Johann Nicolaus Friedrich Brauer
Origin and family
Brauer came from a family in Lower Saxony; his grandfather Johann Justus Brauer (1678–1737) was a pharmacist in Diepholz , where he lived with his wife Catherina Margareta, née Frieße. The father Christoph Friedrich Brauer (1714–1782) went to the service of the Count of Isenburg-Wächtersbach after studying law, was court master of the Count of Erbach-Schönberg in 1741 and first councilor, office director and archivist of the Count's Ysenburg government in 1743 Büdingen. When Brauer was 12 years old, his father moved with him to the Offenbach residence , where he was appointed to the Privy Council of the Principality of Isenburg-Birstein. The mother Sabine, née Rücker, was the daughter of the mayor of Frankfurt Johann Nikolaus Rücker and Anna Margarete, née Vorstatt, and had died in 1752.
Brauer's first marriage was Friederike (1773–1800), daughter of Friedrich Helwig Hemeling, secretary of the Princely Isenburg Rent Chamber, and Joh. Salome Bürcklin (6 children). In his second marriage he married Luise (1778-1832), daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm Preuschen, bailiff of the Karlsruhe Oberamt, and Ernestine Juliana, née Ottmann. Of the three children of this marriage, (Johann Emanuel Friedrich) Wilhelm (1809–1890) became a lawyer and worked in the Baden administration. (Christian Wilhelm Ludwig) Eduard Brauer (1811–1871) also joined the Baden administration as a lawyer. As a poet, he mainly wrote poetry.
Education and activity
Brauer studied in Giessen and Göttingen law . In 1774 he entered the Baden state service. In 1775 he was an assessor, in 1777 a real court and government councilor and in 1788 a privy councilor. From 1790 he was director of the court council and as a trainee lawyer in Catholic spiritual affairs, he was a member of the secret council, albeit with limited participation. In 1792 Brauer was appointed the real secret councilor in the secret council, the cabinet of Karl Friedrich von Baden , which was not yet subdivided into departments , and director of the Lutheran church council. Since 1790 for the Baden-Baden part of the country, since 1793 for both parts of the country, Brauer was also responsible for the supervision of the school system. During the time of the Rhine Confederation , Brauer was at times the leading politician in Baden. After the administrative reforms, Brauer took over the management of the Ministry of the Interior, known as the Police Department, in 1807. A year later he became Deputy Minister in the Department of Justice and a member of the State Council. In 1810 he was Ministerialrat and Deputy Minister in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Since 1811, Brauer was a cabinet councilor in the Interior and Foreign Ministry. Brauer was an important advisor to Karl Friedrich and Karl Ludwig Friedrich von Baden . Only in the reign of Sigismund von Reitzenstein 1809/10 did he lose influence at times.
As early as 1789, Brauer was instrumental in drafting numerous important laws. In the course of secularization and mediatization after 1803, he played a key role in the integration of the new parts of the country. The reform laws in the first phase of the Confederation of the Rhine from 1806 were also largely due to Brauer. Of central importance was Brauer's reception of the Civil Code and its adaptation to the conditions in Baden. As Baden land law , the law came into force in 1810 and was valid until 1899. A first Baden constitution draft from 1809, which also goes back to Brauer, was not implemented. Until his death, Brauer continued to work on the constitutional reform of Baden, but did not live to see the completion of the constitutional project of 1818 under Karl Ludwig Friedrich von Baden. For his services, in particular to the reform of the University of Heidelberg, he received an honorary doctorate in law in 1803.
In addition to his work in the civil service, Brauer was also active as an author and editor in a variety of ways. Among them are his explanations of the Code Napoléon in six volumes (Karlsruhe 1809–1812). In addition to legal writings, he was also the author of theological works and even hymns. Brauer was in contact with Johann Peter Hebel and Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling .
“Significantly responsible for the organization of the archives […] - was the Secret Councilor Johann Nikolaus Friedrich Brauer (1754–1813): His archive order, created in 1801, was intended to determine the work in the General State Archives and in the registries of the Baden authorities for a century The Brauer rubrics that can still be found in the finding aids of the General State Archives in Karlsruhe today, which sorted all written material into subject groups from A to Z, are one of the outstanding examples of an archive system based on the principle of pertinence .
- Reprint of the writings exchanged in the presumed complaint of the city of Baden against the Margrave of Baden (...). 2 parts. Carlsruhe 1780.
- Execution of those from hochlöbl. Emperor and Reichshofrath added special and general complaints in the previous matter. Carlsruhe 1780.
- Treatise on the explanation of the Peace of Westphalia. Volume 1: Offenbach 1782, Volume 2: ibid. 1784. Volume 3: Treatise of the decision day and its influence on withdrawn or standing indirect church property of both R. religions, to explain the 2nd, then25. And 26th § of the 5th article of the Peace of Westphalia. In addition to an introduction to the distinctive character of the peace treaty of the public and private religious practice of the subjects. Offenbach 1785.
- Substantial content of the considerable part of the newer margravial Baden legislation or alphabetical excerpt from the Baden ordinances contained in the Carlsruher and Rastatt weekly papers, including other not yet printed Baden ordinances. Karlsruhe 1782.
- Proof of the residency of the fiefdom of the vassals of Gemmingen in Hagenschieße, together with the history of the trial between the Margrave of Baden and the Imperial Knighthood, Orts am Neckar, Black Forest and Ortenau. Karlsruhe 1784.
- Contribution to the German state theory. Legal concerns about the printing of the plaintiff's counter-report in matters of several citizens of the city of Baden against Mr. Margrave of Baden hochf. Trans. Puncto Mandati regarding alleged religious complaints. Karlsruhe 1786.
- Markgräfl. Badische Physikatsordnung and Instruction. Karlsruhe 1793.
- Markgräfl. Badische Hofrathsordnung and instruction. Karlsruhe 1794.
- Markgräfl. Baden church council regulations and instructions. Karlsruhe 1797.
- Markgräfl. Baden book censorship regulations. Karlsruhe 1797.
- Historical representation of the umbrella and subjections relationships of the Markgräfl. Baden, belonging to the county of Eberstein, Frauenalb monastery and the Hochfürstl. Baden's behavior in the trial of the rejection of the monastic accusations, which the monastery had in any case excited, as if one were praising persistent intrusiveness against the same and a contempt for imperial jurisdiction. Since I was guilty. With a certificate attachment. Karlsruhe 1897.
- Panteidolon chroneicon or thoughts of a southerner about European religious writings, enlightenment wisdom and brilliant prospects for the church; published by a traveler for the benefit and piety of his countrymen. Christianstadt (Frankfurt a. M.) 1797.
- Markgräfl. Baden church censorship regulations. Karlsruhe 1798.
- Thoughts about a church association of both Protestant religious parties. Karlsruhe 1803.
- Christianity is an institution of government; a word for our times. Leipzig 1807.
- Contributions to a general constitutional law of the Rhenish states in fifty sentences. Karlsruhe 1807.
- Explanations about the Code de Napoleon and the Grand Duke. Baden civil legislation. Vol. 1–3, Karlsruhe 1809, Vol. 3, ibid. 1811, vol. 4, ibid. 1813.
- Yearbooks of legislation and jurisprudence of the Grand Duchy of Baden (with Karl Salomon Zachariä). Vol. 1, 1813.
In addition to legal and canonical writings, Brauer also wrote individual treatises, poems and songs, as in:
- Michael Macklot (Ed.): Journal for theological literature, 5th and 6th items, year 1801. Karlsruhe 1801.
- Ernst Ludwig Posselt (Ed.): Wissenschaftliches Magazin, Vol. 1, Issue 4, Jacobäer, Leipzig 1785.
- Johann Ludwig Ewald (Ed.): Christian monthly to strengthen and stimulate the Christian spirit. Leipzig 1802, 1804.
- Laws and Conventions, in: Michael Macklot (Ed.): Magazine from and for Baden. Carlsruhe 1802, pp. 231-284.
- Poems, in: Michael Macklot (Hrsg.): Upper Rhine manifolds. A non-profit weekly publication. Johann Jacob Thurneysen, Basel
- Songs, in: New Badisches Gesangbuch for the promotion of public and domestic devotion. Müller, Kehl 1786, Karlsruhe 1806.
- Büdingen church book (the entry in the ADB is therefore incorrect)
- s. List of city leaders of Frankfurt am Main
- Würtz (see literature below), p. 66.
- Würtz (see literature below), pp. 69f.
- On the history of the constitutional reform in Baden, cf. Würtz, Johann Niklas Brauer, pp. 211-269; Pp. 351-383; Andreas, pp. 56-73; Pp. 81-85; Pp. 153-227; Pp. 259-271; Pp. 322-350; P. 356; von Weech, there also the texts of the various draft constitution (all see literature below)
- See Würtz (see literature below), p. 182 with note 311.
- See the list of his writings in Würtz (see literature below), pp. XIX-XXI.
- 200 years of the General State Archives Karlsruhe . In: Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg (ed.): Archive news . No. May 28 , 2004, ISSN 1437-0018 , DNB 975496786 , p. 5–8 ( landesarchiv-bw.de [PDF; 3.2 MB ; accessed on January 29, 2019]).
Political correspondence of Karl Friedrich von Baden 1783–1806; Vol. 1-6, ed. by Bernhard Erdmannsdörffer, Karl Obser. Winter, Heidelberg 1888–1915. See also below in the chapter "Literature" the work of Andreas; Landgrave; from Weech; Würtz.
- Weidlich's Biographical Messages from Now Living Legal Scholars, Vol. 4, pp. 20-21.
- Johann Georg Meusel (Ed.): The learned Teutschland or lexicon of the now living German writers. 5th Edition I, pp. 413-414, XI, pp. 132, XIII, 162-163, XVII, Abth. 1, 362, 364.
- Johann Jacob Gradmann: Lexicon of the now living Swabian writers. Self-published 1802, pp. 58–60.
- JH Stepf (Ed.): Gallerie aller jurid. Authors from the oldest to the present time with their most excellent writings are listed in alphabetical order. Vol. I, p. 260. Lausser, Leipzig 1820.
- JS Ansch & JG Gruber (Hrsg.): General encyclopedia of science and arts in alphabetical order. XII part.
- Heinrich Eduard Scriba: Brewer, Johann Nicolaus Friedrich . In: Biographical-literary lexicon of the writers of the Grand Duchy of Hesse in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. 1st division. Leske, Darmstadt 1831, pp. 85-87.
- Willy Andreas: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, ISBN 3-428-00183-4 , p. 542 f. ( ). In:
- Gerald Maria Landgraf: "Moderate et prudenter" - studies on the enlightened reform policy of Karl-Friedrich von Baden (1728-1811) . Regensburg 2008, DNB 988079968 ( uni-regensburg.de [PDF; 7.0 MB ; accessed on January 29, 2019] dissertation).
- Hans Merkle: The "plus-mover". The Baden statesman Sigismund von Reitzenstein and his time. Braun, Karlsruhe 2006. ISBN 978-3-7650-8352-5
- Christian Würtz : Johann Niklas Friedrich Brauer (1754–1813). Baden reformer in Napoleonic times (publications of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg, Series B Research 159) Stuttgart 2005.
- Bernhard R. Kroener : Johann Nikolaus Friedrich Brauer (1754-1813) . In: Kurt GA Jeserich and Helmut Neuhaus (ed.): Personalities of the administration. Biographies on German administrative history 1648–1945 . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart a. a. 1991, ISBN 3-17-010718-6 , pp. 61-64 .
- Friedrich von Weech : Brewer, Johann Nicolaus Friedrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, p. 263 f.
- Christian Würtz: Johann Nicolaus Friedrich Brauer. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 27, Bautz, Nordhausen 2007, ISBN 978-3-88309-393-2 , Sp. 179-186.
- Willy Andreas : History of Baden's administrative organization and constitution in the years 1802–1818, Vol. 1 (no more published). Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1913.
- Carl Friedrich Nebenius: Karl Friedrich von Baden . Ed .: Friedrich von Weech. Müller, Karlsruhe 1868, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb11005672-7 ( digital-sammlungen.de [accessed on January 29, 2019]).
- Friedrich von Weech: The eighth and ninth Baden constitution edict. In: Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins 46, 1892, pp. 249-313.
- Friedrich von Weech: History of the Baden constitution . A. Bielefeld, Karlsruhe 1868, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10562336-6 ( digital-sammlungen.de [accessed on January 29, 2019]).
- Carl Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Drais : History of the government and education of Baden under Carl Friedrich, Bd. 1–2. Müller, Karlsruhe 1816–1818, here vol. 2. 
- Literature by and about Johann Nicolaus Friedrich Brauer in the catalog of the German National Library
- Brauer: Explanations on the Code Napoléon , Volume 3 (digitized version)
|SURNAME||Brewer, Johann Nicolaus Friedrich|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Baden official and politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 20, 1754|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Büdingen|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 17, 1813|
|Place of death||Karlsruhe|