Reichenau (District of Constance)
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Freiburg|
|Height :||402 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||12.72 km 2|
|Residents:||5307 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||417 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||78479|
|Primaries :||07534, 07531|
|License plate :||KN|
|Community key :||08 3 35 066|
|Address of the
|Münsterplatz 2 (Mittelzell)
|Mayor :||Wolfgang Customs|
|Location of the municipality of Reichenau in the district of Constance|
Extension and structure of the municipal area
The municipality of Reichenau is made up of a total of six or seven separate areas or districts , depending on whether Schopflen on the Reichenauer Damm is viewed as a separate area from the island. The five remaining parts of the area are on the Bodanrück peninsula :
The island of Reichenau is located in the Untersee , the westernmost part of Lake Constance . It has an area of 444 hectares and a population of around 3,200 (2008 estimate). It is connected to the mainland by the Reichenauer Damm built in 1838. The island is the historical, cultural and administrative center of the municipality. It has three districts. However, these do not have any pronounced settlement centers, but are rather scattered settlements . For this reason, other hamlets and detached houses and groups of houses were previously named within these island areas (see island article ). The island districts are:
- Oberzell in the southeast
- Mittelzell in the center of the island
- Niederzell in the northwest
The Reichenauer Damm, built in 1838 and covering an area of 18 hectares, connects the island of Reichenau to the mainland via the Schopflen castle ruins on its south side (which had previously been built on a shoal ). The state road L 221 Konstanz-Reichenau ( Pirminstraße ) runs along it as a 1300 meter long poplar avenue. Only the Bruckgraben, a 10 meter wide and 95 meter long passage for boats, interrupts the dam. The low Reichenau bridge crosses the Bruckgraben, which connects the Rheinsee in the south with the Gnadensee in the north, to the island of Reichenau. Immediately in front of the Reichenauer Bridge, on the north side of the street, there is a statue of Saint Pirmin . The moss areas north and south of Reichenauer Damm are also included in this part of the area.
The most important part of the mainland area of the municipality, with an area of 261 hectares and a population of 1900 (estimate 2008), adjoins the Reichenauer Damm in the east, which begins at the Kindlesbild chapel. It was only with the construction of the railway in the 1860s that the first residential areas were built here, namely the station and the guard houses . Due to the limitation of construction activity on the island, construction activity in the last few decades has mainly taken place in this area of the municipality. The following districts are here:
- the forest settlement in the west with 570 inhabitants (estimate 2008). In the beginning there was a station keeper's house called Im Gaisbühl .
- the extensive Lindenbühl settlement in the east, which has grown rapidly in recent times, with 1139 inhabitants (originally houses in the station area ). The settlement has grown together with the Eichbühl settlement , a district of the Konstanz district of Wollmatingen , which adjoins to the east. The border between Lindenbühl and Eichbühl runs roughly along the Illenau-Weg.
- the Center for Psychiatry Reichenau (ZfP) with 200 inhabitants. This was founded in 1913 as a psychiatric sanatorium and nursing home in Baden , where combined psychotherapy and social psychiatry were practiced. Under National Socialist rule, compulsory sterilization was carried out from 1934 and it was decided to close the institution in 1940. By March 1941, the institution was completely evacuated as part of Action T4 . 508 patients were taken to the Nazi killing center in Grafeneck on the gray buses and murdered there. Today a memorial - on the clinic premises in front of house 20 - commemorates the victims of the killing. As early as April 1941, the newly founded National Political Educational Institution (Napola) Reichenau started training in the former institution buildings , which existed until 1945. In 1949 the psychiatric clinic was reopened. On January 1, 1996, the Reichenau State Psychiatric Hospital was converted into an institution with legal capacity under public law with the current name. The center has been an academic teaching hospital at the University of Konstanz since 2000 .
Occasionally the facility is counted as part of the Lindenbühl district in the broader sense.
The Gewann Schlafbach is an approximately 242 hectare fake exclave in the northwest, on the northern shores of the Gnadensee, between the municipality of Radolfzell and the municipality of Allensbach . Here is the small district of the same name:
- the settlement of Schlafbach, 9 residents (originally a railway keeper's house )
Another fake, uninhabited exclave is the Zugwiesen corridor on the north bank of the Seerhein , also a winner. The area with an approximately triangular floor plan and an area of around 54 hectares is surrounded by the industrial area of Constance , namely by the Wollmatinger Ried in the west (delimited by the Gottlieber Weg ) and the Unterlohn district in the east. In the south the area is limited by the Seerhein. The municipality of Tägerwilen (Switzerland) and the district of Tägermoos lie on the opposite south bank of the Seerhein, which is 100 to 300 meters wide . The exclave belongs to the Wollmatinger Ried nature reserve .
A real exclave is a mountainous forest strip over 3000 meters long and 50 to 650 meters wide between the municipality of Allensbach (district Hegne ) and the Constance district of Dettingen around the elevations, from west to east: Gockelsberg, Junisberg, Schönenberg (499.6 m) and Brückleberg (514.7 m, on the border with the Hegne district of the municipality of Allensbach), with an area of 125 hectares. A small meadow area in the west is also part of this exclave, namely the Gewann In Blenden , immediately east of the Gockelberg.
The Gewann Galgenacker is 900 meters long and around 70 to 190 meters deep shoreline of the Gnadensee opposite the island, which is bounded in the north by the railway line and includes this in the eastern part. The name Galgenacker comes from the former function as the place of execution in Reichenau, since no death sentences were allowed on the island itself.
- Markelfingen (district, former municipality)
The central mainland part with the forest settlement and Lindenbühl borders in the east on Konstanz ( Wollmatingen ) and in the west on Allensbach ( Hegne ). Schlafbach borders the Allensbach district in the east and Kaltbrunn (both municipality of Allensbach) in the north , and Radolfzell ( Markelfingen ) in the west .
Due to the temperature-equalizing effect of Lake Constance, the positive effects of the Alpine foehn and the resulting high number of sunny days, the climate is particularly mild not only on the island, but also in the neighboring mainland area of Reichenau.
The community of Reichenau was never affected by a community reform or by incorporations.
The community belongs to the agreed administrative community of the city of Konstanz .
The municipal council consists of the elected voluntary councilors and the mayor as chairman. The mayor is entitled to vote in the municipal council.
The local elections on May 26, 2019 in Reichenau led to the following official final result (with comparative figures from previous elections):
|Parties and constituencies||%
|FWR||Free voters Reichenau||38.1||5||37.8||5||36.3||5|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||32.6||5||35.2||5||37.4||5|
|FLN||Free list nature||19.7||3||18.3||3||19.0||3|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||9.7||1||8.7||1||7.3||1|
- 1945–1947: Georg Beck
- 1947–1969: Karl Beck
- 1969–1993: Eduard Reisbeck
- 1993–2009: Volker Steffens
- On October 25, 2009, Wolfgang Zoll was elected mayor for the next eight years and sworn in for this office on February 1, 2010. In the mayoral election on November 12, 2017, he was confirmed in office with 88.98 percent of the valid votes and a voter turnout of 34 percent.
coat of arms
Blazon of the coat of arms awarded by the Ministry of the Interior after final tinging on July 7, 1960: In blue, the bust of an abbot in red bordered silver (white) robe and silver (white) miter with red trimmings and golden (yellow) crosses, in the right a silver one Holding (white) abbot's staff with turned crook, top left a silver (white) shield with a continuous red cross.
Culture and sights
One of the main reasons why UNESCO declared Reichenau Island a World Heritage Site in 2000 is the fact that the buildings of the former Benedictine abbey are still intact , but above all the three Romanesque churches:
- The Minster St. Maria und Markus , the former monastery church in Mittelzell, today a Catholic parish church. Its oldest part was consecrated in 816. It is a three-aisled basilica with an impressive roof structure reminiscent of an upturned ship's hull. The choir dates from the Gothic period . In the western part is the Markus altar, which is said to contain relics of the evangelist Mark.
- The St. George Church in Oberzell was built from 888, it contains Ottonian wall paintings from the 10th century and has been preserved almost unchanged to this day.
- The church of St. Peter and Paul in Niederzell was built in the 11th and 12th centuries, but its origins go back to the 8th century. The organ and the apse are impressive.
- The Protestant Heilig-Geist-Kirche (1963) is not historical, but it is a worth seeing example of church construction in the early 1960s.
- In the south of the island is the Königsegg Castle from the 16th century. The building houses a school for speech therapy and physiotherapy. Theater performances take place in the palace gardens in summer.
- On the Reichenauer Damm in the east of the island is the Schopflen castle ruin with a viewing platform.
- The "Villa Eilandfrieden" on a 24,800 m² property with an English landscape garden was built by the Faber-Castell family in 1905, where the Benedictine abbey until 1540, then the Bishop of Constance until 1576, owned a vineyard. With 120 meters of lakeshore, it is right on Lake Constance. The actress and writer Ellen Delp (1890–1990), who also died here, lived for a time in the castle-like building with 623 m² of living space on three floors .
The Reichenau Museum mainly provides information about the history of the Lake Constance area, the history of the monastery and the building history of the three Romanesque churches, the work of Reichenau artists and the history of the citizens of Reichenau. The exhibition is spread over three museums. The museums are located near the major churches. The old half-timbered house in Mittelzell with the new building next to the old museum. Then the museums Oberzell and Niederzell.
In the Center for Psychiatry Reichenau (ZfP) there is the Psychiatry Museum, a museum about the history of psychiatry in Reichenau.
Next to the minster in Mittelzell is a herb garden which, according to the De cultura hortorum by Walahfrid von der Reichenau , in which he describes the healing properties of various herbs, is said to have existed as early as the 9th century.
A large part of the island is under landscape protection, some areas are also under nature protection. The wetlands near the shore are home to typical animal and plant communities of the Lake Constance region.
Economy and Infrastructure
While Reichenau was a wine-growing region during the monastic era , today vegetable and fruit growing dominates agriculture ; only a few hectares of vineyards are cultivated. In addition, tourism is of course the main source of income for the Reichenau people.
The Center for Psychiatry Reichenau (ZPR) is a specialist hospital and psychiatric nursing home on the mainland above the Radolfzell - Konstanz railway line . The ZPR is an academic teaching hospital at the University of Konstanz .
On the road you can reach Reichenau via the federal road 33 , from which the state road branches off over the dam to the island between Radolfzell and Konstanz in the Reichenau district of Lindenbühl.
The Reichenau train stop is located in the Lindenbühl district. It is located on the Hochrheinbahn ( Basel - Konstanz ) of the Baden main line . In this section, the route is also part of the Black Forest Railway . The Seehas , a connection from Engen - Singen (Hohentwiel) - Radolfzell - Reichenau - Konstanz and on to Kreuzlingen in Switzerland , also operates here . With the ships of the White Fleet there are connections to all places on the Untersee and down the Rhine to Schaffhausen . Almost all places on Lake Constance can be reached via Konstanz.
The district savings bank Reichenau is based in the village.
Sons and daughters of the church
- Romuald Weltin (1723–1805), Benedictine, imperial abbot of Ochsenhausen Abbey
- Gideon Spicker (1840–1912), religious philosopher
- Georg Beck (1890–1968), born in Oberzell, local politician, district administrator in the Überlingen district
- Ingo Maurer (1932–2019), designer
Personalities who have lived and / or are living in the community
- Saint Pirmin (around 670–753), in 724 he founded the Mittelzell monastery on the island of Reichenau
- Walahfrid von der Reichenau , called Strabo (* 808/809; † August 18, 849), Benedictine, poet, botanist and diplomat.
- Wolfgang von Regensburg (around 924–994), Bishop of Regensburg, educated in Reichenau
- Hermann von Reichenau , also Hermann the Lahme , Hermannus Contractus , (1013-1054), monk, scientist, composer
- Amalie Bensinger (1809–1889), German painter .
- Robert Poetzelberger (1856–1930), Austrian painter, sculptor and art professor
- Lilly Braumann-Honsell (1876–1954), South German author, sailor and traveler through Europe, North Africa and North America.
- Guido Andris (1879–1974), Roman Catholic priest
- Ellen Delp (1890–1990), German actress
- Dirk Pette (* 1933), biochemist and professor for physiological chemistry at the University of Konstanz
- Heinz Karst (1914–2002), German brigadier general
- Karl-Eugen Schröder (1937–2012), German endocrinologist
- Werner Brändle (* 1941), Protestant theologian and professor for systematic theology and religious education at the University of Hildesheim
- Gert Zang (* 1941), historian
- Alfred Heizmann (1949–2017), German teacher, dialect poet and carnival speaker.
- Alexander Bürkle (* 1957), human medicine specialist and university professor for molecular toxicology
- Claudius Marx (* 1959), German lawyer and university professor
- Katja Seizinger (* 1972), German ski racer and entrepreneur
- Andreas Jung (* 1975), politician ( CDU ). He has been a member of the German Bundestag since 2005 and has been deputy chairman of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group there since 2018 .
- Wolfgang Erdmann: The Reichenau in Lake Constance. History and art. 11th edition, reviewed by Bernd Konrad and expanded by a chapter on the late Gothic choir, Königstein i. Ts. (The Blue Books) 2004, ISBN 978-3-7845-1222-8 . (With English and French résumés.)
- Heinz Finke : Island walks - Werd, Love Island, Reichenau, Mainau, Dominican Island, Lindau. Rosgarten-Verlag / Südkurier GmbH, Konstanz 1990, ISBN 3-87685-122-X .
- Theo Keller, Monika Spicker-Beck , Hans Ulrich Wepfer: Reichenau - beautiful island in Lake Constance . [Translated by: Claire Gordon. Franz. By Nicole Gellrich. Ital. by Salvatore Meli]. Stadler, Konstanz 1992, ISBN 3-7977-0263-9 . (Text in German, English, French and Italian)
- Baden-Württemberg State Monuments Office and Karlsruhe State Image Office (ed.): Reichenau Island - Unesco World Heritage Site; Nature - culture - history . [Editor: Meike Habicht; Frank Thomas Lang]. Staatsanzeiger-Verlag, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-929981-31-9 .
- Website of the municipality of Reichenau
- Nomination of the MONASTIC ISLAND REICHENAU IN LAKE CONSTANCE for Inclusion on the World Heritage List (English)
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- LeoBW Landeskundliches Royal Information System Baden-Wuerttemberg: Reichenau
- The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality. Volume VI: Freiburg administrative region. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-17-007174-2 . Pp. 758-761.
- Thomas Zoch: From everyday life in the soul abyss. In: Südkurier of May 2, 2013, p. 27
- Archived copy ( memento of the original from March 10, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Remembrance day for the victims of National Socialism
- Heinz Faulstich : From care for the insane to 'euthanasia'. History of psychiatry in Baden until 1945.
- www.medizinfo.de (PDF; 370 kB)
- Hans-Jürgen Seelos, Klaus Hoffmann (Ed.): 100 years of opening of today's Center for Psychiatry Reichenau , Psychiatrie-Verlag, Cologne, 2013, ISBN 3-88414-536-3 . (Corrections, addicts, dementia, National Socialist era). Discussed with Beate Schierle: When the region's psychiatry lost its innocence. In: Südkurier of August 16, 2013.
- Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office, 2019 local election results
- Former Reichenau mayor Volker Steffens dies while driving on the B33 , Südkurier , November 6, 2014
- Description of the coat of arms at Discover regional studies online
- Museum Reichenau . In: Bad weather tips . Special issue of the Bodensee Ferienzeitung. Edition 2/2009. Südkurier GmbH Medienhaus, Konstanz 2009, p. 7.
- Thomas Zoch: Holiday in a double pack. In: Südkurier of August 2, 2017, p. 25.