Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History

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The six volumes of the Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History

The handbook of Baden-Württemberg history , which was published in six volumes from 1992 to 2007, is the standard work on the history and prehistory of Baden-Württemberg with 5284 pages. It was published by Hansmartin Schwarzmaier and Meinrad Schaab on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg . The manual describes the history on the territory of today's federal state of Baden-Württemberg from prehistory and early history to the end of the " Lothar Späth era " (1990).

part 1

Volume 1, which is divided into two sub-volumes (1.1 and 1.2), comprises eleven chapters, in which the prehistory and history of today's Baden-Württemberg territory up to the end of the Old Empire (1806) are described.

Volume 1.1 From prehistoric times to the end of the Hohenstaufen

Volume 1.1 opens with a description of the natural and spatial foundations of Baden-Württemberg as a prerequisite for historical developments since prehistory. About the periods of Roman rule and the Germanic conquest in the early Middle Ages, a total of seven chapters lead to the Carolingian, Ottonian, Salier and the Staufer period, which was particularly formative for southwest Germany, i.e. from the High Middle Ages to the threshold of the Late Middle Ages. The authors of the 714-page volume 1.1 are the historians Philipp Filtzinger , Hagen Keller , Eugen Reinhard , Edward Sangmeister , Karl Heinz Schröder , Hansmartin Schwarzmaier , Gerhard Taddey , Alfons Zettler and Thomas Zotz .

In Chapter I, Karl Heinz Schröder presents the natural foundations of the country's history (pp. 1 to 29). These are the landscapes of the Upper Rhine Lowland , Odenwald , Black Forest , Dinkelberg and High Rhine Valley , the Gäuplatten , Keuper-Lias-Land , Swabian Alb and Upper Swabia . The spatial influences on the course of settlement are examined as well as the natural prerequisites for economic development (agricultural land use and mineral resources). The chapter closes with the natural guidelines for land transport and waterways.

In Chapter II, Edward Sangmeister deals with prehistory (pp. 29 to 131). At the beginning, he answers the question of whether prehistory should be dealt with in a regional history at all, in order to then present the individual cultures, first the time before 5,600 BC. BC ( Palaeolithic - Mesolithic ) with the hunters of the Ice Age and the hunters and gatherers of the Post Ice Age . In the early Neolithic with the ceramic culture (5600 to 4900 BC) the land was taken by the first farmers and regional groups were formed. In the Middle Neolithic (5100 to 4100 BC) the Hinkelstein group , the Großgartach-Rössen culture and the spherical cup groups appear. They mark the beginning of independent development and the formation of small groups. In the early Neolithic (4200 to 3300 BC) we encounter the Michelsberg, Pfyner and Schussenried cultures . The role of the " earthworks " is highlighted. The older end Neolithic (3200 to 2800 BC) with the Horgen culture and that of the "Goldberg III" culture led to a cultural regression. The late Neolithic and the earliest Bronze Age (Bz A 1) (2800 to 1800 BC) are characterized by the Cord Ceramic Culture , Bell Beaker Culture and the Singen culture . For the more recent Early Bronze Age (Bz A 2) (1900 to 1400 BC) the question arises whether hoard finds are an indication of unrest. The Middle Bronze Age (Br. BC) (155 to 1200 BC) is characterized by widespread prosperity. In the Late Bronze and Urnfield Period (Bz. D / Ha AB) (1300 to 800 BC) a pan-European cult community developed. The Hallstatt culture (Ha C, 850 to 600 BC; Ha D, 630 to 430 BC) is the time of iron and salt. In the early and middle Latène culture Lt AC 1 (450 to 150 BC) it occurs in the 5th century BC. Chr. To a profound cultural change, which in the late Latène culture LT C 2-D (130 BC to 15 AD) leads to a new social structure. The southwest is now the land between the Romans and the Teutons.

Phillip Filtzinger describes the Roman period in the III. Chapter (p. 131 to 191). First he describes the conquest of southwest Germany up to the occupation of the Limes region. The Limes on the right bank of the Rhine ( Odenwald-Neckar-Limes , Obergermanischer Limes , Rätischer Limes ) is examined as well as administration, culture and the Roman religion in the Limes area.

In the fourth chapter, the Germanic conquest and the early Middle Ages follow (pp. 191 to 297). Hagen Keller first provides information about the Alemannic period (3rd to 5th centuries), which is followed by the Merovingian period (late 5th to the end of the 7th century).

The Carolingian period (end of the 7th century to 911) is dedicated to a separate chapter, the fifth chapter (pp. 297 to 381), which Alfons Zettler edited. The political history of "Alemania" in the Carolingian Empire and in the Frankish Empire is his subject.

From 911 to 1167 the Ottonians, the Salians and the early Hohenstaufen ruled. Thomas Zotz describes the time of the independent Duchy of Swabia in VI. Chapter (p. 381 to 529).

Hansmartin Schwarzmaier turns to the outcome of the Staufer period (1167 to 1269) in Chapter VII and the last (pp. 529 to 621). The first part of volume 1.1 closes with an extensive register of places and people (pp. 621 to 714).

Volume 1.2 From the late Middle Ages to the end of the Old Kingdom

Volume 1.2 covers 840 pages from the late Middle Ages to the end of the Old Kingdom after 1800, i.e. from the fall of the Hohenstaufen to the decline of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. The south-west of Germany with the core of today's state of Baden-Württemberg is viewed as a political and cultural unit. The presentation of the great historical periods - the late Middle Ages, the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, absolutism and the Enlightenment - breaks away from the traditional view of the old states of Baden and Württemberg and their neighbors. The social and economic history, which directs our attention to the development of modern statehood, the path from aristocratic rule in the Middle Ages to the princely state of the 18th century, is specifically discussed. In addition to the description of historical events, there are elements of the constitution, administration and economy that shape and co-determine today's state and social life.

In Chapter VIII. (Pp. 1 to 145) Meinrad Schaab first examines the institutions of the late Middle Ages (1250 to 1500), namely kingship, imperial property and imperial taxes, territorial lords, estates, cities and communities. The role of southwest Germany in the empire is worked out under the Habsburg and anti-Habsburg kings. The church of that time as well as the late medieval education system, literature and art are presented in the description area in two separate sub-chapters.

Chapter IX (pp. 145 to 307) deals with the Reformation period and Counter-Reformation (1500 to 1648) and was edited by Eike Wolgast .

The age of absolutism and the Enlightenment (1648 to 1806) in the German southwest is presented by Dieter Stievermann in Chapter X. (pp. 307 to 457).

The history of settlement of today's Baden-Württemberg territory from the Staufer period to the French Revolution is discussed in Chapter XI. (Pp. 457 to 587) turn to Meinrad Schaab . For the same period he also gives an overview of the population development and groups such as nobility, citizens, rural people, serfs, vagabonds and Jews. The chapter closes with an economic history of agriculture and forestry, trade and commerce, transport and currency.

Franz Quarthal's last article (pp. 587 to 781) is devoted to the former Habsburg foothills in the southern part of Baden-Württemberg, i.e. front Austria , from the beginnings of Habsburg rule to the loss of rule by the Habsburgs in 1805. The article is a supplement to the earlier volume 2 (worldly territories) and therefore has no numbering.

Volume 2 The Territories in the Old Kingdom

Volume 2 (932 pages) focuses on the multitude of secular and spiritual territories, the imperial city and imperial knighthood rulers, into which southwest Germany disintegrated at the time of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, the so-called Old Empire.

These are the secular territories presented by various authors in Chapter I (p. 1 to 439), i.e.: Württemberg ( Dieter Mertens ), Baden ( Hansmartin Schwarzmaier ), Upper Austria (last article as an addendum in Part 1.1), Kurpfalz ( Meinrad Schaab ), Fürstenberg ( Ronald G. Asch ), Waldenburg ( Dieter Stievermann ), Hohenzollern ( Wilfried Schöntag ), Hohenlohe ( Gerhard Taddey ), Löwenstein-Wertheim ( Hermann Ehmer ), Oettingen ( Dieter Kudorfer ), Brandenburg-Ansbach (Gerhard Taddey) , Limpurg (Gerhard Taddey), Geroldseck with Lahr-Mahlberg ( Christoph Bühler ), Hanau-Lichtenberg ( J. Friedrich Battenberg ), rule Schwarzenberg and predecessors in Klettgau (Dieter Stievermann), Montfort ( Hans-Georg Hofacker ), smaller high nobility ( Michael Small ).

The spiritual territories (Chapter II, pp. 439-647) are: Archbishopric Mainz ( Friedhelm Jürgensmeier ), Bishopric Basel ( Meinrad Schaab ), Bishopric Konstanz ( Hansmartin Schwarzmaier ), Bishopric Speyer ( Kurt Andermann ), Bishopric Strasbourg ( Francis Rapp ), Hochstift Worms (Meinrad Schaab), Hochstift Würzburg ( Alfred Wendehorst ), Prince Abbey Ellwangen ( Dieter Stievermann ), Abbey St. Blasien and Reichsherrschaft Bonndorf ( Johannes Gut ), the imperial prelate monasteries Baindt, Beuron, Buchau, Gengenbach, Gutenzell, Heggbach, Isny, Neresheim , Obermarchtal, Ochsenhausen, Petershausen, Rot an der Rot, Rottenmünster, Salem, Schöntal, Schussenried, Söflingen, Weingarten, Weissenau and Zwiefalten (Hansmartin Schwarzmaier), the German Order of Knights ( Alois Seiler ), Order of St. John ( Walter G. Rödel ).

The III. The imperial cities ( Hans Eugen Specker ) presented in Chapter (p. 647 to 771) were: Aalen ( Meinrad Schaab ), Biberach ( Kurt Diemer ), Bopfingen (Meinrad Schaab), Buchau (Kurt Diemer), Buchhorn ( Hansmartin Schwarzmaier ), Esslingen ( Rainer Jooß ), Giengen an der Brenz ( Heinz Bühler ), Heilbronn ( Christhard Schrenk ), Isny ​​( Friedrich Eisele ), Leutkirch ( Karl Friedrich Eisele ), Pfullendorf ( Franz Götz ), Ravensburg ( Peter Eitel ), Reutlingen ( Heinz Alfred Gemeinhardt ), Rottweil ( Winfried Hecht ), Schwäbisch Gmünd ( Klaus Jürgen Hermann ), Schwäbisch Hall ( Kuno Ulshöfer ), Überlingen (Franz Götz), Ulm (Hans Eugen Specker), Wangen (Karl Friedrich Eisele), Weil der Stadt (Rainer Jooß), Wimpfen (Meinrad Schaab), the club towns of the Ortenau and the Reichstal Harmersbach (Reichsstädte Offenburg, Gegenbach, Zell am Harmersbach, Reichstal Harmersbach) ( Dieter Kauß ), Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Dinkelsbühl and Nördlingen with their parts of the area in what is now Baden-Württemberg ( Ludwi g Schnurrer ), Constance and other imperial cities absorbed into territories (Meinrad Schaab).

In the final chapter IV (pp. 771 to 815) Volker Press deals with the imperial knighthood . He first describes the development from the ministerial to the knight leagues and from the Swabian federation to the imperial knighthood. Then he examines the organization, position and end of the imperial knighthood in Swabia. The conclusion is the place Odenwald of the Frankish imperial knighthood.

Volume 2 also contains a place and person register.

Volume 3 From the end of the Old Kingdom to the end of the monarchies

At the beginning and at the end of Volume 3 (833 pages) there is a turning point in German history: on the one hand the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, on the other hand the collapse of the Prussian-German Empire and in its wake the end of the individual state monarchies. In the meantime, the southwest German territories experienced a comprehensive process of socio-political and economic change: the transition from corporations constituted by estates to modern constitutional and industrial states.

In Chapter I, Hans Fenske gives an overview of the history of southwest Germany in the 19th century (pp. 1 to 25). Hans-Peter Ullmann describes the emergence of the Grand Duchy of Baden and its path to becoming a modern administrative and constitutional state from 1800 to 1830 in Chapter II (pp. 25 to 79). This is followed by the period from 1830 to 1860 with the pre-March period, the revolutionary period 1848/49 and the post-March period of the reaction (Chapter III by Hans Fenske, pp. 79 to 133). Fenske also examines the period from 1860 to 1918, beginning with the New Era from 1860 with the reorganization of the relationship between Baden's state and church, the time of the founding of the Empire and the cultural war in Baden, the position of the Baden national liberals, the imperial policy of Grand Duke Friedrich I. , the intellectual life of Baden in this era and Baden's role in the First World War (Chapter IV, pp. 133 to 235). The history of the newly founded Kingdom of Württemberg from 1800 to 1866 is described by Bernhard Mann (Chapter V, pp. 235 to 333) and Eberhard Naujoks from 1864 to 1919 (Chapter VI, pp. 333 to 433). Hohenzollern from 1800 to 1918 is dedicated to Eberhard Gönner (Chapter VII, pp. 433 to 477). An economic and social history of the German south-west from 1800 to 1918 concludes the third volume in Chapter VIII (pp. 477 to 785). Wolfgang von Hippel first describes the economic and social conditions at the end of the Old Empire as a "starting point", which is followed by a "start-up phase" up to 1850, which ends in the industrial state.

Volume 4 The countries since 1918

Volume 4 describes on 965 pages the historical development in the German south-west from the end of the First World War and the monarchies in 1918 to 1992, when the "Späth era" ended in Baden-Württemberg and the divided Germany was reunited. In the period of the "Weimar Republic" it is about the states of Baden and Württemberg as well as the Prussian administrative district Hohenzollern in the difficult political, economic and social situation of the post-war period until the failure of this first democratically constituted state in Germany and its states. The following parts describe the emergence and rule of the National Socialist dictatorship from 1933 until its fall at the end of the Second World War, which also brought the end of the old states of Baden, Württemberg and Hohenzollern. The Allied occupation led to the division of southwest Germany into the French zone in the south with the states of (southern) Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern and the American zone in the north with the state of Württemberg-Baden. After lengthy negotiations and coordination battles, it was possible in 1952 to merge these three states to form the new state of Baden-Württemberg. Only then does the real story of the political unit that forms the territorial framework for the entire manual begin.

With the observation that federalism and unitarization represent a basic pattern of German history in the 19th and 20th centuries, Dieter Langewiesche opens the fourth volume of the handbook (Chapter I, pp. 1 to 23). Baden in the Weimar Republic then looks at Gerhard Kaller (Chapter II, pp. 23 to 73). Paul Sauer then makes Württemberg the subject of consideration for the same period (Chapter III, pp. 73 to 151). The time of National Socialism is investigated for Baden Gerhard Kaller (IV. Chapter p. 151 to 231) for Württemberg Paul Sauer (V chapter, p. 231 to 321) and for Hohenzollern Eberhard Gönner (VI. Chapter, p. 321 to 343) . Paul Sauer devotes himself to the state of Württemberg-Baden from 1945 to 1952, i.e. during the occupation until the early years of the Federal Republic (Chapter VII, pp. 343 to 441). For the same period, Wilfried Schöntag provide the history of the state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern (VIII., P. 441 to 477) and Klaus-Jürgen Matz the history of the state of Baden (IX., P. 477 to 519). Matz also describes the basics and beginnings of the newly founded south-western state of Baden-Württemberg from 1948 to 1960 (X., pp. 519 to 591) before Fred Sepaintner with the XI. Chapter on the history of Baden-Württemberg from 1960 to 1992 (pp. 591 to 897) concludes the fourth volume.

Volume 5 Economic and social history since 1918, overviews and materials, complete index

The final volume 5 of the handbook with 1000 pages contains the economic and social history of Baden-Württemberg after 1918 (Chapter I, pp. 1–331), as well as the family tables of the most important ruling families, lists of bishops and cabinet, electoral and population statistics (II . Chapter, pp. 333–541) and a complete index of all volumes (III. Pp. 543–997). The presentation of the economic and social history of Baden-Württemberg after 1918 was written by Gert Kollmer-von Oheimb-Loup and Hugo Ott .

In the introduction to Chapter I, A it is pointed out that the 20th century after the First World War brought about fundamental changes in politics, economy and society. In the second half of the 20th century, real wages and prosperity multiplied to an unprecedented extent and turned the exporting country Baden-Württemberg into a mass consumer society and welfare state. Around 1900 the agricultural society was replaced by the industrial society in the south-west and this was replaced by the service and science society since the 1970s. Chapter B examines the population development and the development of social conditions. Analogous to the fact that an economy is divided into three sectors, the economic development of Baden-Württemberg is represented by means of the three sectors agriculture and forestry (Chapter C), craft and industry (Chapter D) and services (Chapter E). In Chapter F, the state as an actor in the economy in Baden-Württemberg is examined in detail, namely first with regard to the development of public budgets, then taxation and tax policy, and finally economic policy and promotion.

Individual evidence

  1. 1st edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-608-91465-X .
  2. 1st edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-608-91948-1 .
  3. 1st edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-608-91466-8 .
  4. 1st edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-608-91467-6 .
  5. 1st edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-608-91468-4 .
  6. 1st edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-608-91371-2 .