National Theater Mannheim

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National Theater Mannheim
Nationaltheater Mannheim, foyer

The Nationaltheater Mannheim ( NTM ) is a four-part theater in Mannheim with its own ensembles for music theater ( opera ), drama , dance and the Young National Theater . In 2012 the Nationaltheater again expanded its offering with the Mannheim Citizens' Stage . When Christian Holtzhauer took over the acting directorship , it was given a new name as the Mannheim City Ensemble. The Junge Bürgerbühne continues to exist within the Junge Nationaltheater. With the biennial International Schiller Days and the Mannheim Mozart Summer (since the 17/18 Mannheim Summer season) as well as its annual performances for around 350,000 visitors, the National Theater is omnipresent as the flagship of the Rhine Neckar metropolitan region and reaches a broad regional and national audience.

Founded by Elector Carl Theodor as a “standing stage” with a permanent ensemble as the successor to the courtly theater, the National Theater was completely placed under municipal responsibility as early as 1839 and is now one of the oldest municipal theaters in the world.


Old National Theater from 1777

The Teutsche Komödienhaus (copper engraving by the Klauber brothers, 1782)
Prompt book for the Mannheim premiere of Schiller's drama “Die Räuber”, 1782
Information board for the Old National Theater Mannheim

The first building of the National Theater was built in Mannheim at the suggestion of Elector Karl Theodor , who initiated the conversion of the electoral warehouses and rubble house into a three-story theater building under the direction of the builder Lorenzo Quaglio . Quaglio extended the facade of the originally unadorned building to include a central projectile with a balcony porch and two six-axis corner projections. The gable was raised one story and adorned with a relief by Johann Matthäus van den Branden (1718–1788) showing Apollo and the nine muses. Van den Branden also created the urns and figures on the three balconies.

In the spring of 1777 the theater started at the first “German National Theater” and Theobald Hilarius Marchand, Maria Marchand's father , became its first director. In the following year Wolfgang Heribert Freiherr von Dalberg was entrusted with the management of the National Theater, which the Elector had in Mannheim to compensate for the court's move to Munich. At the same time as the opening of the Mannheim stage, Karl Theodor had dissolved his previous foreign court theater group; his opera ensemble remained, but followed him to Munich. In Mannheim, therefore, traveling troupes initially contested the program until Dalberg signed the Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft , including members of the former Gothaer Ensemble of the late theater director Conrad Ekhof , which included several outstanding actors in the form of August Wilhelm Iffland , Heinrich Beck and Johann David Beil . Abel Seyler himself was appointed director of the Mannheim theater and took over the artistic direction. The ensemble made its debut on October 17, 1779 with the piece Geschwind eh 'es someone sees it . Future anniversaries always referred to this premiere.

On January 13, 1782, Friedrich Schiller's drama Die Räuber was premiered in the presence of the poet. From the following year, Schiller was Mannheim's first theater poet - a position that was revived and continued under the direction of Bruno Klimek (1996–2000). However, Schiller's philosophizing pieces were not very successful in Mannheim, so that he left the city in 1785. Much more successful, on the other hand, were entertaining pieces, which formed the program, especially from 1792 after Iffland had taken over the direction. However, the Napoleonic Wars soon led to frequent forced breaks from playing. Iffland left the house to become director of the National Theater in Berlin. Dalberg passed his office on to his son-in-law Friedrich Anton von Venningen , who was considered to be poorly qualified and was deposed in 1816 because of political activities. The decline of Mannheim to a provincial town was also reflected in the National Theater, whose directorate remained vacant or was temporarily administered.

As a result of a dispute over the financing of the theater between the city of Mannheim and the state, a ministerial decree of April 16, 1839 transferred responsibility for the theater to the city, making it the first municipal theater in Germany. The subsequent upswing of the house is mainly due to the decorative painter Joseph Mühldorfer , whose stage sets and structures found international recognition. In the years 1853 to 1855, the stage and auditorium were completely redesigned by Mühldorfer and the house was extended by one floor. In addition, the outer courtyards between the porches were built over, so that the once harmoniously structured facade was lost and the building was described as "barracks". Bronze monuments to Schiller, Iffland and Dalberg were erected on the originally vacant Komödienplatz from 1862 to 1866.

The musical performances in the second half of the 19th century were shaped by the conductor Vinzenz Lachner , who not only performed traditional works but also modern, contemporary works. Only Richard Wagner met with rejection from Lachner, so that his works were only performed more frequently after Lachner retired in 1881; At times, Wagner's works even dominated gaming operations.

The Mannheim National Theater experienced a significant high phase under the artistic director Carl Hagemann from 1906. Its ensemble included Kapellmeister Wilhelm Furtwängler , chief director Richard Weichert and set designer Ludwig Sievert . Hagemann's ensemble returned to the front row of German theaters, including with the performance of new expressionist pieces, not least after the theatrical landscape in Berlin had lost its importance during the First World War. Under the directorship of Francesco Sioli (1924–1927) there was an increased promotion of the next generation and a rejuvenation of the ensemble, which made it possible to modernize with a new management team, including Hermann Wlach as senior theater director and Heinz Dietrich Kenter as director of the program, from which a large number of world premieres and premieres of contemporary musical works and dramas of contemporary literature developed.

Gustav Rudolf Sellner , Ernst Langheinz , Ida Ehre , Gertrud Bindernagel , Eugen Jochum , Margarete Klose , Erna Schlüter , Margarete Teschemacher , Valentin Haller , Willy Birgel , Joseph Offenbach , Bum Krüger , Annemarie Schradiek , Erich Musil and others were also involved in Mannheim .

During a performance of Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz , Mannheim was bombed by the Royal Air Force on September 5, 1943 . This destroyed large parts of the city and also the National Theater. At the place of the old National Theater on Schillerplatz in B 3 there is now an information board.

Post-war provisional in the Schauburg

After the war, a temporary move was made to the Schauburg , a former cinema in the K1 square . The first post-war director, Carl Onno Eisenbart , had received a license to carry out musical and theatrical performances in 1945. He was followed by several directors who also only acted for a short time, including Richard Payer , who threw himself to his death out the window of his house before an important director was found again in 1951 in Hans Schüler . On the occasion of the 175th anniversary, the Schiller Prize of the city of Mannheim was donated in 1954 .

New national theater from 1957


National Theater Mannheim, Opera House

In 1953, an architecture competition for a new theater was held, in which several well-known architects - including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe , Rudolf Schwarz , Hans Scharoun and Richard Döcker - took part. The chairman of the jury was Hans Schwippert . The city of Mannheim followed the judges' recommendation to ask Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Rudolf Schwarz to revise their proposals, which they rejected. Thereupon the city of Mannheim commissioned the architects Otto Ernst Schweizer and Gerhard Weber , a student of Mies van der Rohe, with new designs in 1954.

In the end, those responsible decided in favor of the planning by Gerhard Weber, according to whose concept a new theater building was built on Goetheplatz (i.e. not on the site of the destroyed National Theater) from 1955 to 1957. It consists of a large house (opera house, approx. 1,200 seats) and a small house (theater, approx. 630 seats with variable seating arrangements) that share a common foyer.

On January 13, 1957, the new building was inaugurated by simultaneous performances of Weber's Der Freischütz in the Opera House, conductor: Herbert Albert , and Schiller's Die Räuber in the Little House in a production by Erwin Piscator . In the same year, the architect Weber was honored as the best theater architect for his groundbreaking concept at the Biennale in Sao Paulo.

During the extensive technical renovation of the house in 1992–1994 (during the directorship of Klaus Schultz , 1992–1996), the lighting and stage technology were completely renewed and a stage tower was built above the theater.

The building is now a cultural monument due to the Baden-Württemberg Monument Protection Act . The 60th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone on June 18, 1954, has been commemorating the “City Points - Mannheim History on Site” plaque on the outside facade of the National Theater since June 2014. At the same time, a viewing station was set up in front of the National Theater as part of the Building Culture Prize of the City of Mannheim. The red concrete cubes draw attention to good architecture in Mannheim.

Additions and developments

The Werkhaus opened in 2008
The stage in the studio

In 1972 the studio stage in the Werkhaus was added as a further venue .

In 1978 the Intendant Arnold Petersen founded the International Schiller Days. Successful productions of Schiller's works from home and abroad are invited to this festival. In 2019 it will take place for the 20th time.

In 1979 the Schnawwl children's and youth theater was founded with its own ensemble. It has its main venue in the converted old fire station in Mannheim's Neckarstadt. September 2019 marks the 40th anniversary of the establishment of the oldest municipal children's and youth theater with its own venue in Baden-Württemberg.

The former general music director Ádám Fischer (2000 to 2005) initiated the Mannheim Mozart Week in 2001, which was intended to intensify the preoccupation with Mozart's music and the performance practice of his time. It took place around the anniversary of Mozart's death in December. From the beginning, Mozart's early operas were at the center of interest. The production Ascanio in Alba was invited to the Salzburg Festival in 2006 . In 2007 the Mozart Week was moved to the summer and was called the Mannheim Mozart Summer until the 2015/16 season . Concerts and performances took place in Mannheim and in Schwetzingen Castle. In 2018, the Mannheim Mozart Summer Festival was redesigned as the Mannheim Summer in the course of the opera management by Albrecht Puhlmann. Under the artistic direction of Jan Dvorak (head dramaturge of the opera from 2016–2019), the preoccupation with contemporary music theater was increasingly expressed. Mozart's works are still in the focus, u. a. with a major Mozart premiere in every festival edition (2020 The Abduction from the Seraglio , directed by Luk Perceval).

Especially for children and adolescents, the cooperative young opera division was founded in 2006 during the general director of Regula Gerbers, in collaboration between the opera divisions (director: Klaus-Peter Kehr) and the then Schnawwl (director Andrea Gronemeyer).

In 2008 the new workshop building was completed for 7.9 million euros. It replaced a post-war building that no longer met the technical requirements.

The general renovation of the venues at Goetheplatz is to begin with the start of the 2021/2022 season. The city council of Mannheim approved the redevelopment concept in December 2018. The budget is 240 million euros (excluding the rental of replacement venues) and a construction period of four years.

The cost estimate for renting alternative venues amounts to EUR 12,550,000. Since October 2018, the financing concept, which has yet to be submitted in full, has been based on fixed amount grants of EUR 80 million from the federal government and EUR 40 million from the state of Baden-Württemberg.



Since 2013, an artistic director model has consisted of a managing director and an artistic director each for the opera , drama , ballet and schnawwl (theater for young audiences). With individual changes of directorship, the divisions ballet to dance and from Schnawwl to young national theater were renamed .

Acting directors since 1974 were Claus Leininger (1974–1977), Jürgen Bosse (1977–1988), Nicolas Brieger (1988–1992), Michael Schlicht (1992–1996), Bruno Klimek (1996–2000) and Jens-Daniel Herzog (2000 -2006). Burkhard C. Kosminski has directed the play since 2006 . In September 2018 he was succeeded by Christian Holtzhauer as acting director and artistic director of the International Schiller Days.

The opera director was Dietmar Schwarz from 1998–2005 . 2005–2016 the opera division was headed by Klaus-Peter Kehr . Albrecht Puhlmann has been the opera director since 2016 .

Until the end of the 2015/2016 season, Kevin O'Day and Dominique Dumais shared the management of the ballet division. At the beginning of the 2016/2017 season, Stephan Thoss took over the management of the dance division as dance director and chief choreographer.

The Schnawwl theater for young audiences was directed by Andrea Gronemeyer from 2002 to 2017 . Ulrike Stöck has been the artistic director of the Junge Nationaltheater since the 2017/2018 season .

General Music Directors

Initially, the orchestra conductors were named Hofkapellmeister or 1st Kapellmeister. Franz Lachner (1834–1836) and then his brother Vinzenz Lachner (1836–1872), who at the age of 46 had the longest tenure of a conductor at the National Theater to date, acted as such in the 19th century . Between 1896 and 1899 Emil Nikolaus von Reznicek was first conductor at the National Theater. Wilhelm Furtwängler (1915–1920) and Erich Kleiber (1922–1923) are still known from the first half of the 20th century . The chief conductors have held the title of general music director since 1923 . Occasionally they also act as opera director.

The ensemble

The ensemble included:

as a singer

as an actor

The current ensemble includes:

as a singer (from season 2019/20)

  • Evez Abdulla
  • Martiniana Antonie
  • Dominic Barberi
  • Thomas Berau
  • Marcel Brunner
  • Christopher Diffey
  • Nikola Diskic
  • Uwe Eikötter
  • Julia Faylenbogen
  • Joachim Goltz
  • Koral Güvener
  • Sung Ha
  • Andreas Hermann
  • Nikola Hillebrand
  • Juraj Hollý
  • Thomas Jesatko
  • Irakli Kakhidze
  • Astrid Kessler
  • Estelle Kruger
  • Eunju Kwon
  • Jorge Lagunes
  • Ilya Lapich
  • Shahar Lavi
  • Marie-Belle Sandis
  • Amelia Scicolone
  • Roy Corneliuz Smith
  • Bartosz Urbanowicz
  • Joshua Whitener
  • Raphael Wittmer
  • Patrick Zielke

as an actor (from season 2019/20)

  • Tala Al-Deen
  • Sophie Worker
  • Christoph Bornmüller
  • László Branko Breiding
  • Matthias Breitenbach
  • Rocco Brück
  • Annemarie Brüntjen
  • Johanna Eiworth
  • Almut Henkel
  • Eddie Irle
  • Samuel Koch
  • Boris Koneczny
  • Robin Krakowski
  • Jacques Malan
  • Maria Munkert
  • Arash Nayebbandi
  • Ragna Pitoll
  • Vassilissa Reznikoff
  • Patrick Schnicke
  • Nicolas Fethi Türksever
  • Martin Weigel
  • Sarah Zastrau

in the ensemble of the Young National Theater

  • Johannes Bauer
  • Katharina Breier
  • Patricija Katica Bronić
  • Sebastian Reich
  • Hanna Valentina Röhrich
  • Uwe Topmann

as a dancer (from season 2019/20)

  • Saori Ando
  • Lorenzo Angelini
  • Joris Bergmans
  • Joseph Caldo
  • Jamal Rashann Callender
  • Silvia Cassata
  • Zoulfia Choniiazowa
  • Chiara Dal Borgo
  • Mahomi Endoh
  • Julia Headley
  • Vitek Kořinek
  • Vera Kvarkakova
  • Jessica Liu
  • Paloma Galiana Moscardó
  • Ayumi Sagawa
  • Alexandra Chloe Samion
  • Alberto Terribile
  • Lorenzo Terzo
  • Emma Kate Tilson
  • Andrew Wright


  • The production of Richard Wagner's Parsifal is the oldest production of this work, which - albeit in a form that has changed over time - still appears regularly on the program. This makes it the oldest opera production still played in the German-speaking region. It premiered on April 14, 1957, the opening season of the new house, and was written by the then artistic director Hans Schüler. The stage design was designed by Paul Walter, the costumes by Gerda Schulte. The original props from the theater collection of the Reiss Engelhorn museums are brought to the theater for each performance . A valid director's book does not exist. The information provided by those involved who are still informed form the course of the performance. What is essential is the convertible prospectus for the sequence of scenes, which was renewed during the artistic direction of Klaus Schultz (1992–1996).
  • Since 1992, a young artist at the National Theater has received the Arnold Petersen Prize, endowed with 5000 euros. It was financed by the Roland Ernst Foundation at his suggestion and is awarded annually. Award winners were the actor Sven Prietz (2007), the Czech dancer Veronika Kornová-Cardizzaro (2008), the actress Dascha Trautwein (2009), the soprano Katharina Göres (2010), the dancer Brian McNeal (2011), the baritone Nikola Diskic ( 2012), the actor Sascha Tuxhorn (2014) and the soprano Eunju Kwon (2015). They were followed by actor David Müller (2016) and soprano Nikola Hillebrand in 2017/18.
  • The award of the Bloomaulorden , the city of Mannheim's highest civic award , takes place every year as part of a performance in the National Theater.
  • The Nationaltheater Mannheim has had its own children's choir since 2005 .
  • Every year the house offers a summer performance by the Mannheim BB Promotion GmbH.

Awards (selection)


  • Nominated for the German Record Critics' Prize for the CD release of the world premiere Vespertine based on Björk's album of the same name


  • Award of the prize to Mühlheimer playwright Thomas Köcks paradise play (evening country a swan song.) In a production of the National Theater (directed by Marie Bue)


  • "World premiere of the year" 2017 ( Infinite Now by Chaya Czernowin) by Opernwelt magazine
  • Awarding of the operetta prize "Frosch" by the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation for How do I get rich and happy? by Mischa Spoliansky (Direction: Jan Dvorák / Thomas Fiedler / Julia Warnemünde (Command Ascension))
  • Nomination for the prize "Der Faust 2017" in the category "Direction for children and youth theater" by Jan Friedrich for Faust - Der Tragödie first part
  • Award of the Mühlheim Dramatist Prize to Anne Leppers Mädchen in Not in a production by the National Theater (director: Dominic Friedel)


  • Awarding of the “Der Faust 2016” award in the “Best Direction in Music Theater” category to Peter Konwitschny for La Juive
  • Awarding of the “Der Faust 2016” prize in the “Best Stage / Costume” category to Achim Freyer for Esame di mezzanotte


  • “Opera House of the Year” 2015 by Opernwelt magazine
  • "World premiere of the year" 2015 ( Esame di mezzanotte by Lucia Ronchetti) by Opernwelt magazine


  • Awarding of the “Der Faust 2014” prize to director Andrea Gronemeyer for dance drum
  • “World premiere of the year” 2014 by Opernwelt magazine for evil spirits
  • “Choir of the Year” from Opernwelt magazine


  • 2nd place “Opera House of the Year” 2013 by Opernwelt magazine
  • “World premiere of the year” 2013 by Opernwelt magazine for Der Idiot


  • Prize of the German Theater Publishers 2009 from the Foundation of German Stage and Media Publishers for outstanding achievements in drama and schnawwl.

Technical specifications

The opera house ("Großes Haus") has 1156 seats and has one of the largest stages in Germany. It is 24 meters wide and has a revolving platform with three integrated tilters and three extendable double-decker platforms. The theater ("Small House") has a maximum of 639 seats. Because the stage and auditorium can be changed, the number is variable. Both houses have their own stage towers, each 25 meters above the stage floor. The house has a lifting platform with linear chain drive, with which articulated trucks can be lifted from street level to platform level (1st floor). This lifting platform is now essential for the daily delivery and removal of stage sets. The Nationaltheater maintains several storage facilities for stage sets distributed across Mannheim, as well as a rehearsal center in which new productions are rehearsed on 6 stages. The workshops are located directly behind the theater in the Werkhaus. The theater stands on a former World War II bunker that is now used as a storage facility for scenery and props. The house on Goetheplatz is currently preparing for a general renovation with interim venues.

Economic data

The total budget (2018/19) of the house amounts to 62.760 million euros. The city of Mannheim is contributing 32.214 million euros of this. The proportionate operating cost subsidy from the state of Baden-Württemberg amounts to 16.976 million euros. The revenues and own income of the season 2017/18 (with Mannheimer Sommer) amount to 6.190 million euros with an occupancy rate of 73.81 percent and 348,571 visitors. In the 2018/19 season, occupancy increased to 75%.


  • Anton Pichler: Chronicle of the Grand Ducal Court and National Theater in Mannheim. To celebrate its centenary on October 7, 1879 . Bensheimer, Mannheim 1879
  • Archive and Library of the Grossh. Court and National Theater in Mannheim . Leipzig 1899 ( online )
  • Ernst Leopold Stahl: The Mannheim National Theater. A century of German theater culture in the Reich . J. Bensheimer, Mannheim 1929
  • Ernst Leopold Stahl: The classic time of the Mannheim theater. Volume 1. The European Mannheim: The cradle of the German national theater . Hakenkreuzbanner-Verlag, Mannheim 1940 (only volume 1 published)
  • Claus Helmut Drese: The new national theater . Festschrift. Heidelberg 1957
  • Herbert Meyer: The National Theater Mannheim. 1929-1979 . Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim 1979, ISBN 3-411-01563-2 .
  • Karin Jäckel: 200 years of the Mannheim National Theater in Badische Heimat , 62nd year, Freiburg 1982
  • Oscar Fambach: The repertory of the court and national theater in Mannheim. 1804-1832 . Bouvier, Bonn 1980, ISBN 3-416-01570-7 (extensive performance lists)
  • Herbert Beierbach: The Nationaltheater Mannheim - Building History and Change in Architectural Shape , Diss. Phil. Heidelberg 1994.
  • Nationaltheater Mannheim, Association of the “Friends and Patrons of the Nationaltheater Mannheim” (Ed.) Review of the 1992 / 93–1995 / 96 seasons . Mannheim 1996
  • Michael Caroli (Red.), Barbara Becker: The Nationaltheater Mannheim. Outline of its history and guide to the documents kept in the Mannheim City Archives . Von Brandt, Mannheim 1996, ISBN 3-926260-26-2 .
  • Liselotte Homering, Karin von Welck (Hrsg.): Mannheim and its national theater. People - history (s) - perspectives . Palatium-Verlag, Mannheim 1998, ISBN 3-920671-27-9 .
  • Anke Sablowski (Red.): Mies van der Rohe in post-war Germany. The theater project; Mannheim 1953 . Seemann, Leipzig 2001, ISBN 3-363-00770-1 (exhibition catalog with a comprehensive description of the unrealized project in Mannheim)
  • Annette Boegl: Theater for the city. The National Theater Mannheim under the directorship of Ulrich Schwab 1996-2005 . National Theater, Mannheim 2005
  • Alfried Wieczorek (Ed.): Schiller time in Mannheim . Exhibition catalog of the Reiss-Engelhorn-Museums Mannheim. Von Zabern, Mainz 2005, ISBN 3-8053-3554-7 or ISBN 3-8053-3555-5 .
  • Sebastian Parzer: “Mannheim should not only rise up as a city of work…” The second term of office of Mannheim's Lord Mayor Hermann Heimerich (1949–1955) . (= Mannheim historical writings; 1). Verlag Regionalkultur, Ubstadt-Weiher 2008, ISBN 978-3-89735-545-3 , pp. 131–151 (also dissertation, University of Mannheim 2007/2008)
  • Thomas Wortmann (Ed.): Mannheimer Beginnings. Contributions to the founding years of the Mannheim National Theater 1777-1820 . Wallstein, Göttingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-8353-3017-7 .

Web links

Commons : Nationaltheater Mannheim  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Mannheim: Theater history  - sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Information board on the old National Theater on Schillerplatz in B 3 ( memento from September 7, 2006), Mannheim City Archives
  2. ^ Thilo Hilpert: Mies van der Rohe in post-war Germany, Das Theaterprojekt Mannheim 1953 . EASeemann, Leipzig 2001, ISBN 3-363-00770-1 .
  3. Thilo Hilpert: Century of Modernity - The Century of Modernity . Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-658-07042-7 , pp. 250 .
  4. Melanie Mertens: "Our most modern stage". The National Theater in Mannheim . In: State Office for the Preservation of Monuments in the Stuttgart Regional Council (ed.): Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg. News of the State Monument Preservation 4/2017. ISSN 0342-0027, p. 314f.
  5. ^ Peter W. Ragge: New workshops allow insights. (No longer available online.) In: Mannheimer Morgen . April 19, 2008, formerly in the original ; Retrieved April 22, 2008 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) @1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  6. Costs for the Mannheim National Theater renovation split: renovation approved | Music | SWR2. December 19, 2018, archived from the original on June 5, 2019 ; accessed on February 24, 2020 .
  7. ^ Süddeutsche Zeitung April 16, 2009
  8. ^ Arnold Petersen Prize for Veronika Kornová Cardizzaro. In: December 9, 2008, accessed December 10, 2008 .
  9. With the potential for the classic drama character. (No longer available online.) In: Mannheimer Morgen. November 4, 2009, formerly in the original ; Retrieved November 18, 2009 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) @1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  10. ↑ Prize- worthy Rosina between Olympia and Viper. In: Mannheimer Morgen. November 4, 2010, archived from the original on February 11, 2013 ; accessed on February 24, 2020 .
  11. "I try to be an animal". In: Mannheimer Morgen. December 22, 2011, archived from the original on March 9, 2016 ; accessed on February 24, 2020 .
  12. "Nikola Diskic is honored". In: Mannheimer Morgen. October 4, 2012, accessed December 30, 2012 .

Coordinates: 49 ° 29 ′ 16 ″  N , 8 ° 28 ′ 41 ″  E