Landgraviate of Klettgau

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The Landgraviate of Klettgau in its extent from 1806. Yellow = Front Austria, green = Fürstenberg
The castle hill of Weißenburg Castle in Klettgau

The Landgraviate of Klettgau was a late medieval and early modern domain with a changing territorial extent on the Upper Rhine between Schaffhausen and Tiengen . The Klettgau can be from 1315 when, after previously unknown source location Landgraviate date. It ended as a result of mediatization when the area fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806 . The Landgraviate of Stühlingen was part of the County of Klettgau from 1112 to 1250.


The name Actum in pago Chlegouve is mentioned for the first time in writing in the 2nd year of Ludwig's reign , at the time of Pope Sergius II. 844, on the occasion of an exchange of goods between a Rinloz and the Rheinau monastery. The mention in the Divisio Regnorum of 806, the "Testament" of Charlemagne, to which Trudpert Neugart refers, mentions the Engi bei Neuhausen as the border between Chletgowe and Hegowe here should also be the border of the areas of power between his sons Karlmann and Pippin . Aegidius Tschudi speaks of the Latobrigern as an indigenous population, from which the name is derived. Johann Jakob Rüeger confirms this, but believes he can speak of a "Lettengau" due to the fertility of the area. Also represented (inter alia by Georg Jäger) was the view that Aargau was derived from the Aare and that Klettgau was derived from the Glatt , ie actually »Glattgau«. Franz Josef Mone derived it from Chleigh , the Celtic word for hill, meaning "hill district". Rüeger also mentions Josias Simmler's view that the old county of Altenburg contained the Gallic »Latobrigi« and thus the German »Altobrogo«, which is now recognized as incorrect.

There are several other interpretations of the origin and meaning of the name "Klettgau" which have not yet been conclusively clarified. While the view is often held that the Klettgau (also Kleggau, Clecgouva, Chlegowe, Clegove, Clechgouwe, Cleggovia), got its name from Cleg (Schiffchen, Weidling ) and Geu (region) - which probably refers to the location on the Rhine, Emil Müller- Ettikon developed another theory in which he referred to the Middle or Old High German original sound verb klecken , and in Klettgau, since originally also written as Chleckgow , assumed the Gau am Rheinfall .

The Schwarzenberg officials argued for a long time whether one should write Kleggau or Klettgau : they decided on Klettgau.

Early settlement

According to Aegidius Tschudi, settled by the "Latobriga" ( Latobriger ), a tribe of the Celts . Later settlement of the Alemanni , the country was on the Upper Rhine between Schaffhausen and Waldshut first Roman occupied. 537 handed Witigis in return for assistance against the Byzantines provincial parts of the Alpine foothills of Theudebert I 585 which was Diocese of Konstanz of Vindonissa detached. The Franconian - Carolingian re-division of the empire into counties led to the naming of the area between the Rhine , Wutach and Randen in the 8th century . In the north, the imperial rule of Bonndorf under the St. Blasien monastery and in the west the Säckingen women's monastery played an important role. The area was part of the Duchy of Swabia from 911 to 1268 .

Today's village of Krenkingen: the ruins of the ancestral seat of the Barons von Krenkingen; Alt-Krenkingen Castle was south of the village on a rocky outcrop


In the County of Klettgau, which existed in Carolingian times, the Barons of Krenkingen , the Counts of Küssenberg , the Allerheiligen Monastery in Schaffhausen and the Constance Monastery were wealthy around 1200 . The original seat was Altenburg near Jestetten . Later the city of Tiengen became the seat of the counts. Partly under the rule of the Counts of Lupfen , von Stühlingen , the Rheinau monastery later became another landowner in Klettgau . The Klettgau was part of the Duchy of Swabia from 911 to 1268 and came as heir to Duke Ernst of Swabia , parts of which were Habsburg . As a friend of Count Werner von Kyburg, and after the destruction of the Kyburg in 1027 by Konrad II , the slow disintegration followed by the more powerful Hohenstaufen empire . The area that has belonged to today's Canton of Zurich since 1651 , the Rafzerfeld and the former Regensberg rule came from the Regensbergers in connection with the Kyburg legacy and became part of the Zürichgau . The Duchy of Swabia fell to Austria in 1541 and to Württemberg in 1805.

Balm Castle near Lottstetten based on a drawing by Johann Jakob Beck : After the destruction, the people of Schaffhausen carry the bell of the castle chapel to Schaffhausen today, the
Fronwaagturm bell

Under the Krenkingers

With their ancestral castle Altkrenkingen Castle and Krenkingen Castle in the Steinatal , the city of Tiengen and the Weißenburg , the barons of Krenkingen were at times the most powerful rulers of the Klettgau. In 1389 Johans von Krenkingen fry back and forth zu Tuengen, court judge of the Roman rich and Diethelm von Krenkingen fry, Kilcher (church lord) zu Tuengen and ze Schwerzen , brother

Under the Counts of Habsburg-Laufenburg (1282–1408)

With their seat in Altenburg and the building of the Habsburg by Rathbod , they are the founders of a dynasty that lives on to this day. From 1282 to 1408 the Klettgau was in the hands of the Counts of Habsburg-Laufenburg ; In 1325 they became landgraves. Count Rudolf the Silent founded the line of the Laufenburg counts in 1282. On April 18, 1380, Landgrave Rudolf IV sat on the Langenstein for the last time apparently to court . From then on, the landgraves were represented by land judges. The Klettgau district court was a medieval court that was first mentioned as such from 1361.

The Laufenburg line was beset by multiple political and economic forces. Internal disputes were defused again and again, but Fortuna was not always on the spot, as a favorable continuation and existence of the line would have resulted. Landgrave Johann IV. , The last of the Laufenburg line, died in 1408 at Balm Castle without male descendants. Although he certainly had family trees drawn up and genealogies researched in order to ensure the continued existence of the house, it was in vain, but his family produced outstanding personalities, such as the daring Gottfried I , or the son of Rudolf the Silent, Rudolf the Bishop of Constance . Even Rudolf III. ensured a considerable increase in the area through his marriage to Elisabeth von Rapperswil . Most of the losses were ultimately due to the Confederates' desire for freedom.

Under the Counts of Sulz (1408–1687)

Coat of arms of the Counts of Sulz in Scheibler's book of arms

Through the contract concluded in 1408 between his father Hermann von Sulz and the widow of Johann von Habsburg, Reza von Habsburg-Laufenburg, the daughter Ursula von Habsburg-Laufenburg married Count Rudolf III in 1410 . von Sulz ; so the Landgraviate of Klettgau came together with the dominions of Krenkingen and Rottemberg to the Counts of Sulz , who have been recorded in Sulz am Neckar since the 10th century .

The Sulz family tried - also in the conflict with the Habsburgs - to gain the umbrella bailiff over the Rheinau monastery , which was wealthy in the Klettgau , which also led to conflicts with the city of Schaffhausen . As a basis for their often violent actions against the monastery, the Sulzers used Balm Castle , which was destroyed in 1449 by troops from the city of Schaffhausen.

During the Waldshut War in 1468, the Landgraviate of Klettgau was also plundered by the federal troops. In 1482 the Sulzer were able to acquire the city of Tiengen , which became their residence. In exchange, they had to waive all legal claims with regard to Hallau and Neunkirch against the Hochstift Konstanz .

In 1478 the Counts of Sulz concluded with the city of Zurich - for themselves and the Landgraviate - a ten-year castle right that was extended “forever” in 1488. After they were able to acquire Jestetten Castle in 1488 , this also became a residence for a time. The Sulzer also resided on the Küssaburg , which they could take over as a pledge in 1492 and as a fief in 1497. In exchange, Bohlingen was assigned to the Hochstift Konstanz. The Landgraviate became a theater of war in the Swabian War in 1499 and was devastated by federal and Habsburg troops - the small residential town of Tiengen was also destroyed. Front Austrian troops from Waldshut, Laufenburg and the county of Hauenstein under the captain Willibald Pirckheimer plundered and devastated Rechberg , the small farming village wanted to turn to the Confederates in 1468 after harassment , as did the villages of Dangstetten , Geißlingen and Grießen .

The peasant war

The Bundschuh movement and surveys of the Hauenstein subjects opposite the St. Blasien monastery took place in the neighborhood early on . On May 15, 1524, the city council of Waldshut refused to expel Balthasar Hubmaier to Austria . With the uprising of the Stühlingen subjects against Count Siegmund II von Lupfen on June 23, 1524 in front of Hohenlupfen Castle , traditional historical research sees the beginning of the German Peasants' War . In June 1524 the Stühlingen farmers elected Hans Müller von Bulgenbach as their captain. It was not until December 1524 that the Klettgau subjects turned against the Counts of Sulz. In contrast to the Stühlingers, who submitted their complaints to the Esslingen Supreme Court , they always referred to the Reformation. The Zwinglian Reformed creed was carried from Zurich by preachers to the Klettgau, and Thomas Müntzer stayed in nearby Waldshut. Under the leadership of Nikolaus Wagner, the people of Klettgau formulated their complaints in 44 articles, which they addressed to the city council of Zurich on January 25, 1525. The uprising lasted until November 4, 1525. On this day it was bloodily suppressed by the troops of Count Rudolf V von Sulz under Christoph Fuchs von Fuchsberg near Grießen . Hans Rebmann was blinded.

The tax rebellion

When, 70 years later, Landgrave Rudolf ( the debt maker ) tried to charge his subjects with his debts, 16 communities resisted and went on a tax strike. In 1597 the dispute between subjects and the landgrave escalated. The subjects sent a delegation to the federal city of Zurich , with which the Counts of Sulz had concluded a castle right in 1478 . In view of a feared intervention by Zurich, Emperor Rudolf II set up a commission and finally also administrators (Rudolf von Helfenstein and Friedrich von Fürstenberg) for the Landgraviate. In 1601 the Emperor warned the city of Zurich not to interfere any further. Due to the completely broken relationship between Rudolf and his subjects and his still precarious financial situation, he handed over the office of Landgrave in Klettgau to his brother Karl Ludwig in 1602 . The subjects refused to take the oath of homage to the new landgrave until the spring of 1603 .

In his first year in office, Karl Ludwig had comprehensive police and state regulations drawn up, including representatives of the subjects. Johann Jakob von Beck zu Willmendingen is the author and writer of the regional regulations . The Sulzian officials tried to curb the influence of the subject representatives, which led to further protests by the imperial commissioners and to a revision of the police and state regulations in 1605. It was not until 1610 that the subjects ended their »tax rebellion«.

The Thirty-Year War

In 1633 the Klettgau was hit by the Thirty Years War when Johann von Aldringen moved to the Klettgau on September 30, 1633 together with the general Duke von Feria after the siege of Constance . From Stühlingen they threatened the city of Schaffhausen , Feria and von Aldringen together commanded a master of about 30,000 men. After negotiations, they moved to Tiengen on October 8, which they took from the Swedes. Then they besieged Rheinfelden .

French and Swedish troops under the dreaded Colonel "Graf Villefranche", hired for dear money by Duke Julius Friedrich of Württemberg and who was feared, invaded the Landgraviate because Landgrave Karl Ludwig Ernst von Sulz was a supporter of the Emperor. 700 farmers, led by two Sulzian officials (the forester Imhof and the rent master Höuptlin, both from Jestetten), attacked these troops on May 8, 1633 near Lottstetten and were completely defeated. In addition to 200 deaths, there were many prisoners and considerable property damage to complain about - the village of Lottstetten was burned and the area was plundered until June 20, 1633 and the following year. The state fortress of Küssaburg was destroyed on March 8, 1634 by its imperial garrison so that it did not fall into the hands of the Swedes. On December 4, 1634, General Hamilton led his troops to Tiengen and through the Klettgau; they did not move on to the Hegau until Christmas.

In 1635 the plague claimed considerable victims, so that the county was largely orphaned. On the Friday before Candlemas 1638, French troops under Bernhard moved from Weimar to Rheinfelden, where the battle of Rheinfelden took place. In the summer, the Imperial Major General Bernhard Schaffalitzky von Muckadell followed .

The Klettgau was drained and starved, but the successor in office of Bernhard von Weimar, Johann Ludwig von Erlach , writes to the commissioner in Laufenburg, Lazarus Schäfer: ... that, if it is not paid and delivered, the houses of the officials and the castle in Tiengen are in Set on fire, but did not want to bother the subjects .

In 1641 imperial troops came again under Colonel Johann Mathias von Franzmauth and Wildholzen , who wanted to prevent the contributions and the escape of valuables and money to safe Switzerland, but this did not succeed. In 1647 the French Colonel Christoph Ludwig von Baumbach is in Stühlingen and demands taxes from there. In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia ended the war.

The sale

On July 17, 1651, Count Johann Ludwig von Sulz sold the Rafzerfeld with all sovereign rights to the city of Zurich and in 1656 the northern part of the landgraviate to the city ​​of Schaffhausen, which had been part of the Confederation since 1501 .

From now on one spoke of the Swiss Klettgau in contrast to the rich Klettgau , the part of the Landgraviate that remained with the German Reich . Not only the imperial border ran right through the Klettgau, but also a religious border, since the federal estates of Schaffhausen and Zurich had decided in favor of the Reformed denomination. For modern political administration, the area was divided into the districts of Ober- and Unterklettgau .

Under the princes of Schwarzenberg (1687–1806)

After the Counts of Sulz in the male the Landgraviate Klettgau came in 1687 through the marriage of Maria Anna of Sulz with Ferdinand von Schwarzenberg at the Haus Schwarzenberg and was elevated to the princely Landgraviate; the right of the Counts of Sulz to mint coins went to the Schwarzenbergs. Since then, the Lords of Schwarzenberg also held the title of Count von Sulz and the title of Landgrave von Klettgau. The duchy landgraviate has since been referred to as the Schwarzenberg rule . The Schwarzenbergs were very interested in a rounding up , so around 1800 Prince Joseph II acquired Willmendingen Castle .

As a result of the mediatization , the area (sovereignty) fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806 .

Klettgau land militia and "contingent"

In 1798 the Klettgau land militia was reinforced to 150 men in the course of billeting and French and Austrian troops passing through. The city Tiengen set 6 man to volunteer as batches: surgeon Johann Baptist slip man as a field doctor, chaplain Spitznagel as chaplain, Anton Maggi as Fourier , Lieutenant Doerflinger as Kompagniehauptmann, Wilhelm Roßhirt as a senior lieutenant, Forstadjunkt Joseph Glasss as a sub-lieutenant, Andreas Meyer as sergeant, Johann Roder as corporal . There was also a “standing army” in Klettgau, the so-called contingent , which each commanded a few men to watch over the villages. The “army” was reinforced by the citizens as needed. In 1799 the city bought from Tiengen opportunity from the armory of Bern 60 rifles with bayonets and belts for 2½ Reichstaler per share.

List of rulers and counts in Klettgau and their legal successors

No counts are known from about 1067 to 1200; As the Duchy of Swabia, the Klettgau is part of the Holy Roman Empire , rulers are therefore the dukes, i.e. the kings or emperors:

Around 1200, the heyday of the Barons of starts Krenkingen , first mentioned in 1202, they are regarded as the founder of the city Tiengen, they built the old tower, now known as Castle Tiengen , and the counts of kissing mountain , builder of Küssaburg , they took advantage of the time of Emperor lots of in order to rule the Klettgau, but in the end rubbed down on petty details:


After that, the Habsburgs were imperial bailiffs of the Klettgau; King Rudolf I and his predecessors are considered to be the founders and builders of the city of Waldshut; Rudolf also destroyed the Weißenburg in 1288 and ended the interregnum . Your landgraves were:

Counts of Sulz (1408–1687)

Prince of Schwarzenberg (1687–1806)

House Baden

After 1918


  • City of Tiengen (Upper Rhine), The Klettgau ; Franz Schmid (Ed.), 1971; (until today the authoritative monograph, with contributions by: Ruth Blum , Eugen Fürstos, Richard Gäng , Josef Hirt-Elmer, Josef Isele, Helmut Maurer , Ludwig Mayer, Emil Müller, Heinrich Münz, Helmut Naumann, Alois Nohl, Alfons Peter, Ernst Rüedi , Franz Schmid, Karl Schwarzenberg , Ignatz Stein, Heinz Voellner, Karl Friedrich-Wernet, Hans Jakob Wörner)
  • Joseph Bader : Documents and regesta from the former Klettgau archive , In: Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins, Vol. 13, 1861, (pp. 228–256, 355–383, 466–491)
  • Joseph Bader: From the history of the parish village of Grießen im Klettgau , In: Freiburg Diocesan Archive, Volume IV. Freiburg 1869, pp. 225–250
  • Johann Evangelist Schöttle : On the history of the Klettgau. In: Diöcesanarchiv von Schwaben , 9th year 1892 (in numerous continuations; digital copies of the University of Heidelberg )
  • Michael Borgolte : The Counts of Alemannia in Merovingian and Carolingian times. A prosopography. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1986 (Archeology and History. Freiburg Research on the First Millennium in Southwest Germany 2) ISBN 3-7995-7351-8
  • Michael Borgolte: History of the counties of Alemannia in Franconian times. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1984 (lectures and research, special volume 31)
  • Ilse Fingerlin : The Counts of Sulz and their burial in Tiengen on the Upper Rhine. In: Research and reports on archeology in Baden-Württemberg. Volume 15, Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg (Ed.), 1992. ISBN 3-8062-1063-2
  • Arnold Münch: The Laufenburg Mint: Contributions to the history of the Swiss-Upper Rhine coinage from the 14th to 17th centuries, along with an outline of the history of the Counts of Habsburg-Laufenburg . Sauerlander, Aarau 1874
  • Dieter Stievermann: Lordship Schwarzenberg . In: Meinrad Schaab , Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History . Volume 2: The Territories in the Old Kingdom. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-608-91466-8 , pp. 423-428.
  • Walther Schultze: The district counties of Alemannic bathing. Stuttgart 1896, pp. 150-171
  • Wilhelm Franck, The Landgraviates of the Holy Roman Empire , Braunschweig 1873, (pp. 76–80) in the Internet Archive
  • Georg Hedinger: Landgraves and bailiwicks in the area of ​​the canton of Schaffhausen. Reuss & Itta book printing company, Constance 1922
  • Monika Baumann: “Disgusting vnd anger” in Klettgau. In: Mark Hengerer, Elmar L. Kuhn : Adel im Wandel. Volume 1, Thorbecke, Ostfildern, pp. 183-192
  • Waldemar Lutz and Hansjörg Noe (eds.): WT Heimatkunde mark for the district of Waldshut. Reinhard Caspers (Mithrsg.), 1989, ISBN 3-12-258330-5
  • Rudolf Metz : Geological regional studies of the Hotzenwald . 1987 ISBN 3-7946-0174-2
  • Johann Baptist von Kolb (Ed.): Historical-statistical-topographical lexicon of the Grand Duchy of Baden . Second volume. Verlag der CF Macklotschen'schen Hofbuchhandlung and Hofbuchdruckerei, Karlsruhe 1814, p. 154–163 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  • Julius Caesar : De bello Gallico . (full text; bilingual Latin / German)
  • Aegidius Tschudi : Gallia Comata. ed. by Johann Jakob Gallati, 1758, (reprint 1977) Gallia Comata , 1758 in the Google book search
  • Aegidius Tschudi: Chronicon Helveticum. edit by Bernhard Stettler and Peter Stadler, Allgemeine Geschichtforschende Gesellschaft der Schweiz (Eds.), 22 vols., 1968–2001
  • Johann Jakob Rüeger : Chronicle of the city and landscape of Schaffhausen. CA Bächtold, 2 vols., 1884-1892
  • Oswald Redlich : Rudolf von Habsburg. The German Empire after the fall of the old Empire. Innsbruck 1903 (and reprints). [Still basic]

Web links

Commons : Sulz (noble family)  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual references / comments

  1. ^ Marquard Herrgott , Genealogy. diplom, tom II., pars I. (Cod.prob.) pp. 25 and 26
  2. Trudpert Neugart, Cod. Dipl. Vol. I., No. 157
  3. s. Kolb p. 154
  4. Martin Wanner: History of the Klettgau in outline up to the end of the Reformation , Hamburg 1857
  5. ^ Albert Krieger, Topographical Dictionary of the Grand Duchy of Baden , 1905, column 1180
  6. ^ Rustenus Heer , in: Anonymus Murensis Denudatus , p. 337, after: Acta Murensia
  7. s. Wanner, pp. 88-89.
  8. ^ Alfons Peter, Das Landgericht Klettgau , p. 44.
  9. ↑ As early as 1408 the marriage contract was signed by the groom's father, Hermann von Sulz, and the mother of the bride and widow of Count Johann, Agnes von Landenberg; s. Badenia, 2nd year, p. 155
  10. in Lower Alsace; s. Niederhäuser
  11. History of the castle on the website of the municipality of Jestetten
  12. Hiroto Oka, The Peasants' War in the Landgrafschaft Stühlingen and its prehistory since the middle of the 15th century, 1998. p. 20
  13. Bader reports from a source, according to which Müntzer also stayed in Grießen for a long time
  14. ^ In: Heinrich Schreiber: The German Peasant War - simultaneous documents , Part I, pp. 179-184
  15. Police and state regulations of the Landtgrafschäft Kleggau on (PDF; 156 kB)
  16. s. Monika Baumann p. 187
  17. Maximilian Gottfried Friedrich Holtz, General Feldzeugmeister Georg Friedrich vom Holtz on Alfdorf, Hohenmühringen, Aichelberg etc., a portrait of life from the 17th century; Stuttgart, 1891, p. 36
  18. Christian Roder : Report on the defeat of the Klettgau farmers near Lottstetten on May 8, 1633 ; In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine, Volume 41, pp. 118–121
  19. ^ Hans Brandeck, History of the City of Tiengen , 1936, p. 130
  20. with the communities of Rafz , Wil , Hüntwangen and Wasterkingen
  21. The Sulz family died out with Count Johann Ludwig in 1687, and his daughter Maria Anna inherited the landgraviate. Since she had been married to Prince Ferdinand Wilhelm von Schwarzenberg since 1674, the Landgraviate de facto passed to the Schwarzenbergs in 1687. After Maria Anna's death in 1698, her husband inherited the landgraviate. In 1676 the emperor had converted the landgraviate into an imperial heir and thus enabled the inheritance to the daughter of the last Sulzer count.
  22. ^ Hans Brandeck, History of the City of Tiengen , p. 157
  23. ^ Manuscript of the document for the foundation of the Ottmarsheim monastery from 1063
  24. → see certificate at Weißenburg Castle (Klettgau)
  25. The city of Tiengen and the Klettgau on the Klettgau Historia homepage (PDF; 954 kB)
  26. partly also until 1616; Brother of Rudolf IV.
  27. brother of Alwig

Coordinates: 47 ° 36 ′ 6 ″  N , 8 ° 21 ′ 12 ″  E