the earliest predecessor of which, an engineering school, dates back to 1906. As a result of the reformed Baden-Württemberg University Act , the University of Applied Sciences has officially been called the University of Konstanz Technology, Business and Design (HTWG) or the official international name Konstanz University of Applied Sciences since 2006 . The Technical Academy Konstanz gGmbH TAK is affiliated to the HTWG . The Institute for Scientific Further Education was named “Best German University for Further Education” by the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft in a nationwide competition. The Konstanz Technical Academy is located in the “Villa Rheinburg” seminar and conference center in the immediate vicinity of the HTWG campus. Since 2012 the Nürtingen-Geislingen University of Economics and Environment has had a location in Constance with the Bodensee Campus . The Allensbach University (successor to the Wissenschaftlichen Hochschule Lahr (WHL) ) has its headquarters in Constance since 2015 .
There are 43 day-care centers for children in Constance, including kindergartens, day-care centers, houses, day-care centers and crèches.
For school education, the city maintains seven primary schools (Allmannsdorf, Dingelsdorf, primary school in Haidelmoos, primary school Im Wallgut, Litzelstetten, Wollmatingen and Sonnenhalde primary school), four primary and secondary schools (Berchenschule Wollmatingen, Gebhard primary and secondary school, primary and secondary school at Stephansplatz and elementary and secondary school with Werkrealschule Dettingen).
A secondary and secondary school (girls' secondary and secondary school in Zoffingen), another secondary school (Theodor-Heuss secondary school) and the Geschwister-Scholl-Schule founded in 1976 , a school association that includes the types of secondary school, secondary school, grammar school and a cross-school type Orientation level (grades 5/6) included. The three school trains partly coordinate the content of the lesson. It is also possible to switch between trains in the first few years.
There are five grammar schools , the Heinrich Suso grammar school founded in 1604 (ancient language), the Alexander von Humboldt grammar school founded in 1830 (mathematical and natural science, modern language, literary and artistic, social science) and the Ellenrieder grammar school established in 1859 (modern language) , the business high school and, since 1970, the technical high school at the Zeppelin trade school.
There is also a music school. The district of Konstanz is responsible for the Wessenberg School - Commercial School (with vocational school, vocational school, vocational college, BVJ and business school ) and the Zeppelin trade school (with vocational schools, vocational schools, technical schools and technical high school ) as well as the Rainbow School for the physically and mentally handicapped , the school for the sick and the school kindergarten for the speech-impaired Konstanz. There is also a special school (Comenius School).
Several private schools complete the educational offer in Konstanz. There is an evening secondary school , an elderly care school run by the vocational training center and the Arbeiterwohlfahrt, the organic cosmetics school Dr. Gümbel Konstanz-Meersburg, the Free Active School for Lively Learning (Elementary School), the Free Waldorf School Konstanz, the Humboldt Institute for German as a Foreign Language, the Inlingua Language School, the Art School Academy for Graphics and Design, the School for Physiotherapy Konstanz GmbH, a special school kindergarten for the physically handicapped, the Säntis school for educational assistance and the schools for sick and child care at the Klinikum Konstanz. Konstanz is the seat of a main office of the Volkshochschule Konstanz-Singen e. V.
Sports and leisure facilities
Constance with its districts has seven baths.
The Bodensee-Therme Konstanz is a thermal bath that opened on July 22, 2007 . The construction costs were over 25 million euros. It has a thermal bath with a children's adventure world, a sauna world, wellness facilities and an outdoor sports pool (only in summer). With 384,752 visitors in 2014, it is the most popular pool in Constance.
The indoor pool on the Seerhein is used for school and club sports. The Rheinstrandbad is a paid outdoor pool and had 17,168 visitors in 2014.
Other bathrooms are:
- Schwaketenbad (179,782 visitors in 2014 - burned down on July 4, 2015, start of reconstruction in December 2017)
- Dingelsdorf lido (approx.45,600 visitors in 2014)
- Strandbad Horn (approx. 140,800 visitors in 2014)
- Litzelstetten lido (approx. 22,700 visitors in 2014)
- Wallhausen lido (approx. 73,700 visitors in 2014)
Konstanz is the first city in Germany with an innovative street lighting system. Citizens in the Allmannsdorf district can switch on the street lights at the push of a button after 11 p.m. The LED lighting goes off automatically after 15 minutes.
The patron saint of the city is Pelagius of Aemona .
An asteroid, which was discovered by the Czech Kleť observatory , has been named after the city .
If the visibility is good, the following locations allow a view of the city and the Alps. There is a good view at low humidity and low air pollution, e.g. B. with hair dryer .
- Tower of the Konstanz Minster (April to October)
- Fürstenberg in the Fürstenberg district
- Tower of the youth hostel in Allmannsdorf (only open to the public a few days a year)
- Bismarck tower on the Raiteberg
- Purren, the highest point in Litzelststetten
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- The section introduces itself.
- Section Constance of the German Alpine Club.
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