Büsingen on the Upper Rhine

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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the municipality of Büsingen am Hochrhein
Büsingen on the Upper Rhine
Map of Germany, position of the municipality Büsingen on the Upper Rhine highlighted

Coordinates: 47 ° 42 '  N , 8 ° 41'  E

Basic data
State : Baden-Württemberg
Administrative region : Freiburg
County : Constancy
Height : 395 m above sea level NHN
Area : 7.62 km 2
Residents: 1491 (December 31, 2018)
Population density : 196 inhabitants per km 2
Postcodes : 78266 (Germany), 8238 (Switzerland)Template: Infobox municipality in Germany / maintenance / zip code contains text
Primaries : 07734 (Germany)Template: Infobox municipality in Germany / maintenance / area code contains text
License plate : BÜS
Community key : 08 3 35 015
Address of the
municipal administration:
Junkerstrasse 86
78266 Büsingen am Hochrhein

Junkerstrasse 86
8238 Büsingen
Website : www.buesingen.de
Mayor : Markus Möll
Location of the municipality of Büsingen on the Upper Rhine in the district of Constance
Bodensee Bodenseekreis Landkreis Waldshut Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis Landkreis Tuttlingen Landkreis Sigmaringen Aach (Hegau) Allensbach Bodman-Ludwigshafen Büsingen am Hochrhein Stockach Eigeltingen Engen Gaienhofen Gailingen am Hochrhein Gottmadingen Hilzingen Hohenfels (bei Stockach) Konstanz Mainau Moos (am Bodensee) Mühlhausen-Ehingen Mühlingen Öhningen Orsingen-Nenzingen Radolfzell am Bodensee Reichenau (Landkreis Konstanz) Reichenau (Landkreis Konstanz) Reichenau (Landkreis Konstanz) Reichenau (Landkreis Konstanz) Rielasingen-Worblingen Singen (Hohentwiel) Steißlingen Stockach Tengen Volkertshausen Schweizmap
About this picture
Location of Büsingen am Hochrhein in the German-Swiss border area

Büsingen am Hochrhein is a municipality on the right bank of the Rhine in the district of Konstanz in Baden-Württemberg .

The municipality is completely surrounded by Swiss national territory and borders on the right bank of the Rhine with the canton of Schaffhausen and on the left bank - with the Rhine as the border - with the cantons of Zurich and Thurgau . Büsingen is the only municipality in Germany that is entirely in an exclave . Beside Campione d'Italia , Büsingen is one of two enclaves within the Swiss national territory.


Geographical location

Büsingen belongs to the Reiat region and is located on the right, northern bank of the High Rhine at heights between a little over 390  m at the outflow of the Rhine in the west and a little over 490  m on a knoll in the forest area at the northwestern tip of the municipality. Between the Waldheim residential area in the east, at the foot of which the river enters the municipality, and Büsingen itself, the Strudelbach , also known as the Gaalingerbach , flows into it from the right , and the smaller Weihersgraben between Büsingen and the Stemmer residential area .

Neighboring communities

The municipality of Büsingen borders in turn

Community structure

The districts of Stemmer and Waldheim also belong to the municipality of Büsingen am Hochrhein . The Eggingen and Gluringen desert areas are also located in the municipality .


St. Michael mountain church
Junker house

The oldest archaeological finds that indicate human activities in the Büsingen area date from the Bronze Age and the late Hallstatt Period . Towards the end of the Roman era , the Limes from Basel to Lake Constance was also built near Büsingen. After this border fortification had been overcome by the Alemanni , the first probably settled on the banks of the Rhine and named their place Buosinga , which means something like the settlement of the people of the Boso . The area of ​​today's Canton of Schaffhausen was co-opted with the St. Michaels Church on a hill in front of the foundation of the Allerheiligen monastery in Büsingen. Büsingen was first mentioned in a document in 1090 when it was given to the Allerheiligen monastery in Schaffhausen by Count Burkhard von Nellenburg .

Since 1361 the lords of Klingenberg , Austrian feudal bearers , held the local rule. In 1406 Büsingen was pledged by the indebted Klingenbergers to Rudolf Goldschmid from Schaffhausen . In 1463 the mayor Heinrich Barter took over the bailiwick in Büsingen.

From 1465 the sovereignty of Büsingen officially passed to Austria and the place belonged to the Austrian Landgraviate of Nellenburg .

Since 1658 Eberhard Im Thurn held the Austrian feudal lordship, which had belonged to the Schaffhausen family since 1535. On April 10, 1693, after religious disputes, Eberhard was kidnapped by his own family members to Schaffhausen, where he was thrown into dungeon by the local authorities a little later . For the Austrian district government in Nellenburg , the kidnapping of its liege-bearer Eberhard was an interference with the sovereignty of Austria. Within a year, the originally local affair took on state-political dimensions. In 1694 Austria blocked the export of grain to Switzerland and threatened Schaffhausen with severe reprisals . Although the Schaffhausen residents were urged to give in by their confederates , they initiated proceedings against Eberhard Im Thurn, in which he was to be sentenced to death. After a vote, it only ended with life imprisonment by a narrow majority. The Schaffhausen residents only gave in after Austria increased pressure on February 15, 1697 and relocated troops to the Schaffhausen border.

Due to this kidnapping, Schaffhausen lost the pledge for the Reiatdörfer , to which Büsingen belonged, and was only able to get it back in 1723 for 221,744 guilders . Only Büsingen was withheld by the Austrians, because, to the annoyance of the Schaffhausen residents, it was to remain Austrian forever. When Austria in 1770 his rights to the villages Ramsen and Dörflingen to the federal Zurich sold, was Buesingen an enclave in the Swiss Confederation and since then 680 meters distance separating Buesingen from his motherland Germany.

Despite all attempts by the Schaffhausen family to regain Büsingen, it was added to the Electorate of Württemberg ( Kingdom from 1806 ) in the Peace of Pressburg of 1805 . In 1810 Büsingen passed to the Grand Duchy of Baden . Even at the Congress of Vienna in 1814/1815, through which the borders of Europe were reorganized, nothing changed in the situation and Büsingen continued to belong to Baden .

In 1835 Büsingen became a customs exclusion area ( German Customs Union ). In 1895 Switzerland concluded an agreement with Büsingen so that the Büsingen farmers could sell their products in Switzerland. This exchange of goods worked even during the First World War - in both directions.

On July 21, 1849 armed Hessian troops invaded the Baden enclave of Büsingen via Swiss territory during the so-called Büsinger trade . The conflict with Switzerland was only resolved on July 30th with the withdrawal of the Hessian troops.

In 1918 a referendum was held in which 96% of the citizens of Büsingen voted for their village to be incorporated into Switzerland. This did not happen because Switzerland could not offer a suitable exchange area. So Büsingen stayed with the German Empire .

Büsingen was connected to the Swiss rationing system on December 1, 1939.

In 1946, the French-occupied Büsingen asked the Swiss Federal Council to lift the customs border to the enclave. On January 1, 1947, with the consent of the French, this request was granted.

The last chance the Büsingen had so far to join Switzerland was in 1956. The negotiations at that time were initially promising, but the district of Constance insisted that Büsingen remain with Germany and also called for a connecting corridor. However, this project failed due to vehement resistance on the Swiss side. An area swap was never up for discussion at Büsingen because people would have had to change their citizenship and it was impossible to find a replacement area of ​​the same size.

The community was renamed on December 6, 1961 from Büsingen (Upper Rhine) to Büsingen am Hochrhein .

On October 4, 1967, the new state treaty between Germany and Switzerland came into force, which regulates the legal status of Büsingen. The treaty did not address all of the enclave's disadvantages, but it did mitigate them. Since that date, the 17 kilometer long border between Büsingen and Switzerland is no longer controlled.

One of the main concerns of the negotiations was to incorporate the 43 hectare German exclave Verenahof into Switzerland. The replacement area could only be found in the complicated triangular exchange between the municipalities of Merishausen , Opfertshofen and Büttenhardt. Merishausen ceded 30 hectares in Beisental to the German municipality of Wiechs am Randen , Opfertshofen brought in 9 hectares and the rest of 4 hectares Büttenhardt .

Büsingen is demarcated from the surrounding Swiss area by 123 boundary stones . A special boundary stone is the Hattinger or Nellenburger Stein , a boulder in the middle of the Rhine. It consists of Schrattenkalk, has an edge length of 1.00 to 1.30 m and a volume of approximately 1.5 m³. The stone is about 1.50 m below the water level. It was first mentioned in a document in 1453.

In May 1989, all ten municipal council members called for abstinence from voting in the European elections because the disadvantages caused by the geographic location and economic connection to Switzerland (loss of purchasing power, international telephone charges ) had not been remedied by the federal government. Only 16% of the people from Büsingen voted, more than two thirds of them by postal vote, because those willing to vote - it was alleged - feared being branded.

The border to Switzerland remained open during the COVID-19 pandemic ; the two border crossings on the direct connection road to the rest of Germany were only allowed to residents of Büsingen and commuters to work for several months.


The municipality has around 1500 inhabitants and, at 50.9 years, has one of the highest average ages of all municipalities in Germany (as of December 31, 2018).

In Büsingen, as in the immediate vicinity, the Schaffhausen dialect is spoken. The use of the " ß " is inconsistent.


Administrative community

Büsingen forms an agreed administrative community with Gailingen am Hochrhein and Gottmadingen .

Municipal council

After the local elections on May 23, 2014 , the following distribution of seats resulted. The turnout was 54.2% (2009: 51.2%). The municipal council consists of the elected voluntary councilors and the mayor as chairman. The mayor is entitled to vote in the municipal council.

Party / list Share of votes in 2014 Seats 2014 Share of votes in 2009 Seats 2009
Association of workers and independents 52.9% 5 34.6% 3 seats
Free electoral association for citizens, tradespeople and farmers 47.1% 5 65.4% 7 seats


The term of office of the mayor of Büsingen is eight years.

Gunnar Lang was mayor from 1990 to June 30, 2012. He had been active in local politics since 1980 and was re-elected in 1998 and 2006. On November 17, 2011, he announced his resignation to the Büsingen municipal council on June 30, 2012.

The first ballot took place on April 22, 2012. Because no candidate could achieve an absolute majority, a second ballot was scheduled on May 13, with a simple majority. From this Markus Möll emerged as the new mayor. The turnout was 62 percent in both ballots.

coat of arms

The coat of arms, adopted on March 3, 1904, shows a "red bordered silver (white) shield on green vine with two green leaves and a blue bunch of grapes ". The grape stands for the once more important viticulture in the village, the red border is supposed to symbolize the island location of the municipality in Swiss territory.

Special regulations

According to the contract of November 23, 1964 between the Swiss Confederation and the Federal Republic of Germany on the inclusion of the municipality of Büsingen am Hochrhein in the Swiss customs area, Büsingen is part of the Swiss customs area . According to Art. 4 Customs Code of the Union , Büsingen does not belong to the customs territory of the European Union and consequently Büsingen is treated like a Swiss municipality.

As a municipality in the Swiss customs area, the same rules must be observed for goods traffic between Büsingen and the rest of Germany as for traffic between a non-EU country and an EU country, whereas there is free movement between Büsingen and Switzerland. Certain German tax laws - such as German VAT and consumption taxes - are not in force in Büsingen; the corresponding Swiss taxes will be applied.

state contract

View of Büsingen on the Upper Rhine

On September 9, 1957, German-Swiss negotiations began in Locarno with the aim of regulating all competencies of both states with regard to Büsingen. Only after five years, on December 15, 1962, could the customs contract be initialed by the authorized representatives and signed again two years later, on November 23, 1964. It finally came into force on October 4, 1967, more than ten years after negotiations began.

According to this, the police in the canton of Schaffhausen can independently make arrests in Büsingen and bring the detainees to Switzerland. The number of Swiss law enforcement officers who are allowed to stay in Büsingen at the same time is limited to ten, and the number of Germans to three per 100 inhabitants. The Swiss police have their competencies in the areas in which Swiss laws (customs, agriculture, hospitality, etc.) apply. Otherwise the German police are responsible.

The German police officers in uniform are only allowed to move towards the exclave on clearly defined routes; they have to refrain from all official acts on Swiss soil.

In Büsingen, Swiss customs and business law apply with a few exceptions. The direct taxes of the Büsinger (e.g. income tax) must be paid to the German tax authorities . This represents a disadvantage is the Büsingen because they have to shoulder the higher Swiss cost of living, but instead of lower average Swiss income tax of the German income tax subject. That is why every Büsinger receives an allowance entered on his income tax card and only pays less income tax than in the rest of Germany because of his place of residence in Büsingen. This allowance did not offset the additional burden, but only mitigated it. For this reason, many people from Büsingen moved to Switzerland in the past. Residents with their main residence in Büsingen are currently (from January 1, 2015) granted an allowance of 30 percent. H. of the taxable income, but not more than 30%. H. of 15,338.00 euros for single people and 30,675.00 euros for married people. This assessment basis increases by 7,670 euros for each child.

According to the customs treaty in the canton of Schaffhausen, Thurgau and most of the canton of Zurich, the people of Büsingen are allowed to take up a job without any additional hurdles and are legally equated with Swiss citizens. The reverse is also true; however, only very few people who are resident in Switzerland actually go to work in Büsingen, as Büsingen as a village offers few jobs. Since the bilateral agreements between the European Union and Switzerland came into force on June 1, 2002 and the free movement of persons envisaged therein , this provision now only applies to third-country nationals married to citizens of Büsingen .

Büsingen farmers receive federal subsidies from Switzerland that are higher than those in Germany.

License Plate

According to the State Treaty, Büsingen has its own license plate . Vehicles from Büsingen therefore have the letters BÜS, even though the municipality belongs to the district of Konstanz and should therefore actually have the license plate KN. The BÜS license plates were introduced at the beginning of 1968 to make the work of the Swiss customs officers easier. Vehicles with a BÜS license plate are treated like Swiss vehicles when entering Switzerland and in road traffic there.

There are few OMS -flag with the recognition letters A . There are also vehicles with the letter Z that were imported untaxed into Switzerland and are only allowed to drive with this status for a maximum of two years. Until the license plate was liberalized, BÜS was the rarest license plate in Germany that was newly awarded. Since then, numerous old license plates have been reintroduced in Germany, which means that BÜS has lost its status as the rarest license plate, at least temporarily. However, it remains the smallest registration district in Germany.

Vehicle taxes are paid to the main customs office in Singen (Hohentwiel) . However, the motor vehicle taxes of the Canton of Schaffhausen are decisive. Some of them are significantly below the German rates, especially for diesel vehicles, and do not depend on the emissions standard. In the past, this has led to Germans taking up bogus residence with the aim of saving vehicle tax.

Health insurance

People from Büsingen who are not gainfully employed can choose whether they want to join German or Swiss health insurance. If a person from Büsingen chooses Swiss health insurance, also as a cross-border commuter to Switzerland, he will be treated the same as a citizen of Switzerland in terms of benefits. Büsingers have the free choice whether they visit German or Swiss doctors, psychotherapists or dentists; the same applies to inpatient care in a hospital.

value added tax

Since the State Treaty of 1967 Büsingen has belonged politically to Germany, but economically to Switzerland. The petrol price has been adjusted to the level of the Swiss petrol stations in the neighborhood. In Büsingen, the Swiss indirect taxes apply , in addition to the federal mineral oil tax , the federal value added tax of currently 7.7% (normal rate), 2.5% (books, food) and 3.7% (special rate for accommodation). After the Swiss Federal Tax Administration had collected and withheld these taxes for years, the former tax advisor and former mayor Gunnar Lang succeeded in obtaining the reimbursement of the VAT directly to the municipality, which became the richest in the whole of Hegau and one of only five municipalities does not levy property tax in Germany . The fees for water, sewage, kindergarten and cemetery are also relatively low.

The peculiarities of VAT law in Büsingen mean that the Internet telephony service Skype has no longer offered its paid services there since 2015, because the website does not allow the use of the VAT exemption.

The residents of Büsingen, just like the Swiss, can claim back the sales tax paid on goods purchased in the customs area of ​​the European Union - for example in nearby Germany - after they have been exported from the European Union.

post Office

Postmark with the note “Special tariff” on a letter to Switzerland

Büsingen owns a German postal agency . Since 1987 the community has two postcodes : 78266 for Germany and 8238 for Switzerland (see also: Postcode (Germany) and Postcode (Switzerland) ). Letters from Büsingen can be franked with either Swiss or German stamps .

Deutsche Post AG is responsible for mail delivery (letters and postal parcels) . Some services are provided by Swiss Post or other Swiss feeder services. Deliveries by German services such as GLS or Hermes are often excluded.


Büsingen maintains a primary school in which pupils are taught up to fourth grade. The parents then have to decide whether their children should attend a secondary school in neighboring Switzerland or in Germany.

Telecommunication and internet

In front of the town hall there was a German and a Swiss telephone booth right next to each other, but they have since been dismantled.

The landline telephone network actually has a German area code (07734), but many residents have a Swiss telephone connection. German mobile radio transmitters based on GSM and UMTS are installed in Büsingen so that Swiss and German networks can be received.

Büsingen is dependent on Swiss internet and television providers via cable or telephone cable; however, it is not the Swiss, but the German license fees that have to be paid.


Büsingen is served by the Postbus from Switzerland, which regularly connects it with the German village of Randegg , the Swiss villages of Ramsen , Buch and Dörflingen and the city of Schaffhausen.

A bus line operated by Verkehrsbetriebe Schaffhausen vbsh also runs from Schaffhausen via the Büsingen area.


Büsingen is the only German municipality in which the Swiss franc is usually used for payments, although the official currency is the euro . Until the 1980s, the D-Mark was often not accepted in Büsingen . It went so far that the Büsinger Post only accepted the Swiss franc for the sale of German postage stamps. The Swiss franc is still more likely to be found in the purse of the Büsinger, not least because most Büsingen citizens earn their wages in Switzerland. Even the municipal administration calculates the garbage fees in francs.


Most of the employed Büsingers are cross-border commuters and work in the canton of Schaffhausen or in the canton of Zurich . Since the bilateral agreements between the European Union and Switzerland came into force on June 1, 2004, the population structure has changed considerably. Thanks to the free movement of people, most of the people from Büsingen who are already employed in Switzerland also have their main residence there , because the Swiss income tax burden is lower for them. In return, numerous pensioners from Switzerland move to Büsingen, where they pay lower income taxes and, unlike Switzerland, no wealth taxes without leaving the Swiss franc currency area.

Many residents in Büsingen receive their pensions in euros, but make most of their expenses in Swiss francs. Due to the sharp rise in the Swiss franc exchange rate in mid-2011 , their economic situation has deteriorated significantly. Büsingers who work in Switzerland and earn their salary in Swiss francs slid ever higher in the German tax progression without their purchasing power having increased. For both reasons, there was a wave of emigration from the village in 2011. Due to the approval of the exchange rate on January 15, 2015 by the Swiss central bank, the difficult situation for Büsingen suddenly intensified. Although the federal government in Berlin increased the tax allowance by 50 percent, the people of Büsingen would like taxation at Swiss level and the introduction of withholding tax. However, this would require the adaptation of the State Treaty.

Büsingen as a tax haven

It is argued that the German tax office can hardly control what a freelance resident of Büsingen earns, since his bank account is kept in a Swiss bank. Because Büsingen is considered domestic here, the account is subject to Swiss banking secrecy. It is true that the German tax authorities' opportunities to inspect are therefore very limited; Nevertheless, the residents of Büsingen are required to declare to the German tax authorities.

Büsingen seen from the ship

Time zone

For historical reasons, Büsingen is listed as a separate time zone. Here when installing FreeBSD.

In 1980, summer time was reintroduced in the Federal Republic of Germany . Switzerland did not follow suit until 1981. Since Büsingen was based on Swiss time legislation, Central European Time applied in Büsingen in the summer of 1980 , while Central European Summer Time applied in the rest of Germany . Although the time difference between Büsingen and the rest of Germany was a one-off occurrence, Büsingen is sometimes listed separately in the computer area. B. in the time zone database of the Common Locale Data Repository . This ensures that time periods are calculated correctly in all cases.


Büsingen is part of the Swiss customs area and therefore also has duty-free movement of goods with Liechtenstein . For the movement of goods between Büsingen and the rest of Germany, Büsingen is treated like Switzerland.

So far, this means that for shipments to the rest of Germany with a goods value of up to € 22 per shipment, no VAT or customs are charged. However, this exemption limit will be abolished at the end of 2020 (not only for shipments from Büsingen) in order to curb VAT fraud. For shipments from the rest of Germany to Büsingen, the Swiss regulations apply, according to which the duty-free delivery quantity is limited to a goods value of CHF 65 per shipment. The post office in Büsingen is responsible for customs clearance and control of parcels addressed to Büsingen.

Bioenergy village with solar thermal energy

Büsinger heating center with tube collectors

The community has gained wide recognition as a bioenergy village and a role model for local heating networks fed by solar thermal energy , although the Renewable Energy Sources Act does not apply in Büsingen due to its special position as an exclave and therefore plants there do not receive any EEG subsidies. Büsingen's local heating network draws the heat from a wood chip heating center (1.4 MW) and instead of a biogas system from a large-scale solar thermal system with tube collectors. Its more than 1000 square meter collector surface at a price of 420,000 euros delivers around 550,000 kWh annually, covers the entire hot water requirement in summer and replaces around 800 cubic meters of wood chips every year. The system also includes two buffer storage tanks with a capacity of 50 cubic meters each and an oil boiler with an output of 730 kW that can be switched on for peak loads or maintenance work. Büsingen serves as a pilot project for the SOLNET.BW research program to launch solar heating networks in Baden-Württemberg.


Old Rheinmühle
View of the Church of St. Michael from Dörflingen after a rain shower

The Romanesque mountain church St. Michael (also called Michaelskirche) stands east of the village on a hill. It is embedded in a well-preserved group of medieval buildings, which is surrounded by a circular wall. The Bergkirche is the original church of Schaffhausen from the 11th century. The 415 m high hill with the ensemble of buildings, which rises only a few meters above the surrounding landscape, has been a protected landscape area with an area of ​​17 hectares since 1939 .

In the 17th century, today's Hotel Alte Rheinmühle was built by the Büsingen landlords, the Im Thurn family . In 1711 a concession was granted for the inn, and in 1964 it was converted into a representative hotel-restaurant. In 2003 the municipality of Büsingen acquired the property and carried out a total renovation; It was reopened in 2004. The historic Junkersaal is of particular interest.


The “Exklavenweg” starts at the Büsingen town hall, leads to the former Rheinmühle, the Junkerhaus, the ship landing stage and the lido up to the eastern border. Then the northern area with the mountain church and vineyards are touched and returned to the starting point.


Since 1993 the chamber music days have been held every year on the last weekend in August in the St. Michael mountain church. The organizer is the Musikfreunde Bergkirche Büsingen association . Artistic director of the festival: Uwe Stoffel until 2012, Christian Poltéra since 2013.

The farmer's carnival is celebrated in Büsingen on the Sunday after Ash Wednesday with a procession. With almost 3000 participants and several thousand spectators, a multiple of the population is reached. The move in 2012 was even held with 4,200 participants, but subsequently reduced in size due to safety concerns. The Büsinger Fasnacht is very popular due to its late date, when the carnival is over in most places in Germany. Numerous witch guilds from the Black Forest take part in the parade.


In Büsingen there is


The FC Büsingen football club is the only German club to be affiliated with the Swiss Football Association. The FC has around 120 active players and seven teams. The first team plays in the 3rd division of the Zurich Region Football Association.

Honorary citizen

  • Otto Weiss, former mayor
  • Alwin Güntert, former councilor
  • Carina Schweizer, former councilor

See also


  • Christoph Errass, Hans Martin Tschudi (ed.): Büsingen - A German exclave. Cross-border issues. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2017, ISBN 978-3-8487-4139-7 .
  • Franz Götz: Andreas Schiendorfer, Günter Eiglsperger: 900 years of Büsingen, a German community in Switzerland. Self-published by the community, Büsingen am Hochrhein 1990, ISBN 3-921413-23-0 .
  • Franz Götz: The Büsinger contract (= Hegau library, volume 14). Published on behalf of the district of Konstanz and the municipality of Büsingen am Hochrhein in conjunction with the Verein für Geschichte des Hegaus e. V. 1968.
  • Ernst Schneider: Field names of the exclave Büsingen am Rhein, district of Konstanz (= Hegau field names, Volume III). Published by the Association for the History of Hegaus e. V., 1964.
  • Ursula Wolf, Hans Lieb: The Bergkirche Büsingen (= Swiss Art Guide GSK , Volume 531). GSK Society for Swiss Art History, Bern 1993, ISBN 3-85782-531-6 .

Web links

Commons : Büsingen am Hochrhein  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
  2. https://www.buesingen.de/impressum
  3. Since April 1, 2007, Switzerland no longer has any location-based area codes. Before that, Büsinger connections that are connected to the Swiss fixed network had the area code 052 there.
  4. https://www.buesingen.de/impressum
  5. State Institute for the Environment Baden-Württemberg (LUBW) ( information )
  6. Geoserver of the Swiss Federal Administration ( information )
  7. ^ The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality. Volume VI: Freiburg administrative region. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-17-007174-2 , pp. 730-731.
  8. ^ Albert Leutenegger: Der Büsinger Handel 1849. Special print for the Historisch-Antiquarian Verein Schaffhausen, 1926, p. 1.
  9. ^ Online chronicle of the community of Büsingen ( Memento from May 18, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 11, 2018
  10. About Eberhard im Thurn ( Memento of March 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 11, 2018
  11. Matthias Biehler: At the limit, not everything is in balance. In: Südkurier. April 12th, 2013.
  12. ^ Richard Kaiser: Hattinger stone. The ice age produced it . In: Association of German Surveying Engineers (ed.): VDV magazine . No. 05 . Chmielorz, Wiesbaden 2013, p. 412-413 .
  13. ^ Nikolaus Philippi: Grenzland Hegau: Boundary stones remind of former rulers and territories. Rockstuhl Verlag, ISBN 978-3-86777-479-6 .
  14. gtm: Büsinger want to boycott the European elections. The citizens of the German exclave in Switzerland feel abandoned by the politicians . In: Stuttgarter Zeitung . May 1989 (newspaper clipping without date).
  15. Election review committee : recommendation for a resolution and report of the election review committee . In: German Bundestag - 11th electoral period (Ed.): Drucksache 11/7209 . Appendix 4, p. 13–15 ( dipbt.bundestag.de [PDF; 1.6 MB ]).
  16. Exclave Büsingen: special position in border rules , Heilbronner Voice , May 2, 2020, accessed on May 5, 2020
  17. Between francs and euros. Interview by Thomas Güntert with Mayor Markus Moll. In: "Südkurier", February 14, 2018.
  18. Average age and age groups by gender - State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved October 29, 2019 .
  19. Caspar Heer: Büsingen - the island in a small paradise. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, January 10, 2012
  20. The official website of the municipality uses the ß in parts (whereby “Junkerstrasse” is used without ß), local companies use the Swiss spelling without ß: [1] , [2]
  21. Südkurier's election portal ( memento from July 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 11, 2018
  22. Büsingen's mayor Gunnar Lang resigns ( memento from July 23, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
  23. ^ Südkurier from May 14, 2012: Markus Möll is the new mayor of Büsingen. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
  24. Description of the coat of arms at Discover regional studies online
  25. Systematic legal collection : SR 0.631.112.136: Treaty between the Swiss Confederation and the Federal Republic of Germany on the inclusion of the municipality of Büsingen on the Upper Rhine in the Swiss customs area
  26. for example there is no coffee tax , cf. Excise tax on coffee, [http://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de (accessed on March 1, 2012)]; Swiss legislation applies.
  27. ^ State treaty in the systematic collection of Swiss federal law (PDF; 121 kB).
  28. Rudolf Eugen Scherrer: The customs connection of the German enclave Büsingen to Switzerland. At the same time a contribution to the doctrine of territorial sovereignty (= Zurich studies on international law. No. 50). Diss. Zurich 1973, p. 123 f.
  29. ^ Municipality of Büsingen: Special tax regulations for Büsingen ( memento of November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 11, 2018
  30. As of 2013: 733
  31. Stock of motor vehicles by motor vehicle type ( Memento from June 19, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg , accessed on May 11, 2018
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