Grand Duchy of Baden
The Grand Duchy of Baden was a sovereign state from 1806 to 1871, a member of the Rhine Confederation until 1813 and of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866 . From 1871 it was only a partially autonomous federal state within the German Empire . The emergence of the Grand Duchy from the Margraviate or Electorate of Baden during the coalition wars went hand in hand with large increases in area for Baden . The country was initially an absolute monarchy , a constitutional one from 1818 , before a democratic republic emerged from the Grand Duchy in 1918 as part of the bloodless November Revolution in Baden .
In the 19th century, Baden was considered a stronghold of liberalism , its Chamber of Deputies as the real school of the liberal spirit in the Vormärz and as the “draft horse of modernity”. Until the founding of the German Empire in 1871, Baden was more important in the political life of the German Confederation than its purely power-political position suggested.
The Baden Revolution of 1848/49, like the other revolutionary upheavals during this period , was directed against the ruling powers of the Restoration era . The last of the three uprisings in Baden, which took place as part of the Reich constitution campaign in mid-1849, was crushed after the intervention of federal troops under Prussian command .
The former Grand Duchy of Baden bordered in the south on Lake Constance and Switzerland , in the west on France (or 1871–1918 on the realm of Alsace-Lorraine ), in the north-west on the Bavarian Palatinate , in the north on the Grand Duchy of Hesse , in the north-east on the Kingdom of Bavaria , in the east to the Kingdom of Württemberg and in the southeast to 1850 to the Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , which from 1850 together with the neighboring Hohenzollern-Hechingen belonged to the Kingdom of Prussia under the name Hohenzollernsche Lande . Near the borders with Württemberg, Hesse, Hohenzollern and Switzerland there were a number of territorial peculiarities such as exclaves , enclaves , condominiums and the like.
The national territory of the former Grand Duchy of Baden had an area of 15,070 km² and stretched along the eastern bank of the Rhine, which is located on the western border of the country from about Upper Rhine Plain , beyond which the land encompasses more or less of the low mountain ranges that adjoin to the east. The Kaiserstuhl ( ) rises up between the Rhine and the Dreisam in the middle of the Upper Rhine Plain , an isolated low mountain range of volcanic origin. The eastern boundary of Baden ran on the ridges of the Black Forest , through the Kraichgau and east of the Odenwald through building land . The greater part of the historical area of Baden is characterized by a varied low mountain range. From Lake Constance in the south to Enz in the north, the Grand Duchy had a share of the Black Forest, which the Kinzig valley divides into two halves at different altitudes. South of the Kinzig its mean height is , here is the Feldberg ( ), the highest peak in the whole country. The headwaters of the Danube are located in the Central Black Forest . The northern half of the Black Forest has an average height of and reaches its highest point on the Hornisgrinde ( ). The numerous lakes in the Black Forest include the Mummelsee , the Titisee , the Schluchsee and the Eichener See . North of the Black Forest, Baden had a share in the hilly landscape of the Kraichgau and the Kleiner Odenwald , north of the Neckar then in the Odenwald, which at an average altitude of in Katzenbuckel up to rises, as well as on the building land and on the Tauberland , where the Grand Duchy ended in the far north on the left bank of the Main .in the south at about drops off in the north. It is connected to the east by the mostly 15 km wide right-bank half of the fertile
While the Upper Rhine Plain shows very mild temperatures, it can get very cold on the heights of the Black Forest. The mean annual temperature on the Upper Rhine is 10 ° C, that of the higher low mountain range around 6 ° C, with July being the warmest and January the coldest month of the year.
Until the district reform in Baden-Württemberg on January 1, 1973, the former territorial inventory of Baden was divided into the two administrative districts of North Baden and South Baden . The former borders of Baden to Württemberg and Hohenzollern could still be read on the outer borders of the districts belonging to them. The reform then blurred them. The old borders of Baden are exactly preserved in the area of the Evangelical Church in Baden and largely also in that of the Archdiocese of Freiburg , which, in addition to the old Baden, also includes the Hohenzollern Lands.
History of origin
Territorial reorganization on the Upper Rhine
The Grand Duchy of Baden came into being in the great historical upheaval that followed the French Revolution and the coalition wars that followed, thanks in particular to the forward-looking diplomacy of the Baden ambassador Sigismund von Reitzenstein in Paris, who advocated a firm bond between Baden and the young French Republic . At the beginning of the 19th century, a territorial patchwork quilt along the Upper Rhine became a closed state area within a decade, which stretched from Constance in the south along the right bank of the Rhine and through the Odenwald to Wertheim in the north.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the margraviate of Baden, which emerged in 1771 from the union of the Protestant line of Baden-Durlach and the extinct Catholic line of Baden-Baden , comprised an area of 65 square miles (about 3,600 square kilometers) with around 250,000 inhabitants. On the left bank of the Rhine, the margraviate of Baden lost 13.5 square miles (743 square kilometers) with 34,626 inhabitants to France with the Paris Peace Treaty in 1796 . In 1803 it was compensated for by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss announced in Regensburg on the right bank of the Rhine with 61.8 square miles (3400 square kilometers) of new territory and 253,396 of new residents.
This started territorial growth at the expense of smaller territories on the right bank of the Rhine. For this purpose , annexed secular territories were mediatized , and spiritual territories secularized . The territorial rulers that were taken over had previously mostly been imperial direct estates.
In terms of secular territories, Baden acquired parts of the Electoral Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine with the capital and residence cities of Heidelberg and Mannheim . Also the rule Lahr , parts of the Landgraviate Hanau-Lichtenberg (the so-called Hanauerland ), the Reichstal Harmersbach as well as the imperial cities Offenburg , Zell am Harmersbach , Gengenbach , Überlingen , Pfullendorf , Wimpfen and Biberach came to Baden. The latter two cities, however, only belonged to the country for a short time.
Baden was able to take over the monastery of Konstanz as a whole and parts of the monasteries of Basel , Strasbourg and Speyer , as well as the knight monastery of Odenheim . In addition there were the imperial monasteries Petershausen and Gengenbach , the imperial abbey of Salem and most of the imperial monastery Salmannsweiler , as well as the prelatures Schwarzach , Frauenalb , Allerheiligen , Lichtental , Ettenheimmünster , Reichenau and Öhningen . On February 25, 1803, Emperor Franz II elevated the margraviate of Baden to the status of the Electorate of Baden .
Through the Treaty of Brno (December 10-12, 1805), which was confirmed in the Peace of Pressburg , parts of the formerly Upper Austrian Breisgau with the city of Freiburg came to Baden, as did the rule of Heitersheim , the bailiwick of Ortenau , the city of Constance and more some other pieces of land on Lake Constance as well as chivalric territories, whereas Kehl was to be ceded to France. In total, this meant another gain of 44.4 square miles (2,443 square kilometers) with 164,000 inhabitants.
From the elevation to the Grand Duchy to the change of the throne in 1811
On July 12, 1806, Elector Karl Friedrich joined the Confederation of the Rhine , which was dominated by Emperor Napoleon I , and accepted the title of Grand Duke and the title of Royal Highness . Upon joining the Rhine Confederation, Baden also acquired state sovereignty over the principalities of Fürstenberg and Leiningen , the county of Wertheim on the left of the Main with the residential city of Wertheim , the county of Klettgau , the county of Tengen and the possessions of the Prince of Salm-Reifferscheid-Krautheim north of the Chasing. In total, this was another 91.7 square miles (around 5000 square kilometers) with 270,000 inhabitants.
On October 2, 1810, the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Grand Duchy of Baden signed a border treaty . This involved the acquisition of the parts of the Breisgau that had initially fallen to Württemberg. This brought Baden some expansions for the last time, including areas of Württemberg in the central Black Forest ( Hornberg , Schiltach , Gutach ) and the former Landgraviate of Nellenburg , which closed the last gap in the Baden state area between the original lands and the possessions on Lake Constance. In return, Baden had to cede the Amorbach, Miltenberg and Heubach offices to the Grand Duchy of Hesse .
When Grand Duke Karl Friedrich died in 1811, the Grand Duchy of Baden had an area of 249 square miles (around 15,000 square kilometers) with around one million inhabitants. Thus, the area and the population of Baden had increased by a factor of four within seven years.
Like the other states of the Rhine Confederation, Baden had to raise large contributions to finance the coalition wars. The obligation to provide auxiliary troops weighed even more heavily. In the fourth coalition war , which ended with the Peace of Tilsit , Baden troops besieged the cities of Danzig and Stralsund with great losses of their own . On May 2, 1808, an uprising against Napoleon's rule in Spain broke out in Madrid , and to defeat it, Baden also had to provide an infantry regiment, which marched off towards Spain on August 24, 1808. In 1810 the government introduced Baden land law based on the French Civil Code , in the drafting of which the State Councilor Johann Nicolaus Friedrich Brauer played a decisive role. There were also civil registry offices and civil marriage.
From the end of the coalition wars to the constitution of 1818
After the death of the old Grand Duke Karl Friedrich, his grandson, Grand Duke Karl , succeeded the throne in 1811 . In Napoleon's war against Russia in 1812 , Baden provided over 6,000 men, only a few of whom returned (→ see also: Badeners in the Russian campaign in 1812 ). In the Wars of Liberation , the princes dissolved the Confederation of the Rhine. Baden hesitated longer than Bavaria and Wuerttemberg to leave the French alliance, since it seemed particularly endangered because of the border location with France, if Napoleon could have turned the fortunes of war after the lost battle of the nations . In addition, Grand Duke Karl felt reluctant to do so because of his marriage to Napoleon's adopted daughter Stephanie . It was not until mid-November 1813 that the Baden State Council decided, after a dramatic meeting, the now urgently needed change of alliance. It was Sigismund von Reitzenstein in particular who convinced Grand Duke Karl that otherwise Baden would go under with Napoleon, because a French surrender was now in sight and the time was right to welcome the Allies under the leadership of Austria , Prussia and Russia as a new ally.
During the Congress of Vienna in 1814 and 1815, the statesmen of Europe agreed on a reorganization of the European state system. The sovereignty and territorial expansion of the Grand Duchy of Baden initially remained unaffected. Baden joined the German Confederation on July 26, 1815, which was supposed to replace the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation , which fell in 1806 .
In 1818, the participants in the Aachen Congress recognized the succession to the throne of the sons of the late Grand Duke Karl Friedrich from their second - unequal - marriage to Luise Karoline Geyer von Geyersberg , who later became Countess of Hochberg. After the sons from their first marriage had not fathered any further heir to the throne, this was considered necessary to ensure the continued existence of the Grand Duchy. The thus regulated succession to the throne, which then entered into 1830, was overshadowed in the 1930s by the fall of Kaspar Hauser , who appeared in Nuremberg on May 26, 1828. Contemporary rumors stylized Hauser as the Baden Hereditary Prince of the late Grand Duke Karl who was supposedly kidnapped as an infant . The Baden-Bavarian border dispute over the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine was decided in favor of Baden at the Aachen Congress in 1818.
Baden Constitution of 1818
As early as 1808, the government announced that Baden would receive a state constitution. However, it was not until 1814, on the initiative of Baron Karl Wilhelm Marschall von Bieberstein, that concrete steps began to form a commission that dealt with the drafting of the constitution . The content came essentially from the pen of the liberal politician Karl Friedrich Nebenius . With the constitution of August 22, 1818, Baden became a constitutional monarchy. Grand Duke Karl signed the constitution drawn up by Nebenius, which provided for a state parliament, the Baden Estates Assembly with two chambers. This parliament was intended to help the population of the Grand Duchy of Baden grow together, as the country looked back on very different cultural and national traditions. With the new constitution, which at that time was the most liberal in the German Confederation, it was hoped to promote unity and a common state consciousness of all Badeners.
The election rules for the Second Chamber were announced on December 23, 1818, they were based on indirect voting. Eligible voters were not allowed to belong to the First Chamber or to be eligible to vote there. Candidates had to be at least 25 years old. Only men were admitted who also had citizenship or public office in their community. In 1819, only 17 percent of the population were eligible to vote. The 2500 electors elected by the electorate ultimately determined the 63 MPs. The Baden Second Chamber was the only one of the federal states to be completely free of class elements.
State building and administration
At the head of the Baden state stood the grand dukes with the following reigns:
- Karl Friedrich (Grand Duke 1806-1811)
- Karl (Grand Duke 1811-1818)
- Ludwig Wilhelm August (Grand Duke 1818–1830)
- Leopold (Grand Duke 1830-1852)
- Ludwig II (Grand Duke 1852-1856, unable to rule )
- Friedrich I. ( Regent 1852-1856, Grand Duke 1856-1907)
- Friedrich II. (Grand Duke 1907-1918)
Basic features of the constitutional order
The constitution, signed by the Grand Duke on August 22, 1818, comprised 83 paragraphs.
The first section with six paragraphs regulated the state and form of government of the country. According to § 5, the monarchical principle applied. The Grand Duke united in his person as sovereign all the rights of state power. According to Paragraphs 1 and 2, the Grand Duchy was part of the German Confederation and submitted to the resolutions of the Federal Assembly.
The second section with 19 paragraphs described the basic rights of the citizens of the country, including the protection of freedom and property, equality before the law, jurisdiction by independent courts and freedom of the press within the framework of the requirements of the German Confederation.
The third section determined the structure and functioning of the Baden Assembly of Estates (Landtag), which consists of two chambers . In the First Chamber, the constitution laid down the traditional principles of a class-based social order. Members were the princes of the House of Baden who were of legal age, the heads of the noble families, the Archbishop of Freiburg, a Protestant prelate, eight representatives elected from among the landlords and up to eight members appointed by the Grand Duke.
The Second Chamber consisted of 63 MPs who stood for election every eight years. Partial elections were held every two years, affecting around a quarter of the seats. The right to stand for election was valid for men over the age of 30 who had a tax capital of more than 10,000 guilders or who had an annual salary of at least 1,500 guilders and who belonged to one of the three Christian denominations. This meant that only around 6500 men could be elected to the chamber in Baden. The budget period was two years, so that the state parliament had to be convened after this period at the latest. The MPs had a free mandate and enjoyed immunity. A constitutional amendment could only be passed with two thirds of all those present in each of the two chambers.
Basics of the state administration
The government and thus the highest administration of the country had been with the Privy Council since 1803, chaired by the Elector and since 1806 by the Grand Duke. The Secret Council initially comprised three departments. In 1807 the departments had been divided into departments for justice, finance, police and general state affairs. The later ministries could already be recognized here to some extent. A year later, Emmerich Joseph von Dalberg dissolved the college of privy councils and replaced it on July 5, 1808 with the ministries for foreign affairs, interior affairs, finance, justice and war. A cabinet minister should be responsible for liaising the ministries with the Grand Duke. With his edict of November 26, 1809, Sigismund von Reitzenstein laid down the final administrative organization in Baden. The five ministers now met as a ministerial conference under the chairmanship of the Grand Duke. The role of cabinet minister did not exist, at least officially. It was not until July 15, 1817 that a supreme state authority, called the State Ministry, came into being, which included all ministers and was able to pass government decisions. In times of political reluctance on the part of the Grand Duke, the State Ministry was able to lead the government itself.
The division of ministries did not always remain constant. In the course of time the following departments or ministries existed in the Grand Duchy of Baden:
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Grand Ducal House 1807–1871 and 1893–1918
- Ministry of Police or Ministry of the Interior from 1808 1807-1918 (and after the end of the monarchy until 1945)
- Ministry of Finance 1807-1918 (and after the end of the monarchy until 1945)
- Ministry of Justice 1807-1918 (and after the end of the monarchy until 1934)
- War Ministry 1807–1872
- Ministry of Commerce 1861–1881
→ Main article: Baden's administrative structure
The task of integrating the many territorial new acquisitions at the beginning of the 19th century into the Baden state system was devoted to the state councilor Johann Nicolaus Friedrich Brauer with great commitment . Under his leadership, thirteen organizational edicts have been published since 1803 and so-called constitutional edicts since 1807. Baden was divided into three provinces, each with a court council and the offices below. The administrative reforms carried out in 1807 and 1808, however, did not fully achieve their goal of aligning the heterogeneously organized areas of the Grand Duchy and establishing a modern administration. Therefore, on November 26, 1809, the Minister of State and Cabinet Reitzenstein again initiated a government and administrative reform. This organizational rescript, drafted as a grand ducal edict, created the basis for a nationwide uniform administrative organization. Reitzenstein divided the national territory into nine districts following the example of the French departments, deliberately ignoring historically evolved relationships. Only the number of inhabitants and economic strength should be decisive. The Grand Duke endowed the respective district director with a great deal of power, similar to that of a French prefect. Numerous changes since 1810 led to only six districts and 55 sovereign and 22 civil offices in 1830. On May 1, 1832, the remaining district directorates were abolished. Four county governments took their place. In 1849, the landlords gave up their sovereign rights, which resulted in another change in the division of offices. In 1857 the administration and administration of justice of the lower level separated from each other. Ten district offices disappeared from the map as a result. With the law relating to the organization of internal administration of October 5, 1863, effective October 1, 1864, the previous four districts were dissolved and the district offices were subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior, with the number of offices increasing to 59, from 1872 to 52 ( since 1898 again 53) has been reduced. At the same time, eleven districts emerged with self-governing bodies without a state function. Four state commissioners served as the supervisory authority for the districts and offices.
Broad Local Government
At the lowest level of administration were the local heads of the communities. The district officials were allowed to propose them, but not to vote.
Despite the organizational edict of 1809, there were still noticeable differences from place to place in Baden due to traditional legal relationships. This was shown, for example, in civil rights. The sixth constitutional edict of Baden from 1808 divided the citizenry into only three groups: local citizens, protection citizens and rear residents. In the communities, however, depending on tradition, completely different conditions prevailed. In the Black Forest town of Triberg, for example, there were a total of 116 community citizens in 1820, of whom only 36 were citizens in the narrower sense, 80 but so-called "bourgeois houses". Other residents of the community, such as women, children and the servants, had fundamentally no civil rights. Only the civil rights law of 1832 brought a first standardization.
On August 23, 1821, the Provisional Law on Citizens' Committees was passed . Now a citizens' committee had to be formed in each town, which had as many members as the local council. Without the approval of the citizens' committee, the municipal council was no longer allowed to make any decisions about the assets and income of the municipalities and their use. This was supposed to put a stop to the arbitrariness and arbitrariness of the local councils. In cities with more than 300 citizens, the committee also had an advisory vote on the admission of non-residents to local and protected citizens. Its members were elected for six years.
In the 1820s it was not possible to pass a new municipal order on a constitutional basis. After taking office in 1830 , Minister of the Interior Ludwig Georg Winter wanted to have this still open task of pending legislation finally done. With the help of a liberal community order, the people of Baden should become a people of responsible citizens. There should be external community freedom, i.e. independence of the community from arbitrary state decisions, and internal, i.e. democracy in the community through the elimination of old oligarchies. The municipal laws were passed by Parliament in 1831 at the beginning of the winter era . According to § 11 of the municipal code, the Baden government had the right to confirm mayor elections. The government saw the mayors not only as representatives of the citizenry, but also as lower civil servants. The government's right of confirmation under Section 11 was intended to ensure that Baden would not become a “confederation of small republics”. After three elections, however, the government had to confirm one elected. In 1874 a new Baden town code came into force.
Basic principles of the administration of justice
Until December 31, 1809, the territory of Baden in civil law was a patchwork of Baden-Baden land law from 1588, Baden-Durlach land law from 1654, Electoral Palatinate land law from 1610, Mainz land law from 1755, Würzburg district court order from 1618, various statutes of the imperial knighthood or city rights the former imperial cities, inheritance regulations and other legal provisions. On January 1, 1810, they were all replaced by the new Code Napoléon with additions and commercial law as land law for the Grand Duchy of Baden . This Baden civil law from 1810 remained in effect until 1900, when it was replaced by the Civil Code that came into force on January 1, 1900 . With the abolition of patrimonial jurisdiction in the spring of 1813, the last remnants of direct aristocratic rule in the communities ended. Since the twenties, the liberals of the Second Chamber have been calling for the administration of justice to be separated from state administration at the lowest level. However, it was not until 1857 that independent local courts were established in Baden.
In the course of the revolution of 1848, according to the demands of the freedom movement, jury courts were introduced with the help of twelve jurors based on the English model.
In criminal jurisdiction, the Constitutio Criminalis Carolina from 1532 was still valid for a long time , although torture had been abolished in 1767 under the enlightened Margrave and later Grand Duke Karl Friedrich of Baden before the establishment of the Grand Duchy . In 1851, the penal code for the Grand Duchy of Baden, which had already been announced in 1845, came into force with 714 paragraphs.
Further reforms came through the Police Criminal Law of 1863 and the judicial reform of 1864, with which the participation of lay people in defined jury and jury courts was established. A law of 1863 regulated administrative jurisdiction for the first time in Germany . The highest instance of the administration of justice was the Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe , in addition there were seven regional courts with seat in Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Constance, Mannheim, Mosbach, Offenburg and Waldshut.
Basic features of the army
→ Main article: Baden Army
In 1806 the Baden army consisted of 14 battalions of infantry , ten squadrons of cavalry and three batteries of artillery . For France's third coalition war against Austria and Russia in 1805, Baden had to provide an auxiliary corps of 3,000 men, which, however, was not used in the battles near Ulm and Austerlitz because Napoleon achieved a quick victory in each case. In the fourth coalition war between France and Prussia 6,000 soldiers from Baden were deployed. The contingent consisted of four infantry regiments, one dragoon regiment, two hussar squadrons and two batteries of artillery on foot. During this campaign, too, the decisive battles of Jena and Auerstedt took place without Baden participation. The main use of the contingent took place during the siege of the Swedish fortress Stralsund and the city of Danzig. To overthrow the Spanish guerrillas from 1808 to 1813, Baden put a regiment under Colonel von Porbeck, which consisted of 1733 men, of whom only about 500 returned home after the First Peace of Paris in 1814. In the Fifth Coalition War against Austria in 1809, 6,850 soldiers from Baden joined as a brigade under Lieutenant General von Harrant. They were in three lines infantry - regiments , a hunter -Bataillon, a dragoon regiment and a battery on foot and a half battery on horseback divided twelve guns and belonged to the IV Corps under Marshal. André Masséna . In doing so, they penetrated as far as Hungary along the Danube with heavy fighting.
For the Russian campaign in 1812, Baden contributed about 6,700 men, of which more than 6,000 were killed. When the remnants of the Grande Armée crossed the Beresina on November 28, 1812, the Baden hussars were able to cover the retreat of 40,000 men, but were themselves completely wiped out. The remnants of the Baden Brigade secured the rearguard the further march back of the Grande Armée and arrived in Vilnius on December 8, 1812 with a remaining troop strength of around 400 men. A contingent of 1,200 replacement troops sent from Karlsruhe was added to reinforce them. After the union with the returnees from Russia, they defended the Oder fortress Glogau against attacks by the Russian and Prussian armies .
In 1813, Baden again fielded a corps with 6,990 men for Napoleon . With this, the people of Baden took part in the Battle of Leipzig on the French side. After changing the front, the Grand Duke announced general conscription and was able to muster 16,000 men for the war against France in 1814.
In the event of a defense against the German Confederation, Baden had to provide a total of 10,000 men for the armed forces . This consisted of 7751 infantry, 1429 cavalry and 820 artillery as well as engineers with 20 guns. The contingent formed the 2nd division of the VIII Federal Army Corps. Baden had fortifications in Constance and Rastatt .
Baden's total military strength comprised 8,586 infantry, 1,884 cavalry and 670 artillery as well as a pioneer and craftsman company. Of these, however, only 5150 men were in permanent service.
The infantry consisted of four regiments, a battalion of light infantry and a battalion of body grenadier guards. The two independent battalions formed the new body infantry regiment from 1832. The cavalry consisted of three dragoon regiments. The artillery had a mounted battery and three batteries on foot. After the revolution of 1849 was overthrown by the troops of the German Confederation, Grand Duke Leopold dissolved all parts of the army that were involved in the mutiny in May. This affected all units apart from an infantry battalion, which at the time was serving in the association of the Northern Army in Schleswig-Holstein, and a squadron of dragoons that was in the fortress of Landau during the revolution. Several dozen of the insurgents were executed, hundreds put into long-term arrest and many released.
After 1850, the Grand Duke reorganized the army after sending some officers and men from the disbanded units to Prussia for re-education.
In 1807 the Grand Duke (Karl Friedrich) issued the coat of arms, which was simplified in 1830 and instead of the last 30 coat of arms fields only showed the Baden family coat of arms with the sloping beam. Two crowned silver griffins looking back held the heraldic coat of arms covered with a royal crown. Behind it was a purple cloak covered by the same crown with ermine lining . Below the coat of arms were the three orders of the House of Baden, the order of the Zähringer lion, the order of Berthold the First and the order of the blue band .
With the announcement of the Grand Ducal State Ministry on December 17, 1891, a new national flag was determined. It shows "two yellow and one red longitudinal stripe of equal width". Previously, the flag only showed "two vertical stripes, the upper one being red and the lower one yellow". With the announcement of 1891, the members of the grand ducal house received standards derived from the national flag .
It is often assumed that the regional anthem Badnerlied , which is still popular today, was the anthem of the Grand Duchy of Baden, which was founded in 1806, but this was never the case. The prince's hymn Heil unserm prince Heil was used as the hymn . To the melody of the Prussian folk hymn Heil dir im Siegerkranz , which came from the English folk song God save George the King , a text was sung that was almost identical to that of the Württemberg hymn. The Baden version was first recorded in a collection of school songs from 1844 and its origin is located in the reign of Grand Duke Leopold (1830-1852).
Until the establishment of the German Empire, the southern German silver guilder was the official currency of 60 kreuzers and, from 1838, the German customs union's thaler . After the establishment of the German Empire, the German Coin Act of July 9, 1873 and the Imperial Ordinance of September 22, 1875 introduced the 100 Pfennig mark as legal tender with effect from January 1, 1876.
→ Main article: Old weights and measures (bathing)
If several systems of units already existed side by side in the regions of the old margravates , these became hardly manageable with the territorial gain at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1810 a new system of weights and measures was established, which retained the names of the traditional units and changed their size a little, so that simple conversion factors were created for the metric units of France and the units were largely dependent on one another in decimal division. It was not until 1829 that the new units were declared generally binding with calibration regulations . On January 1, 1872, Baden then introduced the unified imperial metric system of units.
In 1815 there were around one million inhabitants in Baden, the number of which had grown to around 2.14 million by 1910. This corresponds to an increase of 113%, which was well below the average for the German Reich. On the Reich territory within the borders of 1914 there was an increase of 162% over the same period. In the neighboring state of Württemberg, however, population growth was only 73%. Like Württemberg, Baden had considerable development tasks to solve throughout the 19th century. More than three quarters of the population lived in small rural communities even after 1850. The people often suffered from poverty and shortages as a result of the peasant and small-scale structure of the economy, which led to particularly pressing social hardship in the famine years of 1816/17 and 1846/47. Many people employed in agriculture had lost their jobs in the crisis since 1846. Almost a third of the population was homeless around the middle of the century and belonged to the so-called "tramps" and "vagantes". Poverty often drove people to crime, particularly noticeable in the form of wood theft, grazing and poaching. For many, internal migration from Baden to another country of the German Confederation or emigration such as to Russia or America was the only seemingly possible way out. In the years from 1816 to 1845, an estimated 50,000 people from Baden emigrated. From 1850 to 1855, the Baden state financially supported emigration with 1.6 million guilders, so that around a quarter of the US emigrants recorded received state support to leave the country. Between 1845 and 1854, around 134,000 people left the Grand Duchy of Baden. Conversely, Baden was not yet an attractive destination for immigration in the first half of the 19th century.
The emigration situation only changed gradually with the dawn of the industrial age in the second half of the 19th century. Workers' settlements formed in the cities that were now growing rapidly, but there was an increasing housing shortage. In many cases, large working-class families had to share a small apartment with only one room. Hygienic conditions that were sometimes difficult to describe then prevailed there. The annual report of the Badische Fabrikinspektion from 1895 mentions the ragged and neglected impression made by the people there using an example from the workers' village of Sandhofen near Mannheim. The housing misery went hand in hand with the spread of diseases, particularly tuberculosis .
The following table shows Baden's population development in the 19th and early 20th centuries:
The number of live births per 1000 inhabitants fell noticeably towards the middle of the century, which can be attributed to the famines, the revolution and the wave of emigration from 1845 to 1857. From 1840 to 1849 there were an average of 39 live births per 1000 inhabitants, from 1850 to 1859 it was around 35 per year and from 1860 to 1869 again around 38 per year. From 1870 to 1879 the number reached its peak of around 40 live births per year per 1000 inhabitants and then fell again to a level of around 34 live births per 1000 inhabitants and year. Since 1850, the proportion of those born out of wedlock fell from over 16% to under 8% in 1909. The reason for this can be seen in the introduction of civil marriage in 1869. The Grand Duchy of Baden achieved this as one of the results of the Kulturkampf with the Catholic Church and was thus a pioneer of the civil marriage introduced throughout the German Empire on February 6, 1875.
Economic development until 1850
Initial situation after the establishment of the Grand Duchy
When the Grand Duchy of Baden had survived the turmoil of war during the Napoleonic era in 1815, the country began its peaceful continuation of the steady path to modernity. The actors in Baden turned out to be mostly very decisive reformers. However, the first decades of the new state were still burdened with considerable development problems. The inhabitants of the new country were still under the impression of the class society of the fallen Holy Roman Empire, which was shaped by many traditions, and had barely coped with the effects of the reorganization through Napoleon's policy. In some places a small group of gentlemen of the old nobility still exercised a powerful influence. Over the past centuries, the territories on the Upper Rhine had repeatedly fallen victim to the numerous armed conflicts between France and the Habsburgs. Terrible war suffering with looting and pillage has been repeated at irregular intervals since the Thirty Years' War.
Shipping on the Upper Rhine was slow in pre-industrial times and associated with many troubles and dangers, even though the river was an important transport route for the neighbors even before it was regulated. Downstream the hardly maneuverable wooden ships on the Upper Rhine were mostly rowed and sails could only be set when the wind was favorable, while upstream they were moved by ship-pullers or with the help of horses from land. This so-called towing was hard and dangerous work. There was also a constant risk of flooding for the landscape along the Rhine.
Although Alsace had belonged politically to the Kingdom of France since the 17th century, its Alemannic peculiarities and its economic ties with the territories to the right of the Rhine remained practically untouched throughout the 18th century. However, due to the events of the French Revolution, Alsace was now included in the French economic area, the enforcement of the French language and culture was promoted and the customs border moved from the Vosges ridge to the Rhine. Since the beginning of the 19th century, Baden suffered from its newly emerging economic peripheral location.
Agricultural state in the first half of the 19th century
In the decades up to the revolution of 1848/49, the overall structure of the economy changed little. Only about a quarter of the population lived in the cities, the rest in the countryside mostly as small farmers or artisans. The largest cities in Baden in 1850 were Karlsruhe (23,000 inhabitants), Mannheim (22,100 inhabitants), Freiburg (15,300 inhabitants), Heidelberg (13,500 inhabitants) and Pforzheim (8,000 inhabitants). Rastatt was also important as a garrison town, as a spa and bathing resort of Baden-Baden, which at that time was only called Baden like the state, as well as the industrial locations of Bruchsal , Ettlingen , Offenburg and Lahr , which were just beginning to develop .
The Markgräflerland as a Baden wine region already developed Margrave Karl Friedrich to the production of quality wines. During his lifetime, viticulture was expanded to include vineyards on Lake Constance, in Kraichgau and in Taubergrund. Ferdinand Öchsle made an important contribution to the culture of viticulture in Baden with the invention of the wine scale.
A typical product for the country has always been the Black Forest clock, which the clockmakers made in-house in small workshops. Suppliers specialized in the manufacture of the individual parts. In this way, 15 million clocks were made by craftsmen in the Black Forest between 1800 and 1850 . When the handicraft production of clocks became increasingly difficult in the middle of the century, the Grand Ducal Badische Uhrmacherschule was opened in Furtwangen in 1850 . In Baden, paper was traditionally made by paper millers who worked in small businesses of 6 to 20 people.
In the imperial cities acquired by Baden, the guilds still played an important role. Only in the year 1862 came the end of the guild system and with it the general freedom of trade. In addition to the guilds, there have always been so-called sturgeon craftsmen, such as the scissors grinders, who did not belong to any guild. These primarily supplied the rural population with essential goods and services. The annual and weekly markets held in many places remained important for the exchange of goods throughout the 19th century. Since 1805 a big fair has been held in Karlsruhe under the name Messe .
In competition with the guilds, which were in decline, some craft businesses managed to develop into factories. In 1829 the Grand Duchy of Baden had six cotton spinning mills, 13 cotton weaving mills, three cloth factories, a textile printing plant, ten paper factories and eleven chemical factories in the Grand Duchy of Baden.
In 1843, however, there were only around 10,000 factory workers in all of Baden. Most of the commercial enterprises belonged to the middle class and employed around 150,000 people with owners and auxiliary staff throughout the country. Child labor played a role in trade and industry .
At the beginning of the 19th century, the publishing industry developed in Karlsruhe, which was so important for bourgeois society in the Biedermeier era . Important publishers in Karlsruhe were David Marx , August Klose , Ludwig Frommel , Wilhelm Creuzbauer and Adolph Bielefeld .
When, in 1836, the technically advanced Swiss cotton industry was forced to pay customs duties for its imports into the Baden market, which was now part of the German customs association, the Swiss manufacturers and financiers decided to build new textile factories in Baden in order to cover the entire German market for themselves to tap into. For example, Wilhelm Geigy built a stone spinning and weaving mill from 1835 onwards . For the generation of the energy, not steam, but water power played the decisive role. In 1844 there were already 93 cotton factories in Baden with a total of 6,929 employees.
According to plans by Johann Gottfried Tulla , the Upper Rhine was straightened from 1817 to 1874 and further regulated on the initiative of Max Honsell . The Rhine thus became a major European waterway. In 1827 the first steamship sailed on the Rhine.
At the Vienna punctuation in May 1820, the southern German states agreed to start negotiations for a customs union . However, since the customs union failed in 1823 due to the different commercial policy ideas of the participating states, it was not until 1836 before Baden could join the German customs union founded in 1834 . In the period before 1836, Baden did not take part in the process of economic integration in Germany and instead, as a transit country, cultivated its trade relations with France and Switzerland.
The first line of the Baden State Railways on the main Mannheim - Basel line was built and put into operation between 1840 and 1855. As a result of the great improvement in transport options, permanent grocery stores and general stores were increasingly being built in the places with rail connections.
When the Haber and Kusel banking houses in Karlsruhe collapsed at the beginning of 1848, this brought not only many private investors but also the three largest industrial companies in Baden into dire straits: the sugar factory in Waghäusel, the spinning and weaving mill in Ettlingen and the mechanical engineering company in Karlsruhe. On January 29, 1848, against the opposition of Friedrich Hecker, the state parliament followed a government proposal to assume the interest guarantees in order to secure the jobs of the three companies threatened with bankruptcy.
Political development from 1818 to 1848
Beginning of the Berstett era
On December 8, 1818, the conservative Grand Duke Ludwig succeeded his deceased nephew Karl to the Baden throne. He opposed the constitution of 1818 and the state parliament from the outset and surrounded himself with conservative ministers from the Berstett government .
According to the provisions of the Civil Servants Act of 1819, only academics could become civil servants in non-dismissable positions; it privileged them from unwanted competition from lower social classes. Under disciplinary law, qualifications and loyalty to the state were rewarded through promotion, salary increases, and other career opportunities. A new performance elite emerged, which was materially and socially secure and behaved loyally to the state.
The first election for the second chamber of the Baden Estates Assembly took place in February 1819. Many of the elected MPs were close to liberalism. Not quite half of the elected officials belonged to the higher civil service. There was also a large group of traders and some mayors.
Between the election and the first meeting of the Baden state parliament, there was an assassination attempt on the territory of the Grand Duchy with far-reaching consequences for liberal circles. On March 23, 1819, the student Karl Sand murdered the Russian State Councilor and conservative-minded playwright August von Kotzebue . After the murder, the Karlovy Vary resolutions were passed on August 31, 1819, with which the Austrian State Chancellor Metternich initiated the persecution of the bourgeois-liberal opposition ("demagogue persecutions") in the states of the German Confederation. The federal states now drastically restricted the freedom of the press under the supervision of the newly established Mainz Central Investigative Commission .
First Baden State Parliament 1819
On April 22, 1819, the second chamber of the Baden state parliament met for the first time. The opening ceremony took place at the invitation of Grand Duke Ludwig in Karlsruhe Palace . In the following months, the MPs discussed the demands of the liberal parliamentary group under the leadership of Ludwig von Liebenstein , Johann Georg Duttlinger and Mathias Föhrenbach . The list of demands included the introduction of jury courts, the separation of justice and administration, freedom of the press, the introduction of ministerial responsibility, the abolition of the manorial rights of the nobility and the clearance of intra-German trade. With this, the liberal parliamentarians were already outlining the problems that would determine the debates of the coming decades. The far-reaching rejection of the catalog of demands by the conservative Berstett government pushed liberalism into the opposition. There were also some officials among the members of parliament who acted in opposition. This worried the Baden government and therefore asked the German Confederation for support. On June 28, 1819, the Grand Duke postponed further sessions of the Landtag to a later date.
The Frankfurt Territorial Recess of July 10, 1819 secured the territorial integrity of Baden against Bavarian claims to the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine as well as the acquisition of the remnant of the Principality of von der Leyen around the former County of Hohengeroldseck, which was enclosed by the Baden state territory .
With the Vienna Final Act , an attempt by the Baden government to enforce a general ban on representative constitutions failed. This would have made it possible to revise the existing constitution of 1818, but under pressure from Bavaria and Württemberg, the final act guaranteed the already existing constitutions of the states of the German Confederation.
On June 26, 1820, the second session of the state parliament was opened. It was overshadowed by transfers, refusals to leave and even arrests of unpopular MPs. However, the Berstett government soon had to give in because the German Confederation did not sufficiently support its policy. The Second Chamber was now somewhat accommodating to the Baden government and avoided a fundamental opposition in the future.
Parliament from 1822
From March 26, 1822, the sessions of the newly elected second state parliament initially appeared to be quite conflict-free. The unpopular Baron Ludwig von Liebenstein had been transferred to the post of district director in Durlach. Such and other similar harassment mostly came from the Bundestag representative Friedrich Karl Freiherr von Blittersdorff . In the second session from November 1822, however, there were conflicts between the government and the Second Chamber. From January 1823 there was a loud dispute over the military budget, which favored the formation of factions. The opposition, grouped around its central figure Johann Adam von Itzstein , strengthened their cohesion. This development induced Grand Duke Ludwig to close the state parliament on January 31, 1823 and to refuse the approval of all passed laws. Officials who voted against the military budget faced government dismissal, retirement or transfer.
Constitutional battles in the second half of the Berstett era
In December 1824, the Grand Duke dissolved both chambers of the Landtag. In the subsequent new elections, the government brought the new Second Chamber in line with massive electoral influence. There were now only three opposition MPs - Johann Georg Duttlinger, Mathias Fährebach and Albert Ludwig Grimm. The state parliament finally adopted a conscription law without further discussion, with which the drafting into the army was regulated and the service period was set at a uniform six years. The liberal opposition said because of connivance of the chamber on this issue then by a sham . From February to June 1825 the third state parliament met without any significant highlights. The newly elected state parliament approved the budget and approved constitutional amendments, in which the complete state parliament renewal, which takes place every six years, was retained, but the partial elections held every two years were abolished and the budget period was increased to three years. Since, according to the new constitution, the interval between the meetings of the Second Chamber could be extended from a maximum of two to three years, because it was only after this period that their approval of a new budget became necessary, the Landtag consented to the government's own loss of power . In the fourth conference period from February to May 1828 the Berstett government was able to rely on a devoted majority in the state parliament. In the opinion of the opposition, politics remained without visions and an urgently needed communal and agricultural reform did not progress.
Despite all disputes with the estates, Grand Duke Ludwig's reign also had positive aspects. His government improved the state administration, restructured the state finances, which were desolate after the chaos of war, through consistent savings, and vigorously promoted the burgeoning industry.
In the Grand Duchy of Baden there was a change of throne on March 30, 1830. Grand Duke Ludwig I died. He was the last direct male descendant of the Zähringer line . Since he had not entered into any civil marriage, his dynastic branch died out with him in the male line. In accordance with the resolutions passed at the Aachen Congress in 1818, power passed to the House of Baden-Hochberg . Ludwig's stepbrother Leopold took over the throne. Its rule was not questioned by the other German states or major European powers. Only the Bavarian King Ludwig I made claims to areas of the Palatinate after the Baden main line had died out. The people of Baden hoped for reforms under the new Grand Duke. However, he initially left the government of his predecessor with the conservative ministers Berstett and Berckheim in office. It was only under the influence of the July Revolution in Paris in 1830 that the liberal movement had its say.
Liberalism and Freedom of the Press
Before the election of 1830, at the instigation of Ludwig Georg Winter, a government circular instructed the district directors not to influence the upcoming state elections in any way. In the run-up to these elections, there was a strong politicization. According to the will of the opposition, the constitutional amendment from 1825 should be reversed and the re-election of the members of parliament from 1819 to 1823 should be achieved. In the state elections on November 18, 1830, ten supporters of the government and 21 determined liberals won a mandate for the Second Chamber, including Karl von Rotteck , Karl Theodor Welcker , Johann Adam von Itzstein and Johann Georg Duttlinger . A further twelve mandates went to moderate liberals, including Karl Mittermaier , and 20 to undecided, some of whom also leaned towards liberalism. The second chamber of the Baden Estates Assembly was a clearly audible mouthpiece for Baden liberalism and the German unification movement until 1848 .
On December 29, 1830, the new Winter government was formed. The new Interior Minister Ludwig Georg Winter, now the head of the cabinet, was faced with the difficult task of finding a compromise between the strong liberal tendency in public opinion and the basic restorative mood in the German Confederation. On March 17, 1831, the Grand Duke opened the new Baden state parliament for a nine-month session. The constitutional amendments of 1825 were repealed. The two-year partial elections could take place again, which contributed to the formation of a political public. On October 15, 1831, Karl Theodor Welcker came to the lectern of the Second Chamber and presented a motion on the organic development of the German Confederation. He called for constitutions for all federal states and an all-German parliament. The Baden government tried to prevent this speech. The ministers saw the prerogatives of the German princes threatened by Welcker's demands; The ministers demonstratively left the plenary chamber when Welcker spoke.
Under the influence of Interior Minister Winter, the municipal code was modernized. The state parliament passed a new press law and a new code of civil procedure. In October 1831 the Second Chamber refused to join the South German Customs Union and instead called for negotiations on an all-German customs and trade union. The Baden government adopted the chamber's customs policy demands and declared itself in Berlin in May 1832 for an all-German customs and trade association. However, the government from Karlsruhe was not invited to any further discussions on this matter.
After press censorship was lifted on March 1, 1832, the daily newspaper Der Freisinnige, founded by Rotteck and Welcker, appeared in Freiburg for the first time . In addition, three other opposition papers were distributed in the southern Baden university town, so that Freiburg developed into a center of Baden liberalism. After the events surrounding the Hambach Festival from May 27 to 30, 1832, Austria and Prussia forced the Baden government in July 1832 to withdraw the liberal press law.
After the first two years of the Winter government, the attempt to govern liberally in Baden contrary to the principles of the German Confederation had failed. With the reactivation of Sigismund von Reitzenstein as Minister of State in May 1832, the Grand Duke wanted to put a stop to liberal, democratic and national aspirations in the spirit of Prince Metternich . This turn in government policy sparked protests across the country. Particularly loud came from among the students in Freiburg. The government then closed the university for some time and retired professors Karl von Rotteck and Karl Theodor Welcker from Freiburg in October 1832.
Before the supplementary elections to the Second Chamber in March 1833, the government again issued instructions to the authorities for the election of those MPs who would be willing to make concessions to government policy. Against the fierce resistance of the First Chamber, the law to replace the tithe came into being in the autumn of 1833. Further laws enacted the abolition of the remaining feudal rights, known as peasant emancipation. At the Vienna Conference of 1834, Minister of State Sigismund Freiherr von Reitzenstein took part as a representative of Baden. As a result, he advocated the tightening of political repression that had been decided there, which restricted the political will of broader sections of the population, including in Baden. The two compulsorily retired professors Karl von Rotteck and Karl Theodor Welcker published the first volume of the State Lexicon in 1834 . It appeared in its first edition in 15 volumes from 1834 to 1843 and exerted a great influence on the liberal bourgeoisie in Germany.
In the autumn of 1833, Karl Friedrich Nebenius published a memorandum in which he advocated Baden joining the Zollverein. After heated debates, the Second Chamber accepted the treaty negotiated by the government to join the German Customs Union at the beginning of July 1835 with 40 to 22 votes. The opposition, led by MPs Rotteck and Welcker, vehemently refused to join, but joining the customs union on January 1, 1836 proved to be very advantageous in the long term for the Baden state and its emerging industry.
At the end of 1835, the previous Foreign Minister Johann von Türckheim resigned. Now, by appointing the conservative Baden Bundestag envoy Friedrich Karl Freiherr von Blittersdorff to this office , Sigismund von Reitzenstein ensured a significant shift in the balance within the government - the conservative ministers now predominated in the cabinet. The more liberal Interior Minister Ludwig Georg Winter was now isolated in the cabinet with his views.
The radical democratic Seeblätter , edited by Joseph Fickler , was published in Constance in July 1836 . On April 25, 1837, Joseph von Buß raised the social question in the state parliament. His famous “ factory speech ” is considered to be the first socio-political speech before a German parliament. Although Buss was in favor of the industrialization that was in progress , he saw the disadvantages for the workers and demanded aid from the state. The proposals mentioned in the speech were visionary. They ranged from working time restrictions and accident protection to educational measures and state aid for business start-ups. In addition, agriculture and handicrafts should be promoted at the expense of industry and a separate labor ministry should be set up. However, the advance did not result in any concrete measures.
The government applied for the construction of a railway line from Mannheim via Heidelberg, Bruchsal, Karlsruhe, Rastatt, Offenburg and Freiburg to Basel, as well as a branch line to the city of Baden and a branch line to Strasbourg. The government and the First Chamber initially campaigned for a private railway, but the liberal opposition in the Landtag advocated a state-owned railway from the start. Karl Friedrich Nebenius finally won a majority in the first chamber of an extraordinary state parliament in March 1838. He then headed the Ministry of the Interior from April 26, 1838 to October 5, 1839 in the Nebenius government named after him . The state parliament ratified the treaties with the Grand Duchy of Hesse- Darmstadt and the Free City of Frankfurt via a connection to the north. Construction of the Baden Railway began in September 1838 . In the elections to the state parliament in February and March 1839, the liberal opposition won an election, with which the population also expressed their approval of the state railway.
Repression policy in the Blittersdorf era
With the resignation of Karl Friedrich Nebenius as Minister of the Interior at the beginning of October 1839, the Conservative Minister Friedrich Landolin Karl von Blittersdorf was able to lead the new cabinet unchallenged as the "Blittersdorf Government" . Blittersdorf interpreted the national patriotic excitement triggered by the Rhine Crisis in 1840 as a conservative turn in public opinion and allowed himself to be tempted to take tough measures against liberalism. A criminal law reform debated in the second chamber of the state parliament from March to May 1840 failed because the first chamber delayed approval. With a view to enforcing the right to freedom of the press, Karl Theodor Welcker called on June 19, 1840, to limit the influence of the German Confederation on the member states. After the supplementary elections to the state parliament in April 1841, Blittersdorff succeeded in ensuring that two judges elected to the second chamber were refused the vacation necessary for the exercise of their mandate, which triggered a serious conflict with the opposition in the state parliament. Public opinion increasingly supported the opposition in the holiday dispute. On August 4, 1841, the Grand Duke adjourned the Chamber and a day later accused it in a manifest of having obstructed the necessary legislative work by being insubordinate on the vacation issue. At the request of Johann Adam von Itzstein , the Second Chamber found on February 18, 1842 that the Grand Duke's manifesto of August 5, 1841 was not constitutional because it had not been ratified by the state parliament. The following day, Grand Duke Leopold dissolved the chamber.
In the new elections to the Second Chamber in April and May 1842, the government again sought to gain a conservative majority in the state parliament by influencing the election. For the first time and in a previously unknown form of politicization, the election campaign was aimed directly at the electorate. The liberal opposition strove to remove Blittersdorff from the ministerial office; The outcome of the election suited the opposition; Although it narrowly missed an absolute majority, the party of government supporters was weaker than it. Of the 63 seats, the Liberals won 31, the radical 22 among them and the moderately opposition 9; the conservative ministerial party, however, only had 27 seats. 5 MPs were undecided. Blittersdorff downplayed the importance of the election results and only wanted the Chamber to discuss the budget and obtain approval for the planned measures in the railway construction. This time, the Grand Duke invited only members of parliament loyal to the government to the traditional dinner at the opening of the Landtag; on previous such occasions he had always invited everyone. During the budget deliberations, the opposition attacked the government violently and raised many other political issues. On August 19, 1842, the Second Chamber expressed mistrust in the government with 34 to 24 votes, but after long debates approved the budget in September 1842, so that the state parliament came to a regular conclusion. After its closure, the political controversy in the press continued. Above all the radical Seeblätter in Konstanz, the liberal Oberrheinische Zeitung in Freiburg and the Mannheimer Zeitung supported the opposition. This circumvented the censorship by publishing state-political articles in newspapers that appeared outside of Baden, but were allowed to be sold in Baden without restriction. On the occasion of the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Baden constitution on August 22, 1843, the liberal movement even got almost 100,000 participants off the ground. In view of this strong participation of the population and because he believed that he was not getting enough support from Austria, Blittersdorff submitted his resignation as minister at the end of October 1843, especially since cabinet members now also spoke out against the conservative course of government policy.
Last years in March
The last years of the Vormärz were politically more relaxed in Baden than the previous Blittersdorf era. The new Boeckh government appeared much more moderate; it convened the state parliament in November 1843 for extensive deliberations. This enabled the penal reform to be completed in February 1845. On March 6, 1845, a new judicial constitution was introduced, which also separated the administration of justice from the administration at the lower level. The new criminal code and the new code of criminal procedure came into force. The practical implementation of these judicial reforms dragged on, however, because of the revolutionary events of 1848/49 until the 1950s.
After the Protestant pastor and member of parliament Karl Zittel introduced a motion in the state parliament on February 8, 1846 to equate so-called German Catholicism with the other Christian denominations, he unintentionally led to political mass protests by the Roman Catholic majority, which included the liberal democratic and liberal-minded German Catholics did not want to see placed on the same level as themselves. About 50,000 Baden residents from numerous Roman Catholic communities gathered to protest against Zittel's ideas. The government reacted to this unusual political pressure from Catholic circles with the supposedly tried and tested instrument of dissolving the state parliament.
In the state elections in May 1846 the Liberals won an overwhelming victory, the number of their seats grew to 36. Even the previous Foreign Minister Blittersdorff, meanwhile again envoy to the Bundestag in Frankfurt, was of the opinion that liberal MPs should be included in government responsibility, to break the peak of the protest mood. Repeated bad harvests in previous years and in 1846 itself brought inflation that triggered a general economic crisis. At the turn of the year 1846/47, the country experienced an oppressive starvation winter, the prelude to a whole decade of crisis that turned crowds of country children into beggars and drove them to emigrate. In this general crisis, the MP Friedrich Hecker demonstratively joined the radicals in mid-October 1846, on the grounds that the liberals were far too sparing the Nebenius government . With Josef Fickler and Gustav Struve , Hecker now led the radical opposition. In order to avert a break between the liberal and radical members of the opposition in the state parliament, members of parliament Karl Theodor Welcker, Friedrich Daniel Bassermann and Karl Mathy invited to a meeting in Durlach at which the differences between the oppositional currents were to be settled. However, neither Hecker nor Struve appeared; the break between liberals and radicals was thus completed at the end of November 1846. The moderate liberals thereupon decided in Durlach on November 29, 1846 to found the Deutsche Zeitung , which was to be an organ of enlightened bourgeois liberalism for all of Germany and appeared from July 1847. With the formation of the Bekk government at the end of December 1846, the moderate liberals believed that they had already achieved their political goals, although the government did not want to make any major concessions to liberalism.
On September 12, 1847, several hundred supporters of the Baden radicals gathered in Offenburg ( Offenburg assembly ). In the local Gasthaus Zum Salmen , Friedrich Hecker presented a basic document in his 13 statements of demands of the German people , which demanded the creation of a democratic and social republic based on the self-determination of the people. At the Heppenheim conference on October 10, 1847, half of the 18 participants, all of them leading south and west German liberal politicians, came from Baden. There they demanded the creation of a German nation-state and the granting of civil rights.
Before the supplementary elections to the state parliament in October 1847, liberals and radicals entered the election campaign separately. The radical democrats were only able to win a few votes from the electorate, so that the liberal center in the state parliament became stronger.
→ Main article: Baden Revolution
The revolution is on its way
The history of the Baden revolution, which ultimately failed, took place in three stages: In April 1848, radical Republican revolutionaries led by Friedrich Hecker and Gustav Struve rebelled against the liberal government of the Grand Duke. In September 1848 Gustav Struve tried again with his supporters a putsch; the German republic proclaimed in Lörrach remained an episode. The failure of the Frankfurt National Assembly was followed by the great Baden uprising in May and June 1849, in which the state army also participated and which forced the Grand Duke to flee abroad. The Baden Revolutionary Government that formed in the process could not hold power in the country for long, however, because the Prussian army, led by the so-called Kartätschenprinzen , quickly overthrew the revolution.
As early as the beginning of 1848, voices rose in the Baden state parliament calling for a clear change in the state of the country. On February 12, 1848, Friedrich Daniel Bassermann demanded in a motion that the German Confederation be converted into a nation-state with a federal constitution. On February 23, 1848, the state parliament debated press censorship, which Karl Theodor Welcker demanded to be abolished. As a reaction to the February Revolution in France, the Mannheim People's Assembly drew up a catalog of demands on February 27, 1848, including the responsibility of the ministers to the state parliament, the swearing-in of the army on the constitution, the abolition of existing feudal prerogatives, and the establishment of juries and the repeal of the exceptional laws. On February 29, 1848, the government promised the fulfillment of central demands of the opposition; she promised the introduction of jury courts and the abolition of press censorship in the state parliament. In addition, the arming of the citizens was supposed to contain the danger of a war that was considered possible with a French republic that was once again becoming expansive.
On March 1, 1848, a mass demonstration took place in Karlsruhe; the demonstrators marched in front of the Ständehaus and Friedrich Hecker presented their demands in the Second Chamber; they largely corresponded to the program of the radical democrats. The majority of the chamber finally adopted the demands and the government promised to meet them. First, Johann Baptist Bekk put the press law of 1831 and with it the freedom of the press back into force. On March 9, the Grand Duke appointed a new so-called March government , the liberal Hoffmann cabinet . Karl Theodor Welcker replaced the reactionary envoy Blittersdorff at the Bundestag in Frankfurt. What the liberal bourgeoisie in other German countries, such as Prussia or Austria , demanded in vain during the March Revolution , a liberally composed government based on a state constitution, was thus already implemented in the Grand Duchy of Baden in March 1848. However, this was not enough for the Radical Democrats in Baden.
Their people's assembly in Offenburg, called on March 19, 1848, in which 20,000 people from Baden took part, now made demands that went far beyond the liberal reform legislation. For example, a redesign of the two chambers of the state parliament was required. Patriotic associations were promised in every parish, on the basis of which a tight central organization was to be established.
On March 31, 1848, the leaders of the Baden radicals Friedrich Hecker and Gustav Struve did not succeed in asserting themselves in the Frankfurt pre-parliament with their program of action and they failed to get into the committee that was supposed to oversee the formation of the German National Assembly. On April 10, 1848, the Baden law to abolish the feudal rights of the landlords came into force.
The Hecker train in April 1848 and its consequences
After Josef Fickler had called for the abolition of the monarchy at a people's assembly on April 2, he was arrested on April 8, 1848 while passing through at Karlsruhe Central Station. This prompted Armand Goegg to bring the 400 democratic people's associations together in protest actions. As a further consequence, Friedrich Hecker and Gustav Struve carried out the first uprising in Baden from April 13 to 20, 1848. Hecker and Struve went to Constance and proclaimed the republic. The able-bodied men of the Seekreis should form an armed platoon through the Oberland. Instead of the expected 40,000 men, only 3,000 to 4,000 took part in the uprising. With the support of federal troops, the Baden army was able to immediately lead 30,000 men into the field and bloodily defeated the so-called Heckerzug in battles near Kandern , Stein and Günterstal. The German Democratic Legion , led by the socialist poet Georg Herwegh from exile in France in support of Hecker, was wiped out on April 27, 1848 in a battle near Dossenbach near the town of Schopfheim . The army took Freiburg, which had also been occupied by the rebels, and Mannheim and placed them back under the government in Karlsruhe. The radical leaders fled to neighboring countries, France or Switzerland. The government banned the opposition democratic people's associations, including all choral and gymnastics associations, and exercised severe censorship. The grievances in the social area had fueled the resentment of large sections of the population. That is why many people in Baden hardly observed the prohibitions.
In the election to the German National Assembly in April and May 1848, predominantly left-wing groups won the 19 Baden mandates because many moderately liberal and conservative voters did not vote. On May 18, 1848, the opening of the National Assembly took place in Frankfurt.
Another survey under Gustav Struve
→ Main article: Struve Putsch
The National Assembly meeting in Frankfurt provided the occasion for the second attempted coup in Baden. This had set up a transitional government in the form of the Provisional Central Authority . The transitional government approved an armistice between Prussia and Denmark after armed conflicts over the nationality of Schleswig. The radical left protested and organized violent unrest in Frankfurt. This news from Frankfurt inspired the thoughts of the Baden revolutionaries in exile.
From 21 to 23 September 1848 there was therefore the second Baden uprising, the so-called Struve Putsch . Gustav Struve stepped from Switzerland across the border to Baden on June 21 and proclaimed the German Republic in Loerrach. With a small group of followers, he headed north. On the third day the Baden Army brought him to Staufen and put down the uprising. In doing so, Struve was captured.
Between the second and the third uprising
In mid-October 1848, the Baden state parliament discussed social policy issues in a heated atmosphere. The Baden government, however, did not want to allow any decisions that would have had to be changed later as soon as the expected imperial constitution had come from the Paulskirche in Frankfurt. Nevertheless, the Baden state parliament pushed through the abolition of the death penalty, the establishment of jury courts and equal treatment of religious communities. This gave the male Jews general civil rights at the state level, but not at the municipal level! Nonetheless, it was another step on the way to Jewish emancipation. Almost a third of the Baden MPs under the leadership of Christian Kapp denied the current Second Chamber the right to exist and demanded the election of a Baden National Assembly.
When the German National Assembly in Frankfurt at the end of December 1848 guaranteed the right to freedom of association within the framework of basic rights, the Baden government had to give the democratic people's associations a free hand. A regional association was formed under the chairmanship of the lawyer Lorenz Brentano , but the actual leading figure was the second chairman Amand Goegg . The association consisted of around 400 local groups with around 35,000 members. As a counter-movement to the democratic people's associations, the national association of "patriotic associations" was formed on the part of the moderate liberals in February 1849. This association, founded in Durlach, found little approval and only had 4,000 members in 35 local associations.
On January 11, 1849, the second chamber of the Baden state parliament spoke out in favor of the small German solution with the Prussian king at the head of a hereditary monarchy. On February 17, 1849, the chamber passed the resolution to submit a bill for a new electoral code to the government. With the reference to the new basic rights according to the Paulskirche constitution, all professional privileges should be abolished so that the members of the First Chamber could also be elected and no longer appointed. In mid-April 1849, the Baden state parliament discussed the draft law for the new electoral code. The first chamber should therefore be appointed with three-tier voting rights with one third of the tax capital. In future, it should no longer be the status but rather the assets that should be privileged. The Reich Election Act should apply to the Second Chamber, which is to be reduced to 55 mandates. The Second Chamber approved the draft after making a few changes. The vote of the First Chamber did not take place before the outbreak of the May Revolution.
March 28, 1849 marked an important date, because on this day the National Assembly in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt passed the German constitution after long disputes. On April 11, 1849, the Baden government announced that Grand Duke Leopold recognized the imperial constitution. Another 28 German state governments followed this example. The great Baden May Revolution of 1849 had its real cause in the rejection of the German imperial crown by the King of Prussia on April 28, 1849. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV did not want to accept this title, as it was based on a democratic decision by elected members of the National Assembly (see Imperial Deputation ). This contradicted his ideas of divine right. The National Assembly in Frankfurt now called on the people in the German states to enforce the all-German constitution. The popular movement for the adopted imperial constitution, the so-called imperial constitution campaign , led to several nuclei of crystallization - especially in Baden - to the May revolution.
May Revolution 1849
On May 12, 1849, there was a military mutiny in the Rastatt fortress . Desolate military conditions had led to a long pent-up discontent in the army, which now erupted into open riot after the revolutionary idea had spread to the troops. On May 13, 1849, the Baden radicals called a state assembly of the people's associations in Offenburg, in which around 40,000 people took part, including many soldiers. A delegation from the people's associations submitted three demands to the Minister of the Interior, Johann Baptist Bekk : the grand ducal government of Hoffmann should resign, the revolutionaries of 1848 should receive an amnesty and a constituent assembly should be elected. However, Bekk showed no understanding for this and insisted on observing the existing constitution and legality. The state committee elected in Offenburg under the leadership of Lorenz Brentano had the following resolutions passed: the formation of a revolutionary Brentano government , the convening of a constituent state assembly and the amalgamation of the national armed forces and the army. The state committee should meet permanently in Rastatt. After the military mutinied in the Karlsruhe garrison on the same day and unrest broke out in the royal seat, Grand Duke Leopold fled via Alsace to the Rhineland. One day later, on May 14, 1849, the state parliament met for its last session. However, there was no official closure. After 182 day-long sessions, power now lay with the state committee of people's associations.
On June 3, 1849, the men of Baden who were eligible to vote voted on the composition of a constituent state assembly in accordance with the election regulations of the German National Assembly . The election went largely smoothly with little participation. The members of the Baden Constituent Assembly of 1849 belonged to the middle class and were on average 39 years old. After the fled Grand Duke Leopold had appointed Klüber's new conservative government-in-exile under Prussian pressure on June 6, 1849 and had begun accession negotiations to the Three Kings Alliance between Prussia , Saxony and Hanover , the Prussian government promised to comply with the Grand Duke's request for assistance and against the Baden Revolution to proceed militarily.
On June 10, 1849, the constituent state assembly was ceremoniously opened in Rastatt. As of June 30th, there had been 14 public and two secret sessions. The delegates mainly dealt with current topics of the day. Two factions emerged: the moderate left wanted to keep the monarchy for the time being, while the determined left supported the republic. On June 13, 1849, the state assembly confirmed Lorenz Brentano as chairman of the revolutionary government. The lawyer and chairman of the state committee of the people's associations was elected to the head of the triple college, which led the state's affairs of state. From June 14, 1849, the Baden People's Army had to fight against the army of the Princes of the German Confederation . On the Neckar line, the Baden troops, under the command of the Polish officer Ludwik Mierosławski, waged a hopeless fight against the enemy superiority. This was under the command of the Prussian heir to the throne, Prince Wilhelm . On June 21, 1849, the Baden revolutionaries suffered a decisive defeat in the battle near Waghäusel . The enemy forced them to retreat behind the Murgline. They also had to give up this on June 29 and withdraw to the south of the country. From there, the remnants of the revolutionary army fled to Switzerland on July 11, 1849. On July 23, 1849, the last remaining insurgents capitulated in the enclosed Rastatt fortress. This ended the May revolution in Baden. All of Baden was now occupied by Prussian troops. The Grand Duke's government had been working in Karlsruhe again since the beginning of July. On August 18, 1849, Grand Duke Leopold also returned from exile. The continuity of constitutional law was restored by the traditional closure of the state parliament in November 1849.
Political development from 1849 to 1900
Era of reaction
During the reaction era, Baden remained under the control of the Prussian military for the time being. Thus, Baden's sovereignty after 1849 was severely limited by its dependence on Prussian politics. The Prussian union policy , which began with the so-called Dreikönigsbündnis , created the danger of a war between Prussia and Austria. In the event of a Prussian defeat, Baden was threatened with dismemberment among the southern German neighbors Bavaria and Württemberg, which were on the side of Austria. With the Olomouc puncture this danger was finally averted. The stationing of the Prussian occupation troops, however, devoured large sums of money in taxpayers' money, although in the crisis at the beginning of November 1850 a large part of the Prussian troops were withdrawn from Baden to take up positions against Austria. Martial law remained in Baden until September 1, 1852.
In the supplementary elections to the Landtag in 1850, the Liberals were able to retain their majority in the Second Chamber, but they were ready to compromise with the government. In October 1850, Grand Duke Leopold appointed the reactionary diplomat Ludwig Freiherr Rüdt von Collenberg to succeed the resigned Foreign Minister Friedrich Adolf Klüber as Minister of State of the Grand Ducal House and Foreign Affairs and thus de facto as Chairman of the Rüdt Government . In contrast to Klüber, who came from Prussia, Rüdt was more closely related to Austria. At the Ministerial Conference on the reorganization of the German Confederation, which opened in Dresden on December 23, 1850 , Rüdt succeeded in restoring the trust in the reliability of his country that had been destroyed in Baden after the revolution. The state elections in October 1851 resulted in a conservative majority, so that the government could in future expect backing from the Second Chamber. This was also the case in the three following parliaments until 1858.
With the death of Grand Duke Leopold on April 24, 1852, the reign of Friedrich I began, which lasted more than half a century . From 1852 to 1856 Friedrich was initially regent for his older brother Ludwig II , who formally carried the title of Grand Duke, but was unable to rule from the start due to a mental illness . On September 5, 1856, the regent of Baden officially assumed the title of Grand Duke, as it was now clear that his older brother would no longer get well. Grand Duke Friedrich married the Prussian Princess Luise on September 20, 1856 and thus became the son-in-law of the future first German Emperor . This marriage explains Baden's close ties to Prussia for the second half of the 19th century.
Beginning of the conflict with the Catholic Church
Although almost two thirds of Baden's population were Catholics, Protestantism dominated the country's political leadership. Both the Grand Duke and the majority of the ministers and senior officials were evangelicals. The Baden state exerted a powerful influence on the church through the Catholic Oberkirchenrat in Karlsruhe. This state church system was particularly advocated by liberal circles, but not by the church itself. This was the breeding ground for a conflict between the Baden state and the Catholic Church, which went down in history as the Badischer Kulturkampf . At the beginning of the 1850s, the Archbishop of Freiburg, Hermann von Vicari , wanted his church to become more independent from state tutelage. There were violent disputes between the archbishopric and the upper church council, which culminated in the occupation of Baden officials with the great church ban. Vicari was therefore placed under house arrest in May 1854, before an interim concluded between Baden and the Curia in the summer of 1854 temporarily ended the dispute and the church was already very accommodating.
The two leading ministers of the Stengel-Meysenbug cabinet worked towards a final convention with Rome on the issue of the conflict with the Archdiocese of Freiburg, in which the rights of the church were to be expanded once again. After the treaty was provisionally signed in June 1859 by the plenipotentiaries of both sides, resistance arose from the Liberals. After a storm of indignation, they won the renewal elections for the state parliament in September 1859 and at the end of November 1859 organized a protest meeting against a strong, autonomous Catholic Church and thus against the planned church convention. In a vote in the Second Chamber on March 30, 1860, the deputies rejected the convention as unconstitutional by 46 votes against 15. Grand Duke Friedrich then dismissed the two conservative ministers Franz von Stengel and Wilhelm Rivalier von Meysenbug and formed the Stabel cabinet , headed by the two liberal spokesmen Anton Stabel and August Lamey .
After the Sardinian War ended with an Austrian defeat, the southern German states feared a possible continuation of the war between Austria and France on their territories. The Prussian Prince Regent Wilhelm therefore invited the European princes to a major social event in Baden in Baden from June 16 to 18, 1860 . The French Emperor Napoleon III. came to the Congress of the Princes in Baden-Baden and assured them that this danger did not exist.
New Era Politics
From 1860 to 1866 the politics of the “new era” took place in Baden . In his Easter proclamation of April 7th, 1860, Grand Duke Friedrich announced a reform program, the aim of which was to meet the essential demands of liberalism and to solve the national question, including surrendering the sovereignty of Baden. The Grand Duke wanted to see the churches under strong state control. In the same year five new laws regulated the relationship between state and church. A newly established Ministry of Commerce under the direction of Gideon Weizel drew up a trade law. The spiritual father of the program of the new era was a college friend of the Grand Duke, the liberal MP Franz von Roggenbach , who took over the Foreign Ministry in May 1861.
As part of the new era, the Baden government carried out an administrative reform in 1864 , so that instead of the four district governments there were now 59 district offices directly subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior, which were combined into districts and a total of four state commissariats. Further reforms brought about a new exemplary court system, the establishment of an administrative court, an equal rights law for the Jewish population and the abolition of compulsory guilds.
On the issue of the Kulturkampf, Austria took the position of the Archdiocese of Freiburg resolutely, so that Foreign Minister Roggenbach closely aligned Baden with Prussia. In the state elections in August 1861, the Liberals won a great victory and were able to expand their majority to three quarters of all seats. Two years later the Liberals were able to increase their number of seats in the Second Chamber to 50 seats. In August 1862, the previous denominational school authorities for elementary schools and simultaneous authorities for higher schools were replaced by a newly established simultaneous high school council under the direction of Karl Knies . The high school board worked on a proposal to reform the Baden elementary school system. With the School Supervision Act of July 29, 1864, the government replaced the spiritual local inspections with secular school councils. However, the Catholic Church wanted to maintain the current state of denominational inspections. The Kulturkampf thus continued as a Baden school dispute.
At the Frankfurt Fürstentag in August 1863, Grand Duke Friedrich took the side for the solution of the German question under Prussian leadership. This meant that Austria's further plans for reforming the German Confederation were doomed to failure. In 1865, Foreign Minister Roggenbach resigned against the backdrop of the Schleswig-Holstein crisis . His successor Ludwig von Edelsheim led Baden with 13 states of the German Confederation on the side of Austria against Prussia in the German war , although Grand Duke Friedrich would have preferred Baden's neutrality. This behavior was based on the idea that in the event of a Prussian victory , the Prussian King Wilhelm would probably spare the country of his son-in-law, while a neutral or even on the Prussian side of Baden could not expect any protection in an Austrian victory. Prince Wilhelm , the younger brother of the Grand Duke, took over command of the Baden division in the VIII Federal Corps . When troops of the Prussian and Württemberg armies faced each other on the territory of Baden on July 24, 1866 in the battles near Tauberbischofsheim , Prince Wilhelm kept the Baden troops out of the fighting, which is why he was accused of complicity in the failure of the campaign. However, since the war for Prussia had already been decided with the Battle of Königgrätz on July 3, 1866, the battles and victims of the VIII Federal Corps that took place after that did not seem to make much sense. In the face of the defeat, the Grand Duke dismissed the ministry responsible for entering the war and formed the new Mathy cabinet , which marked the end of the new era and thus the government's pronounced dependence on the parliamentary majority and a return to constitutional governance. On July 29th, the Baden army received the order to return to the barracks.
Baden as a formally completely sovereign state
On July 31, 1866, Baden announced that it was leaving the German Confederation. Outwardly, Baden was now a completely independent subject of international law alongside the three neighboring states of Bavaria, Württemberg and Hesse-Darmstadt in southern Germany . The sovereign Grand Duchy of Baden concluded peace with the Kingdom of Prussia on August 17, 1866 and also agreed a protection and defensive alliance that was kept secret until 1868. The Baden army conformed to the Prussian army. With the formation of the Jolly cabinet on February 12, 1868, the Prussian general Gustav Friedrich von Beyer , who had served as Prussian military representative in Karlsruhe since 1866, was promoted to Baden's war minister. The founding of the North German Confederation required a reorganization of the German Customs Union . The Baden state parliament confirmed the new version of the customs treaty on July 8, 1867. The close relationship with Prussia was evident and also enjoyed broad approval among the Baden population. The liberal party in the state parliament reflected this mood and was therefore close to national liberalism . Some left-wing liberal politicians, as well as the Baden People's Party , which was founded in 1869 and emerged from the Catholic opposition, were against Baden's annexation to a Germany led by Prussia . The Baden Catholics were less interested in a small German solution and more interested in a large German federal solution, including Catholic Austria. In the elections to the customs parliament in February 1868, which, unlike the state elections, were carried out according to general and equal voting rights, the National Liberals received eight seats, the Catholics five and the Conservatives one seat. In the supplementary elections to the Landtag in 1869, however, the People's Party only won four seats, so that the National Liberals were able to maintain their overwhelming majority because of the publicly recorded vote and the indirect election by electors. The outbreak of the Franco-German War came as a complete surprise to the Baden government and the public . Baden announced the mobilization on July 15, 1870 and took part in the war on July 21, 1870. After initial concerns that Baden could have become a battlefield because of the long border with France, these fears dissipated with the victory reports of the Prussian army and its allies.
From the founding of the empire to the turn of the century
On January 18, 1871, the German princes proclaimed the Prussian King German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles. Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden proclaimed the first "Long live Kaiser Wilhelm" to his father-in-law and cleverly avoided the controversial official title "German Emperor", which the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck had enforced after the Federal Princes had given the title "Kaiser von Germany ”had rejected. The Grand Duchy of Baden lost its unrestricted sovereignty in 1871 when it joined the newly founded German Empire . Baden renounced the special rights that the neighboring states of Bavaria and Württemberg were able to enforce. The Grand Duke closed the Baden Foreign Ministry with diplomatic missions abroad. Even a separate war ministry was now a thing of the past. The previous Baden army changed to the area of responsibility of the Prussian imperial army under the name XIV Army Corps . Even the Baden postal and telegraph system was lost to the state as a self-administered institution. Domestically, little changed in Baden. The 1868 cabinet remained in place until 1877, followed by the Turban cabinet and, in 1893, the Nokk cabinet . The governments up to the turn of the century could rely on the nationally liberal majority in the second chamber of the state parliament, although this increasingly crumbled over the years.
The cultural war between the Baden state and the Catholic Church, which began in 1860, reached its climax in the years 1864 to 1876 and only gradually ebbed after the simultaneous school law was passed in 1876. The Simultanschulgesetz determined the abolition of denominational elementary schools, which were replaced by simultaneous schools . In 1880, the Baden government waived the cultural exam so that a major source of conflict between state and church was eliminated.
Grand Duke Friedrich, who took advice from his former Foreign Minister Roggenbach, was critical of the domestic policy of Reich Chancellor Bismarck (Prussian culture war, socialist laws ). However, Baden hardly exercised its influence in the Bundesrat in Berlin, as its own number of votes and thus the political weight in this body was considered too low.
Further political development
→ see: Baden Council of States for an overview of the distribution of seats in the Second Chamber from 1871 to 1918 and an explanation of the politics of the individual parties.
In Baden, as in the other German states, noteworthy approaches to the formation of political parties did not exist until after 1860. Up until then, a distinction was essentially made between the two basic currents of conservative and liberal attitudes. Conservative attitudes generally conformed to the government policy of the existing state, while liberal attitudes went hand in hand with a more or less pronounced oppositional attitude.
Liberalism, which has always been strongly anchored in Baden, remained disorganized for a long time. He only gained political contours in the form of the liberal faction, which formed the liberal-minded members of the Second Chamber. These state parliament members, like their conservative counterparts, were only recruited from a group of dignitaries who were male, very financially strong and, until 1861, of Christian denomination. Only about half a percent of the Baden population met these requirements. The active right to vote was also reserved only for men who had local citizenship in their place of residence. It was not until 1870 that all men over the age of 25, including workers, servants and servants, were given the right to vote. This opened up entirely new groups of voters who no longer felt themselves represented by the dignitaries in the state parliament. However, since the right to vote had only been secret since 1870 and the MPs were elected by electors and not directly until 1904, the composition of the Second Chamber did not conform to the actual political will of the people throughout the 19th century.
Political development from 1900 to 1918
At the beginning of the 20th century
In 1904, the electoral modalities for the state parliament changed fundamentally. The previous 63 seats in the Second Chamber have now been replaced by 73 seats. Since then, voters have been allowed to vote for their MPs by direct and secret ballot. After the state elections in 1905, the center was the strongest parliamentary group with 28 clients, ahead of the National Liberals with 23 members. Of the other parties represented in the state parliament, the SPD had 12 seats, the left-wing liberal German People's Party 5 seats, the conservatives three seats, and the Free People's Party and the Farmers' Association each had one seat. In order to curb the political influence of the center, the three liberal parties entered into an electoral agreement with the SPD, which under the name of the large bloc caused a sensation throughout the Reich. At that time, the SPD was seen as a party that rejected the existing form of government. In Baden, the Social Democratic MPs no longer shied away from supporting government policy and thus received severe criticism from the SPD leadership in Berlin. Social democrats like Wilhelm Kolb and Ludwig Frank were the godfathers for the stubborn Baden way . In 1906 Grand Duke Friedrich turned eighty. At the same time, his reign as Grand Duke and his wedding celebrated the fiftieth anniversary. The grand ducal couple celebrated the double birthday and golden wedding with great splendor. The popular national father died in the following year and his son of the same name, Friedrich II, succeeded him on the throne. At the funeral of his father even MPs from the SPD participated.
When the center fell slightly behind with 26 seats in the state elections in 1909, the SPD was able to improve its position in the state parliament to second place. With 20 seats, it was ahead of the National Liberals, who this time had only 17 seats. The remaining ten seats were divided among MPs from smaller parties. The continuation of the big bloc policy was now inevitable for the National Liberals, and Interior Minister Bodman said on July 13, 1910 that he described the SPD as "a great emancipation movement of the fourth estate". For this he was then in the bourgeois press, especially outside of Baden, as the "red minister".
Baden during the First World War
When in the international political crisis of July 1914 the military circles in Berlin forced the outbreak of the First World War , they were able to give the German population the impression that armed forces had been forced upon the Reich by its enemies. This sparked an incredible enthusiasm for serving the fatherland. Apparently no one could yet imagine the horrors a war with the modern weapons of the 20th century would bring with it. The residents of Baden also let themselves be carried away by the general enthusiasm for the war. The Reichstag member Ludwig Frank (SPD) volunteered for the army and fell in Lorraine at the beginning of September.
At the beginning of the war, the Baden troops fought in Alsace. At the Burgundian gate, the front even ran on imperial German territory and the noise of the battle could be heard well on the Upper Rhine. The cities between Lörrach and Offenburg became the first victims of attacks from the air, and even Karlsruhe and Mannheim were no longer safe. The most momentous air raid of the First World War occurred on June 22, 1916 in Karlsruhe. French planes bombed a big top while the afternoon show was on. 85 children and 35 adults, mostly women, died. The aerial warfare over Baden claimed 218 civilian lives. In the First World War over 62,000 Baden soldiers died, almost 6% of the male population according to the status of 1910. The number of wounded was more than double. These casualties and the increasing restrictions on the supply of the population with essential food, medicines and other everyday goods led to the first strikes in industrial centers from 1917 onwards. In this situation, the new Prime Minister Bodman would have been ready to make political concessions, but was withheld by the Grand Duke. In August 1918, the country celebrated its 100th anniversary of the constitution.
November Revolution in Baden
When the war had already passed its fourth year by a few months, the mood in northern Germany escalated among the Kiel sailors and turned into open mutiny when they were about to leave for a sea battle against the British fleet. From there the disobedience spread like a conflagration throughout the empire. The November Revolution, which was bloodless in Baden , led the Grand Duke to flee from his royal seat in Karlsruhe. He withdrew to Badenweiler with his wife Hilda . The Bodman government , the last of the Grand Duke, gave way to the new Baden People's Government , an all-party cabinet. On November 22, 1918, the Grand Duke officially abdicated and since then has been head of the House of Baden under the name Margrave of Baden . This abdication also took place in the name of his cousin Prince Max von Baden , who was entitled to inheritance and who, as Chancellor of the Reich, had proclaimed the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II .
→ see also: Denomination in Baden in the 19th century
→ Main article: Evangelical regional church in Baden
Although only around a third of the population of Baden was Protestant, the members of the Evangelical Church enjoyed priority over the Catholic majority because the Protestant Grand Duke was their head as Summus episcopus . With the expansion of the territory of the Evangelical-Lutheran- dominated Margraviate of Baden through the Electoral Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine , Reformed Protestants were also added, so there were efforts to form a Uniate Church . The union of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches to form the United Evangelical Protestant Church in the Grand Duchy of Baden then came into force on October 28, 1821. It was difficult to find a common catechism , which was provisionally valid in July 1830 and finally in 1834. Also in 1830 the common agenda and the common hymn book came into use. Because of the union catechism introduced in 1834, which strongly mixed the two earlier confessions, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Baden separated from the uniate regional church in 1850 in order to get back on the pure path of the confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran church . It was not until 1856 that the Grand Duchy of Baden issued a toleration decree for this free church special route.
A dominant position in the regional church after the Baden revolution was taken by the Heidelberg professor Carl Christian Ullmann , who became the prelate in 1853 and also director of the upper church council from 1856, thus uniting the spiritual and secular leadership of the regional church in Baden. When Ullmann wanted to introduce a new agenda in 1858, protests rose up, especially in the formerly reformed areas of the Electoral Palatinate. In order to calm the minds, the Grand Duke gave the congregations a great deal of leeway in interpreting the order of worship. In the autumn of 1860, the law of the Evangelical Church was reorganized. The position of the parishes now improved noticeably. At all hierarchical levels, representatives had to be formed by the parishioners. The parish assembly had the right to elect the pastor. A general synod met every five years. The relationship between the Upper Church Council and the General Synod remained largely free of tension. In 1869 an alternative order to the Agende that had existed since 1858 was found permissible in the Palatinate areas. The hymn book, introduced in 1830, has repeatedly given rise to discussions that were finally ended in 1882 with a new edition that was now universally accepted. At the beginning of the 20th century, the regional church lost ground, which might be due to the fact that it was not possible to guarantee a sufficiently good basic pastoral care in the new residential areas of the big cities.
→ Main article: Archdiocese of Freiburg
The secularization and the territorial reorganization after the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss meant a considerable loss of property and political influence for the Catholic Church at the beginning of the 19th century. With the secularization came the violent demise of the old monasteries. In addition to the abolition of the religious function of the convents, this meant the expropriation of the inherited land, corporal and sovereign rights as well as the buildings with all their inventory to the successor state of Baden. The monastery inventory, which fell to the Baden state, included many sacred objects that were valuable in art history, books from the abundantly stocked monastery libraries and the archival material that had been collected and stored for centuries. On the other hand, through secularization, in retrospect, the church was liberated from a wealth that had diverted it from the essence of Christian monasticism for centuries. The splendor of the services and the sound of the bells drowned out the voices, which drew attention to the social imbalance that prevailed in many places between the power of the prince abbots and the surrounding monks as "gracious lords" on the one hand and the needy population, the subjects, on the other.
The national borders newly created by Napoleon's policy no longer coincided with the traditional diocesan areas of the old imperial church. After the Congress of Vienna, Rome adapted the German church provinces and dioceses to the newly created conditions. On August 16, 1821, Pope Pius VII abolished the centuries-old Diocese of Constance and instead established the Archdiocese of Freiburg within the new Upper Rhine ecclesiastical province . Bernhard Boll became the first Archbishop of Freiburg and Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province, a few years later, due to differences between the Baden government and the Curia . The seat of the archbishop in Freiburg , which is located in the southern and predominantly Catholic part of the country, was deliberately distinguished by its spatial distance from the Protestant-dominated state capital Karlsruhe.
According to an ordinance issued on January 30, 1830, the Baden state exercised a sovereign right of protection and supervision over the church. The archbishop only had the right to appoint the pastors appointed by the state. The bishop was only allowed to hold church synods with state approval and in the presence of state commissioners. The position of the Catholic Church, to which two thirds of the residents of Baden belonged, was therefore very restricted. As the successor to the late Archbishop Boll, the government in Karlsruhe succeeded in preventing the cathedral chapter's preferred candidate , Hermann von Vicari , and in getting the candidate Ignaz Anton Demeter accepted . So the state wanted to exercise its rights and curtail church rights. In 1842 the candidate Vicari could not be prevented again and was the new head of the archbishopric for 26 years. In contrast to his predecessors, Vicari faced the conflict between the church and the state in a public exchange of blows.
In Baden Catholicism there was still a considerable divergence of opinions and many enlightened Catholics during the first half of the 19th century. The conflict with the state now forced by Archbishop Vicari brought the clergy and the faithful closer together again. Archbishop Vicari's basic belief was that the Church should not be subordinate to any secular power other than that of the Pope. On January 3, 1845, the Archbishop of Freiburg restricted mixed marriages between Catholics and Protestants. All Catholic priests were obliged to bless mixed marriages only if the Catholic education of the children was guaranteed. The Baden Ministry of the Interior declared this order null and void, but refrained from further measures. At the death of Grand Duke Leopold in 1852, the state expected the Catholic Church to celebrate exequies . The archbishop refused, however, on the grounds that the celebration of exequies could only have been granted to a Catholic grand duke, while for an evangelical grand duke only an ordinary funeral service was possible. The Baden government finally gave in to this conflict. At the beginning of March 1853, Archbishop Vicari declared that despite the government's claim to the state church system, he would no longer be willing to accept a right to confirm vacancies. He also announced that the clergy would be trained in their own facilities and that no more state examiners would be admitted. In addition, Vicari insisted on the free development of religious orders. This opened the Badische Kulturkampf , which was to continue in several phases and violent arguments with liberalism. The climax of the struggle was from 1864 to 1876 and then gradually ebbed.
Archbishop Christian Roos initiated the establishment of Caritas , which his bishop's chaplain Lorenz Werthmann carried out in Cologne in 1897. At the beginning of the 20th century new cultural attacks came from Protestant pastors and scholars. The Karlsruhe historian Arthur Heinrich Böhtlingk stood out in particular with his writings Defense and Indictment. An open letter to Sne. Exc. Archbishop Dr. Nörber zu Freiburg im Breisgau (2nd, increased, edition, Frankfurt am Main 1903) and The German people under the Roman yoke (Frankfurt am Main 1907).
→ Main article: Senior Councilor of the Israelites of Baden
As a result of the enlargement of the area at the beginning of the 19th century, the number of Jews in Baden grew from 2,265 in 1802 to 1808 to 14,200. In addition to rural areas, important Jewish communities were located in the former Palatinate cities of Heidelberg and Mannheim . The Baden Jewish edict of January 13, 1809 regulated their civil and ecclesiastical conditions. It did not yet bring full equality, but it was an important first step in this direction. Because of the centuries-old professional bans, many Jews in Baden eked out their existence as emergency traders, as brokers, peddlers, junk and loan dealers and were extremely poor at the beginning of the 19th century. This section of the population initially included around 27% of all Jews in Baden. In the first half of the 19th century, Jews gradually grew into civil society.
On May 4, 1827, the 15 Baden district rabbinates , to which the Jewish communities were subordinated, were established by ordinance . The synagogue , which was built in Sulzburg in 1822 , is a reminder of the growing self-confidence of the Jewish communities in Baden. Political emancipation of the Jews did not progress because the majority of the Christian population rejected it. Only in 1849 did emancipation take place in terms of citizenship, so that from then on Jews were eligible for election to the state parliament. This right to stand for election did not exist until then, since according to the constitution of 1818 members of parliament had to belong to one of the three Christian denominations. However, it was not until 1861 that the lawyer Rudolf Kusel became the first Jew to enter the second chamber of the Baden state estates. However, there were still disadvantages in local law. The law on civil equality for the Israelites , passed on October 4, 1862 , then brought full emancipation on all levels. That year, 24,099 Jews lived in Baden. According to the Emancipation Act, Jews had full freedom of residence and could also become civil servants and teachers. With Leopold Hirsch Guggenheim , the community of Gailingen am Hochrhein , which could look back on a long Jewish tradition, had a Jewish mayor from 1870 to 1884. It is also noteworthy that with the appointment of Finance Minister Moritz Ellstätter in 1868, a member of the Mosaic faith entered a ministerial office for the first time and held this position for 25 years. With the freedom of movement that had existed since 1862, Jews increasingly came from rural outskirts such as Eppingen to the larger cities. There they often did commercial jobs. The influx of mostly Orthodox Jews from the countryside into the urban communities dominated by reform-oriented Jews was not free from tension. In Karlsruhe this led to the formation of a neo-orthodox exit congregation . Apart from that, the relationship between the two directions of Judaism in Baden was free of major disturbances.
The increasing number of members and their growing prosperity made it possible to build representative synagogues. Many examples, mostly destroyed during the November pogroms in 1938 , bear witness to this . These include, the 1851 built and 1855 main synagogue in Mannheim , the 1850/51 built synagogues in Kippenheim and Müllheim , the 1861 built synagogue in Ihringen , built in 1869/70, the synagogue in Freiburg , which from 1872 to 1875 by Josef Durm created Synagogue Karlsruhe , the synagogue built by Hermann Behaghel in Heidelberg in 1877/78 , the synagogue in Bruchsal built in 1880/81 , the synagogue in Konstanz built in 1882/83 , the synagogue in Ettlingen completed in 1889 and the synagogue in Pforzheim built by Ludwig Levy in 1893 .
At the end of the 1880s, anti-Semitism , which had already been believed to have been overcome, also experienced a new boost in Baden. The Upper Council of the Israelites of Baden felt compelled to take more frequent action against anti-Semitic agitation during these years. In 1890 the Jewish population in Baden had grown to 27,000, which corresponds to 1.6% of the total population of Baden. In the synodal elections in February 1894, the liberals triumphed over the Orthodox Jews.
→ Main article: Dialects in Baden
The Baden dialects or “Baden” is not a separate, linguistically coherent dialect group. The term “Baden” is derived from the territory of the Grand Duchy of Baden, which emerged at the beginning of the 19th century. The "Baden" includes the dialect groups Kurpfälzisch , Südfränkisch , Ostfränkisch , Nieder Alemannisch , Hoch Alemannisch and Swabian .
Customs and clubs
On September 22nd, 1881, a historical pageant took place in Karlsruhe, in which several thousand people took part. The move took place on the occasion of the silver wedding of the Grand Duke couple and the marriage of their two daughter Viktoria to the Swedish Crown Prince Gustav . Over 100,000 onlookers lined the streets along the procession. Of the seven sections of the historical pageant, section VI in particular met with great interest from the public. The approximately 800 participants in this department were divided into three groups, which led a green, a silver and a gold wedding couple on floats in their midst. The special thing was the costumes that the people in Department VI wore on display (see traditional costumes in Baden ). This was intended to show the cultural diversity of Baden. In everyday life, however, traditional costumes no longer played a major role and were only worn in a few areas. That is why the organizer of Department VI, the painter Johann Baptist Tuttiné , was forced to have traditional costumes that are no longer in existence. So there was a return to the lost traditions and only after that Gutacher Bollenhuttracht, also supported by the Gutacher painter colony, became a trademark for the Black Forest.
As a traditional leisure activity every evening, a visit to a nearby tavern was a standard ritual for many men, even in Baden. In addition to enjoying Baden wine or beer, cards were played or showmen passing through were admired. The local innkeepers were also in demand when it came to celebrating a baptism or wedding or holding a funeral feast.
The Badische Frauenverein was founded in 1859 . The association was bourgeois-conservative and advocated the participation of women in public life, but not linked to the demand for full equality or even the right to vote. Rather, the women's association represented an image of “caring femininity” and was dedicated to charitable and social tasks. In 1866 the women's association joined the Baden Red Cross .
The Baden Black Forest Association was founded in Freiburg in 1864 . It was the first German mountain club. Since the 1890s, skiing in the area around Bernau , Triberg, Todtnau and the Feldberg has become a special tourist attraction in the Grand Duchy . In 1862 the Badische Sängerbund was established in Karlsruhe in the presence of representatives from 42 Baden choral societies . The Karlsruhe men's choir, Liederhalle Karlsruhe , developed like many other men's choral societies in the second half of the 19th century into a nationalist or “patriotic” movement. But choral societies were very popular not only in middle-class circles, but also among the workers. The working-class singers formed the largest group within the working-class culture movement that was close to social democracy. In 1914 around 13,000 singers belonged to the 108 workers' choral societies in Baden.
In 1909, the Baden Association for Folklore, founded in 1904, and the Association for Rural Welfare, founded in 1902, merged to form the new regional association Badische Heimat .
The city of Baden in Baden with the casino there was regarded as a glamorous meeting place for Europe's elite made up of nobility, industrialists, politicians, artists and scientists, which , however, had to cease operations due to the closure of all German casinos in 1872 due to the imperial government decreed to close all German casinos. The horse races that have been held at the Iffezheim racecourse since 1858 were also a magnet for high society . The seaside resort of Badenweiler was also popular .
The main features of the elementary school system in the margraviate of Baden, which are divided into denominations, could also be transferred to the newly acquired areas at the beginning of the 19th century. The general compulsory schooling for boys was from 6 to 14 years of age, for girls only up to 13 years of age. At the level of the higher schools there was initially no standardization, so that, depending on the region, Latin schools, pedagogies, grammar schools or lyceums were found.
At the beginning of the thirties the school system was reorganized. Attending a lyceum has since been a mandatory requirement for studying at the university.
During the culture war between the Baden state and the Catholic Church, the government introduced the simultaneous school between 1868 and 1876 .
The old margraviate of Baden did not have its own university and acquired the universities of Heidelberg and Freiburg through the expansion of the area at the beginning of the 19th century. The University of Heidelberg , taken over from the Electoral Palatinate, was in a desperate state and therefore had to be completely reorganized. It received a Protestant North German orientation and the majority of its students came from non-Baden countries. The number of chairs at the beginning of the 19th century was around 25 to 30, and the number of students rose from 400 to 800 in 1830.
The University of Freiburg retained its southern German Catholic character and initially had 24 chairs. The number of students climbed from 200 to 600 in the first third of the 19th century. Most of them came from Baden, so that Freiburg assumed the character of a state university, in contrast to the cosmopolitan Heidelberg.
On October 7, 1825, the Polytechnic School was founded in Karlsruhe . It saw itself as a complement to the two state universities in Heidelberg and Freiburg and was the first technical school of its kind in Germany. Its importance and productivity grew with the reorganization by Karl Friedrich Nebenius in 1832 and the integration of Johann Gottfried Tulla's engineering school and Friedrich Weinbrenner's building school . From 1841 until his death in 1863, Ferdinand Redtenbacher was Professor of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering at the Karlsruhe Polytechnic. One of his students was the car pioneer Carl Benz . In 1865 the Polytechnic obtained the rights of a technical university . In 1885 the Polytechnic School was renamed the Technical University of Karlsruhe . In 1886 Heinrich Hertz succeeded in proving electromagnetic waves experimentally at the TH Karlsruhe .
In 1854 the Grand Ducal Badische Kunstschule Karlsruhe was founded , which rose to become an academy in 1892.
1900 saw the legal introduction of women's studies . After women had been able to revocably study at the Philosophical Faculty of Heidelberg University since 1895, Baden was the first German state to give them full access to university studies by decree of February 28, 1900. The roots of the University of Mannheim go back to the municipal commercial college founded in 1907 on the initiative of the Mannheim bourgeoisie.
Fiction in Baden was shaped by names such as Johann Peter Hebel , Alban Stolz , Joseph von Auffenberg , Joseph Victor von Scheffel and Heinrich Hansjakob . At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, Emil Strauss , Emil Gött , Alfred Mombert and Hermann Burte worked .
Emanuel von Bodman and Wilhelm Weigand became known as poets . The southern German writer Alexander von Bernus also had a connection to Baden . Rudolph Stratz was also well known in his day . Emil Frommel and Adolf Schmitthenner can be named as other writers and local poets of more regional importance .
Music and drama
With the Badische Staatskapelle , the margraves of Baden-Durlach had owned a court chapel since 1662, which in 1808 was incorporated into the Grand Ducal Court Theater, which was newly founded in 1808 under the name of the Grand Ducal Badische Hofkapelle . In addition to the court theater in Karlsruhe, there was also the Mannheim National Theater from the Palatinate era , which was transferred from the Baden state to the city of Mannheim on April 16, 1839. The Mannheim stage experienced a remarkable boom in the following years thanks to the conductor Vinzenz Lachner . The fire that broke out on February 28, 1847 during a performance at the Grand Ducal Court Theater in Karlsruhe completely destroyed the building and cost the lives of 63 visitors in the cheap upper echelons. The successor building built by court architect Heinrich Hübsch was completed in 1853 and opened under the direction of the theater director Eduard Devrient . Devrient's successor as general manager at the court theater was Gustav zu Putlitz from 1875 to 1889 . In 1864 Hermann Levi became court conductor in Karlsruhe. In 1875 Felix Otto Dessoff took over the chapel, followed in 1880 by Felix Mottl , who remained court conductor in Karlsruhe until 1904.
In the late 18th century there was an upswing in the book trade in the margraviate of Baden and reading societies were founded, supported in particular by the educated middle class of the cities of Karlsruhe, Baden, Rastatt and Pforzheim.
According to the censorship regulations in force in Baden at the beginning of the 19th century, newspapers could appear largely unhindered. At the end of 1810, however, at the behest of France, all political newspapers had to be banned. Only the Karlsruher Zeitung , founded in 1757, was allowed to continue to appear as the Grand Ducal Badische Staatszeitung under the supervision of the Foreign Ministry. In 1817 this newspaper took on its old name again, but remained state-controlled. That is why national German newspapers such as the short-lived Rheinische Merkur or the Allgemeine Zeitung were very important. From 1833 the newspaper Badischer Merkur appeared in Karlsruhe .
In the pre-March period, the Baden press landscape developed not only apolitical newspapers but also some very political papers such as the Konstanzer Seeblätter or the Deutsche Zeitung , which was founded in Heidelberg in 1847 and moved to Frankfurt in 1848 , which flourished during the revolution and suffered significant setbacks in the reaction time after 1849. Only in the time of the new era from 1860 and the freedom of the press did the press become politicized again. The total circulation was still small until 1870, but in the following years the number of newspapers rose to 186 with a total circulation of 600,000 copies.
In 1870 there were 57 newspapers in Baden. Eight of them were non-party, while the rest of them were party-political. 38 newspapers saw themselves as liberal papers. As an important national liberal newspaper with high standards, the Badische Landeszeitung, founded in 1849, appeared with a circulation of 6,000 copies in the 1960s. Other liberal newspapers were the Breisgauer Zeitung from Freiburg since 1849 , the Heidelberger Zeitung since 1858 and the Mannheimer Tageblatt from 1867 .
In 1870 two papers in Baden belonged to the democratic-liberal direction. The leading paper was the Mannheimer Anzeiger , which was renamed the Neue Badische Landeszeitung in 1866 .
In 1870, six newspapers were in the vicinity of the Catholic People's Party . In 1859 the Catholic press acquired the Karlsruher Anzeiger, which had been published as a Baden Observer since 1863 . The Baden Observer had a circulation of 13,000 copies in 1913 and saw himself as the opinion leader of Baden Catholicism.
Three newspapers in the Grand Duchy of Baden were conservative in 1870. From 1867 the conservative waiting room in Lahr appeared for a few years , from 1876 with interruptions until 1907 in Karlsruhe the Badische Landpost .
For the Social Democrats there was the Volksfreund since 1881 , whose forerunner was the Rhein-Bote , founded in Kehl in 1879 . During the time of the socialist laws, the Volksfreund could not appear regularly, but after 1890 it unfolded its effect again and from 1904 was the official organ of the SPD with its seat in Karlsruhe. The Volksstimme , published in Mannheim, and the Freiburger Volkswacht, published since 1911, appeared as further Social Democratic papers since 1890 .
The cities of Karlsruhe and Mannheim acted as press centers, but because of the elongated north-south axis along the Rhine, Baden also developed a large regional variety of newspapers. Further examples are the Badische Presse , the Durlacher Wochenblatt , the Freiburger Zeitung , the Heidelberger Journal , the Konstanzer Zeitung , the Lahrer Wochenblatt , the Mannheimer Journal , the Oberländer Bote , the Weinheimer Anzeiger and the Wochenblatt for the districts of Schwetzingen and Philippsburg .
Non-Baden newspapers also found a large readership. These included the free conservative Strasbourg Post, the Swabian Mercury and the Black Forest Bote . The left-liberal National-Zeitung from Basel played a role in southern Baden . The foreign newspaper Germania was also important in the Baden Kulturkampf .
Architecture and fine arts
Important architects from Baden in the Vormärz were the outstanding urban planner and master builder Friedrich Weinbrenner and his pupils Heinrich Hübsch and Friedrich Eisenlohr . Karl Joseph Berckmüller stood out around the middle of the century . In the second half of the 19th century there were Josef Durm and Friedrich Ratzel as representatives of the Neo-Renaissance , Carl Schäfer as representatives of the Neo-Gothic and Hermann Billing and August Stürzenacker as pioneers of Art Nouveau . The Mannheim rose garden was built by the Berlin architect Bruno Schmitz .
One of the oldest German Societies is the 1818 in Karlsruhe under the original name of art and Industry Association of the Grand Duchy of Baden founded Badische Kunstverein . There were art collections accessible to the public in the form of the Grand Ducal Picture Gallery in Karlsruhe, completed in 1846, and since 1907 in the Kunsthalle Mannheim . In 1909 the Kunsthalle Baden-Baden opened .
After the Baden revolution, important cultural impulses came from the Grand Ducal Baden Art School , founded in 1854 , whose first director Johann Wilhelm Schirmer shaped landscape painting. The director of the Karlsruhe picture gallery, Carl Friedrich Lessing, was also known for this genre . Other famous teachers at the art school in Karlsruhe were Gustav Schönleber , Leopold von Kalckreuth , Hans Thoma , Ludwig Dill and Wilhelm Trübner . The students at the art academy included the landscape painter Alexander Koester , the impressionist Friedrich Kallmorgen and the two expressionists Albert Haueisen and Karl Hofer . Karl Albiker and Wilhelm Gerstel should be mentioned as sculptural artists of great standing .
Economic development until 1918
The well-developed school and university system in Baden meant that the country produced many pioneering inventions throughout the 19th century, which were often developed by tinkerers in local workshops. Some of these inventions did not develop their full economic effect until the 20th century and can therefore be understood primarily as important events in the history of science and technology for the 19th century. First and foremost, the names of the three Baden pioneers of mobility should be mentioned: Karl-Friedrich von Drais invented the first bicycle, Emil Keßler was the Baden pioneer of locomotive construction and Carl Benz built the first automobile. In 1886 Benz received his motor vehicle patent and in 1888 his wife Berta's pioneering drive went down in automotive history. Other important impulses came from the inventors and manufacturers Lorenz Bob , Johann Weck , Georg van Eyck , Albert Nestler , Friedrich August Haselwander and Heinrich Lanz . For the production of jukeboxes in the Black Forest, the developments by Ignaz Blasius Bruder and Michael Welte , the owner of M. Welte & Sons, were groundbreaking.
Way into the industrial age
Baden's journey into the industrial age began around the middle of the century. The traditional textile production in southern Baden, metal processing and mechanical engineering with a focus on Mannheim, Karlsruhe and Gaggenau, the production of jewelry, watches and silverware in Pforzheim and the food industry in Singen, where Julius Maggi , who comes from Zurich, have proven to be important economic sectors for Baden, have proven to be important economic sectors had built an important canning factory for the German market. In addition, home work continued to play an important sociological role in the rural regions of the Black Forest and the Odenwald. Some of the typical souvenirs that the emerging Black Forest tourism coveted came from there. Of the glassworks that were built in the Black Forest in the 18th century, there were six in Baden in 1867 with 250 employees, as the glassblowers still benefited from the low wood prices until the middle of the 19th century. In the long run, however, they could not hold their own against the competition from large, well-funded companies.
In addition to the cultivation of grain, beet sugar, chicory, hops and grapes, tobacco was important in agriculture. From 1850 to 1861 the number of cigar factories rose from 28 to 172.
Because of the increasing consumption of meat in the big cities, the breeding of pigs and cattle became more and more important. The horse population, on the other hand, hardly grew in the period under review and later declined slightly, as horses as draft animals could increasingly be replaced by machines. The following table shows the development of livestock in the Grand Duchy of Baden.
The annexation of Alsace-Lorraine for the newly established empire gave the Grand Duchy an unprecedented level of security, as a direct threat to the Baden territory from an attack by France that was considered possible at any time was now averted. Baden had mutated into a German landlocked country in 1871 and benefited from the economic upswing of the so-called Wilhelminian era , although the brief phase of the boom after the war with the founders' crash initially suffered a considerable setback.
The numbers of employees according to the trade censuses in Baden in 1875 and 1907 were as follows:
|Branch||Number of employees 1875||Number of employees in 1907|
|Stones and earth||8,798||22,591|
|Wood and carving industry||20,764||32.505|
|Paper and leather industry||7,962||20,457|
|Food and luxury food industry||33,463||71,845|
|Clothing and cleaning||39,455||47,292|
|Catering and accommodation||11,434||33,611|
With high industrialization, electrical engineering and large-scale chemistry were added as further branches of industry. Mannheim developed as a first-rate industrial center. The city at the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar rivers was the hub of production and trade for all of south-west Germany.
In 1905 there were the following important branches of industry in Mannheim:
|Branch||Number of employees||Number of establishments|
|Machine and apparatus construction, metal processing||11,951||138|
|Rubber and leather industry||2,677||8th|
|Food and luxury food industry||2,645||173|
|Textile and clothing industry||2,431||181|
The opposite bank of the Rhine also benefited from Mannheim's economic strength. Although Ludwigshafen on the Rhine belonged to the Bavarian Palatinate, the Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik was located there . The manufacture of cement played an increasingly important role in Heidelberg.
Milestones in the progress in railway construction were the gradual completion of the Badische Hauptbahn from Mannheim via Heidelberg (1840), Karlsruhe (1843), Freiburg (1845) and Basel (1855) to Konstanz (1863), in 1873 the completion of the Black Forest Railway , and in 1887 the commissioning the Höllentalbahn , which made it possible to develop the Black Forest. In 1912, the operating length of the Baden railway had increased to 1,784 km. The amount of goods transported by rail in the same year was 21.55 million tons.
Milestones of electrification in Baden were the beginning of electricity generation at the Triberg waterfalls in 1884 , the opening of the Rheinfelden (1898) and Laufenburg (1914) power plants, and in 1898 the beginning of extensive electrification of Mannheim with the construction of a power grid.
The advancing industrialization led to the fact that in 1907 only a third of the residents of Baden were connected to agriculture.
The following table shows the occupational breakdown of the population of Baden in the late 19th and early 20th centuries:
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, ISBN 3-88190-273-2 .
- Frank Engehausen: A short history of the Grand Duchy of Baden. DRW-Verlag Weinbrenner, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2005, ISBN 3-7650-8328-3 .
- Hans Fenske : General history of southwest Germany in the 19th century. In: Meinrad Schaab , Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History . Volume 3: From the end of the old empire to the end of the monarchies. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-608-91467-6 , pp. 1-23.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. In: Meinrad Schaab, Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History. Volume 3: From the end of the old empire to the end of the monarchies. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-608-91467-6 , pp. 79-132.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. In: Meinrad Schaab, Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History. Volume 3: From the end of the old empire to the end of the monarchies. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-608-91467-6 , pp. 133-234.
- Hans-Joachim Harder : Military History Handbook Baden-Württemberg Ed. By the Military History Research Office . Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-17-009856-X .
- Heinrich Hauß, Adolf J. Schmid : Badisches Kalendarium from day to day - from year to year, people and events. G. Braun, Karlsruhe 2006, ISBN 3-7650-8326-7 .
- Wolfgang von Hippel: Economic and social history 1800 to 1918. In: Meinrad Schaab, Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History. Volume 3: From the end of the old empire to the end of the monarchies. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-608-91467-6 , pp. 79-132.
- Wolfgang Hug : History of Baden , Theiss, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-8062-1022-5
- Karl Moersch , Peter Hölzle: Counterpoint Baden-Württemberg. On the prehistory and history of the Southwest State. DRW Verlag, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2002, ISBN 3-87181-478-4 .
- Dorothee Mußgnug, Reinhard Mußgnug: His Royal Highness by God's grace Grand Duke of Baden 1818-1918 (= Miscellanea Juridica Heidelbergensia. Volume 9). Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-86825-340-5 .
- Uwe A. Oster: The Grand Dukes of Baden 1806–1918. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2084-5 .
- Hansmartin Schwarzmaier : History of Baden in Pictures 1100–1918 . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-17-012088-3 .
- Hans-Peter Ullmann : Baden 1800 to 1830. In: Meinrad Schaab, Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History. Volume 3: From the end of the old empire to the end of the monarchies. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-608-91467-6 , pp. 477-766.
- Wolfgang Hug: Baden (D). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Cultural studies online: Baden
- Regional texts
- Grand Duchy of Baden (districts and municipalities) 1910
- Grand Duchy of Baden - from a splinter state to a model country
- Grand Duchy of Baden - A look into the country
- Topographical atlas of the Grand Duchy of Baden - map on a scale of 1: 50,000 from the years 1838 to 1849
Notes and evidence
- Wolfgang von Hippel: Revolution in the German southwest. The Grand Duchy of Baden 1848/49 (= writings on political regional studies of Baden-Württemberg; vol. 26), Verlag Kohlhammer: Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-17-014039-6 , p. 29.
- Hartwig Brandt: The long way to democratic modernity. P. 71.
- Rainer Wirtz: Resistance, excesses, crawls, tumults and scandals. Social movement and violent social protest in Baden 1815–1848. Frankfurt 1981, p. 11.
- Heights according to the topographic map 1: 25,000 and 1: 50,000 for Baden-Württemberg.
- Insofar as the chronological information in the Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History is limited to month and year, the exact dates here follow the chronicle on the CD-ROM For Freedom and Democracy. Baden Parliament History 1818–1933 , Karlsruhe City Archives 1997, ISBN 3-9805956-0-9 .
- Grand Ducal Baden Government . Karlsruhe, 1810. State treaty with the Crown of Württemberg, concerning assignments to the states : pp. 339–346. urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10510056-6 , Fig. 317-324.
- Grand Ducal Baden Government . Karlsruhe, 1810. State treaty with the Grand Duchy of Hesse, assignments to the states : pp. 346–350. urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10510056-6 , Fig. 324–328.
- Manfred Hörner: The elections for the Baden second chamber in the Vormärz (1819–1847). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1987, p. 118.
- Web link to the constitutional text ( Memento of the original from May 26, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Hans-Peter Ullmann: Baden 1800 to 1830. P. 62.
- Hans Fenske: The Baden Constitution of August 22, 1818. In: Paul-Ludwig Weinacht (Ed.) Baden. 200 years of the Grand Duchy. From princely state to democracy . Rombach Verlag, Freiburg im Breisgau 2008, ISBN 978-3-7930-5035-3 , pp. 85-87.
- Hans Fenske: General history of southwest Germany in the 19th century. P. 3.
- Bernd Wunder: The emergence of the modern state in Baden and Württemberg. In: Baden and Württemberg in the age of Napoleon . Stuttgart 1987, Volume 2, p. 107.
- Hans Fenske: General history of southwest Germany in the 19th century. P. 4.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Social history of Baden-Württemberg 1800–1989. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1989, p. 27.
- Grand Ducal Baden State and Government Gazette 1832, p. 133.
- Grand Ducal Baden Government Gazette 1849, p. 442.
- Ordinance, effective September 1, 1857, Großherzoglich Badisches Regierungs-Blatt 1857, p. 318.
- Grand Ducal Baden Government Gazette 1857, p. 357.
- Grand Ducal Baden Government Gazette 1863, p. 399.
- enforcement ordinance, see Grand Ducal Baden Government Gazette 1864, p. 333.
- By ordinance, see Großherzoglich Badisches Regierungs-Blatt 1864, p. 299. , on October 1, 1864, several district offices were abolished or, in one case, restored.
- Paul Nolte: Community and liberalism in Baden 1800–1850. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1994, ISBN 3-525-35765-6 , p. 44.
- Paul Nolte: Community citizenship and liberalism in Baden 1800–1850. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1994, ISBN 3-525-35765-6 , p. 66.
- Paul Nolte: Community citizenship and liberalism in Baden 1800–1850. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1994, ISBN 3-525-35765-6 , p. 85.
- Paul Nolte: Community citizenship and liberalism in Baden 1800–1850. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1994, ISBN 3-525-35765-6 , p. 88.
- Friedrich Walter: Eduard Moll In: Badische Biographien . Heidelberg 1906
- Reiner Haehling von Lanzenauer: The Badische Landrecht and the Baden legal system in the 19th century In: Paul-Ludwig Weinacht (Ed.) Baden. 200 years of the Grand Duchy. From princely state to democracy . Rombach Verlag, Freiburg im Breisgau 2008, ISBN 978-3-7930-5035-3 , pp. 117-118.
- Reiner Haehling von Lanzenauer: The Badische Landrecht and the Baden legal system in the 19th century In: Paul-Ludwig Weinacht (Ed.) Baden. 200 years of the Grand Duchy. From princely state to democracy . Rombach Verlag, Freiburg im Breisgau 2008, ISBN 978-3-7930-5035-3 , p. 128.
- Hans-Joachim Harder: Military History Handbook Baden-Württemberg. P. 84.
- Hans-Joachim Harder: Military History Handbook Baden-Württemberg. P. 85.
- Hans-Joachim Harder: Military History Handbook Baden-Württemberg. P. 89.
- Hans-Joachim Harder: Military History Handbook Baden-Württemberg. P. 90.
- Hans-Joachim Harder: Military History Handbook Baden-Württemberg. P. 91.
- Heinrich Ambros Eckert, Dietrich Monten: Das deutsche Bundesheer. Based on the uniforms from 1835 to 1843. Edited by Georg Ortenburg. Harenberg, Dortmund 1990, ISBN 3-611-00132-5 , p. 441.
- August Holzmann: Baden's medals and decorations, coats of arms, standards and flags and the uniforms of the Grand Ducal Baden Civil State officials , Gutsch 1909, pp. 156–157
- s. Staats-Anzeiger for the Grand Duchy of Baden, year 1891, No. XXXIX, p. 397, quoted in Holzmann
- August Holzmann: Baden's medals and decorations, coats of arms, standards and flags and the uniforms of the Grand Ducal Baden Civil State Officials , Gutsch 1909, p. 156, footnote 1
- without any evidence, the website www.crwflags.com shows other forms of a "Baden" flag
- August Holzmann: Baden's medals and decorations, coats of arms, standards and flags and the uniforms of the Grand Ducal Baden Civil State officials , Gutsch 1909, pp. 156–157
- Heil unserm Fürsten Heil , text on www.volksliederarchiv.de; accessed on May 8, 2018
- see Otto Boehm: The People's Hymns of All States of the German Empire: Contributions to a story about their emergence and spread , Wismar 1901, p. 45 in the Internet Archive
- Karl Stiefel: Baden, 1648–1952 . Karlsruhe 1977. Volume 2, Chapter Weights and Measures , pp. 1433-1439.
- Hans Fenske: General history of southwest Germany in the 19th century. P. 20.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 28.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 56.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Social history of Baden-Württemberg 1800-1989. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1989, p. 155.
- Wolfgang von Hippel: Economic and Social History 1800 to 1918. P. 508.
- The number of emigrants from Baden for the years from 1816 to 1845 results from the difference between two figures in the literature. In his Economic and Social History from 1800 to 1918 on p. 508, Wolfgang von Hippel names an estimated 180,000 to 190,000 people who emigrated from Baden for the period from 1816 to 1855. In his Social History of Baden-Württemberg 1800–1989, Willi A. Boelcke gives around 134,000 emigrants from Baden for the years from 1850 to 1854. Since Hippel's number is a rough estimate, the difference for the period 1816 to 1845 is between 46,000 and 56,000 emigrants.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Social history of Baden-Württemberg 1800–1989. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1989, p. 154.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 109.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Social history of Baden-Württemberg 1800-1989. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1989, p. 16, 177.
- Peter Eichfuss: Statistical reports from the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Grand Duchy of Baden - steadily falling birth rates. Monthly Statistical Bulletin Baden-Württemberg 10/2004. Pp. 54-55. ( Memento of the original from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 806 kB)
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 64.
- Wolfgang von Hippel: Economic and Social History 1800 to 1918. P. 505.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 54.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 31.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 23.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Economic history of Baden-Württemberg from the Romans to today. Konrad Theiss Verlag Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0423-3 , p. 185.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 29.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 37.
- Bernd Wunder: The emergence of the modern state in Baden and Württemberg. In: Baden and Württemberg in the age of Napoleon . Stuttgart 1987, Volume 2, p. 112.
- Hans-Peter Ullmann: Baden 1800 to 1830. P. 77.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860 . Hans Martin Maier Black (Ed.), Handbook of Baden-Wuerttemberg story e. Vol. 3, From the end of the Old Kingdom to the end of the monarchies, Stuttgart 1992, pp. 79–132, here p. 83.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860 . Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.), Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History . Vol. 3, From the end of the old empire to the end of the monarchies, Stuttgart 1992, pp. 79–132, here pp. 84–85.
- Speech text, see erzbistum-freiburg.de ( Memento of the original from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF)
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 93.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 94.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 95.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 96.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 98.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 99.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 108.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 109.
- Gustav Struve: History of the three popular surveys in Baden 1848/1849. Freiburg, 1980, p. 67f., Quote: “ In order to establish a connection with the Hecker's band as quickly as possible, the Weißhaar-Struve Colonne, about 700 Man strong, the following morning, Maundy Thursday, April 20, to Loerrach. There should be rest. "
- Willy Real: The Revolution in Baden 1848/49 (Stuttgart, 1983), Fig. 3 (between pp. 64 and 65)
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 110.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. S. 114.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 112.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 115.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 116.
- Lithograph from the picture sheet "Disarming the insurgent occupation of Rastatt". Badisches Landesmuseum in Karlsruhe, inventory number 80 / 409-347; published in Uwe A. Oster: The Grand Dukes of Baden 1806–1918. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2084-5 , p. 149.
- Reiners, Ludwig: Bismarck founds the empire. Munich: CH Beck, 1957, ISBN 3-423-01574-8 , p. 163.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 160.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 167.
- see also: Deception in the beetle wood
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 228.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 103.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 140.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 211.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 212.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 100.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 210.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 102.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1830 to 1860. P. 130.
- Jewish life in Baden 1809 to 2009. 200 years of the Upper Council of the Israelites of Baden. Edited by the Oberrat der Israeliten Baden, Jan Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2009, ISBN 978-3-7995-0827-8 .
- Willi A. Boelcke: Social history of Baden-Württemberg 1800-1989. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1989, p. 103.
- History of the Jews of Baden, representation of the OIRG Baden ( Memento of the original from July 28, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 92.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 93.
- History of the Badischer Frauenvereins ( Memento of the original from September 24, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, p. 85.
- Hans-Peter Ullmann: Baden 1800 to 1830. P. 55.
- Hans-Peter Ullmann: Baden 1800 to 1830. P. 56.
- Hans-Peter Ullmann: Baden 1800 to 1830. P. 57.
- History of the university area at KIT (previously: Universität Karlsruhe) , accessed on March 20, 2011
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 216.
- Hans Fenske: Baden 1860 to 1918. P. 217.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Economic history of Baden-Württemberg from the Romans to today. Konrad Theiss Verlag Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0423-3 , p. 231.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Economic history of Baden-Württemberg from the Romans to today. Konrad Theiss Verlag Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0423-3 , p. 220.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Economic history of Baden-Württemberg from the Romans to today. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0423-3 , pp. 172, 226.
- Willi A. Boelcke: Economic history of Baden-Württemberg from the Romans to today. Konrad Theiss Verlag Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0423-3 , p. 237.
- exhibition catalog. State Museum for Technology and Work in Mannheim. Mannheim 2001, ISBN 3-9804930-6-7 , p. 185.
- Statistical yearbook for the Grand Duchy of Baden 1914–1915
- Hans Fenske: General history of southwest Germany in the 19th century. P. 22.
- The years are survey years for commercial business statistics.
- The agriculture column also includes gardening, animal husbandry, forestry and fishing.
- The industry column includes the building trade and the coal and steel industry, which is relatively insignificant in Baden.
- The service includes the trade, the transport as well as the restaurant and bar industry.
- The other group includes all domestic workers and day laborers, but also members of the military, court and state employees, all public officials and those in the service of the churches.