Order of the Zähringer Lion
The Order of the Zähringer Lion was donated on December 26, 1812 by Karl Ludwig Friedrich von Baden in memory of the dukes of Zähringen , with whom the grand ducal family was related. The first medals were not awarded until 1815.
The order was initially donated in three classes:
Numerous expansions have taken place over the years. In 1815 the oak leaves were introduced , which initially had the code L , but which was dropped again in 1858 at the latest. In 1840 the commanders were divided into first (with breast star) and second class. In 1866 the knights were separated into first and second classes and swords were introduced as an additional level for all classes. In addition, the affiliated Cross of Merit was donated by the Zähringer Löwen . The last change was made to the order with the outbreak of the First World War through the provision that the Cross of Merit for excellent behavior in front of the enemy with the ribbon of the Military Karl Friedrich Order of Merit can be awarded. Until the end of the monarchy in the Grand Duchy, the order existed in the following classes:
- Grand Cross
- Commander 1st and 2nd class
- Knights 1st and 2nd class
- Cross of Merit
The sign of the order consists of a green enamelled cross with arms of equal length, the corners of which are filled with gold clasps. The gold-rimmed medallion shows the master castle of the Zähringer in colorful enamel. On the back, the Zähringer lion facing left is depicted on a red background.
The Grand Cross was carried on a sash from the left shoulder and with a silver eight-pointed breast star. The medallion already described above can be seen on the breast star, which is enclosed by a circlet with the order's motto FOR HONOR AND TRUTH . Commanders wore the medal around their necks, commanders 1st class also wore a silver four-pointed breast star on which the medal is placed. Knights decorated the medal on the ribbon on the left side of the chest. The decoration of the second class knights is made of silver .
The ribbon is green with an orange-yellow border.
The first awards took place in 1815 and can be documented below. This does not include awards to foreign sovereigns or members of the grand ducal house.
|Order class / level||1815-1839||1840-1865||1866-1918|
|Grand cross in diamonds with oak leaves||1|
|Grand cross in diamonds||1||7th||1|
|Grand cross with swords in diamonds||1|
|Star in diamonds for the Grand Cross||1|
|Grand cross with oak leaves||1||32|
|Grand Cross with Swords||74|
|Commander 1st class in diamonds with oak leaves||2|
|Commander 1st class in diamonds||1|
|Commander 1st class with oak leaves||11||45|
|Commander 1st class with oak leaves and swords||4th|
|Commander 1st class||161||777|
|Commander 1st class with swords||83|
|Commander II class in diamonds with oak leaves||1|
|Commander II class in diamonds||8th||1|
|Commander II class with oak leaves||15th||52||233|
|Commander II class with oak leaves and swords||21st|
|Commander II class||155||416||1,644|
|Commander II class with swords||174|
|Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves||10||148|
|Knight's Cross 1st class with oak leaves||1,766|
|Knight's Cross 1st class with oak leaves and swords||244|
|Knight's Cross 1st Class||5,445|
|Knight's Cross 1st class with swords||718|
|Knight's Cross 2nd class with oak leaves||1,452|
|Knight's Cross 2nd class with oak leaves and swords||1,539|
|Knight's Cross II class||3,544|
|Knight's Cross II class with swords||6,754|
|Cross of Merit||2,681|
|Cross of Merit on the ribbon of the Military Karl Friedrich Order of Merit||557|
Carrier in diamonds
With the exception of the two lower order classes, all others could also be awarded in diamonds for extraordinary merits. The following people received the Grand Cross in this version:
- 1815: Reinhard von Berstett , Minister of Baden
- 1854: Napoleon Duc de Bassano , Imperial French Lord Chamberlain
- 1856: Alexander Graf von Keller, Prussian upper court and house marshal
- 1856: Heinrich von Pückler, Prussian court marshal
- 1856: Hermann Graf von Keller, Prussian chamberlain , court marshal of the Prince of Prussia
- 1857: Dimitri Petrowitsch Severin , Imperial Russian envoy
- 1861: Williamoff, Imperial Russian General à la suite
- 1863: Count Stroganoff, Imperial Russian court stable master
- 1875: August von Werder , Prussian general
- 1889: Moritz von Cohn , banker, privy councilor
- 1889: Eduard von Simson , Privy Councilor, formerly President of the Imperial Court
- Maximilian Gritzner : Handbook of the knight and merit orders of all civilized states in the world. Leipzig 1893, ISBN 3-8262-0705-X .
- Arnhard Graf Klenau: Order in Germany and Austria. Volume II: German States (1806–1918). Part I: Anhalt – Hanover. Offenbach 2008, ISBN 3-937064-13-3 . Pp. 58-77.
- Henning Volle: Baden's medals, decorations, premium medals. Freiburg im Breisgau 1976.
- Grand Duchy of Baden. The order of the Zähringer lion. (PDF) In: Ordensjournal. Issue 14, November 2007; Retrieved December 6, 2015
- State Councilor Emanuel Meier (* October 17, 1746; † June 5, 1817), member of the Privy Council since 1790, and Oberhofmarschall Freiherr Ludwig Christian Gayling von Altheim (1774–1832), Baden Privy Councilor and High Court Marshal, were the first to become awarded the Grand Cross. See Christian Würtz, Emanuel Meier (1746–1817). In: Das Markgräfler Land 2. 2004, pp. 74–92, here p. 80.