Missing person

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Private posters on missing people in New York City shortly after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

A missing person is in common usage, but not legally, a person who has disappeared due to special events such as war , displacement , disasters , accidents or because of a crime . A distinction is made between war missing persons and civilian missing persons, whereby only soldiers are counted among the war missing persons, for whom it is therefore unknown whether they fell, were dispersed or taken prisoner.

Missing in Germany

A distinction must be made between missing persons (very long-term) and the type of police operation “missing person”. The legal status of missing persons in Germany is regulated by the Absence Law (VerschG). The legal status of (short-term) missing persons is regulated in Germany by the respective police law , and in the case of initial suspicion of criminal offenses, the code of criminal procedure ; however, the police also take action on missing persons upon request.

Missing case with the German police

Requirement for a missing person case in the police sense are in the German police :

The report of a missing person - the missing person report - usually takes place at the local police force . A missing person report is used to initiate documentation, extensive investigations and searches for people and things with the help of criminalistic methods. The search measures include, among other things

The responsible organizational unit in the police force is called VUT ("Missing, Unknown Dead, Unknown Helpless Person"). In cases of greater importance, when several authorities are responsible and in some police forces , a state criminal investigation office or the federal criminal investigation office is responsible instead of the criminal investigation department.

Under certain circumstances, these measures can have the legal nature of a double-functional measure . That is, it targets both security and law enforcement because of its vagueness .

Investigations into a missing person case may lead to the conclusion, among other things, that the person has been a victim of a crime (e.g. murder, kidnapping), is in captivity, has committed a crime and is fugitive, is doing well (e.g. Dropouts ), died of natural causes or went missing. Another reason may be that the missing person died in armed conflict.

Anyone can file a missing person report at any police station, including abroad. The investigating authorities do not, as shown in many films / television programs, only take action after 24 hours, but immediately after the legal and factual requirements are met.

If an adult is found and does not want any more contact with the seeker, the investigation is complete.


Missing children (up to 14 years)
Year of the
Number of
still missing on
5th April
February 27,
April 10,
total 1.995 872 830
2018 12,762 322
2017 08,255 218 348
2016 08,080 322 377
2015 06,283 519 588
2014 07,198 084 123
2013 047
2012 06,378 123
2011 06,387 115
2010 05,676 057
2002 14,220 139
2001 14,658 139

Children and adolescents are immediately reported missing by the responsible supervisors in girls' houses, children's homes etc. as soon as they exceed the agreed return times, which leads to high numbers in the statistics. In the case of children and young people, less than 1% of all missing persons are involved in a criminal offense.

If a minor is reported missing five times, the police consider him a permanent runaway or stray and no longer assume that his life is in danger if he disappears again.

The numbers given by various public sources do not seem to match each other and sometimes there are already contradictions within one source, this is largely due to the fact that some numbers require a minimum period of time to be missing:

  • Until February 2018, the BKA only registered cases of people who were missing after midnight. Cases that were entered into the INPOL police search system between 00:01 and 24:00 and were resolved on the same day were not taken into account statistically. It was automatically added to the "Missing / Unknown Dead" file introduced in 1992 overnight.
  • Since February 2018, the BKA has registered all cases in which the persons were missing for more than four hours.

Most missing persons cases are cleared up within 4 hours or on the same calendar day, correspondingly very high daily numbers arise if these cases are also counted; 60 people daily in Berlin, 16 people daily in Schleswig-Holstein and reports nationwide up to 300 daily and thus 100,000 missing persons per year.

For those who have been reported missing to the police for more than 4 hours, 50% clarify within a week, 80% within a month, 97% within a year. The manhunt is stopped after 30 years.

Around 12,000 people in the nationwide database of missing persons Vermi / Utot, of which around 10,000 are "in Germany", with the other around 2000 the BKA was involved in searches for missing persons from abroad. Around 150 to 300 people are deleted from the file and the same number added every day. Since February 2018, the requirement has been that the person has been missing for at least 4 hours. The file contains 2000 children up to 13 years of age and around 3600 young people up to 17 years of age; including 885 who are wrongly withdrawn from one of their parents, and 2099 unaccompanied minor refugees. The other 6,000 or so are of legal age.

In North Rhine-Westphalia , 13,000 to 24,000 reports of missing persons are made annually, with some persons being reported missing several times over the course of the year, 11% of the reports concern children under 14 years, 73% young people between 14 and 18 years, 16% adults. Long-term missing persons are those who have been missing for more than 6 weeks and a maximum of 30 years; there were 559 of these in NRW at the end of 2014, including 13 children and 19 young people, and 600 people on June 30, 2017. Among the adult population, 2,600 to 3,600 people were reported missing per year; at the end of 2014, there were 527 long-term missing persons, including 51 new cases in 2014.

In Bremen , with the introduction of the police IT application @rtus, missing numbers have only been statistically determined by age, gender and nationality since 2014 . In 2014–2018, 240–280 Germans and 120–270 people of other nationalities were reported missing. Most of the missing were between 21 and 60 years old.

In 1973, 22,000 children and adolescents reported missing were reported for West Germany.

Of the 6,000 to 15,000 children reported missing nationwide in the years 2002 to 2017 (at least until the next calendar day) and of the 12,762 children reported missing in 2018 (longer than 4 hours), only a few were missing in the following years, as can be seen in the table above / on the right. In Germany, a total of 1,995 unresolved cases of missing children were recorded in the "Vermi / Utot" file - calculated from the earliest registered missing date on March 3, 1951 to April 5, 2019. Of the missing children registered by the BKA between June 6, 1950 and 2002, around 830 remained unresolved. More than half of these children are unaccompanied refugees, belong to the so-called permanent runaways / strays or have been deprived of their custodians. Parents' disputes over the exercise of custody, especially if the parents come from different cultures, are the trigger for child abduction. The cases of child abduction reported to the police are recorded as "missing persons" as long as a danger to the children cannot be excluded in the police sense. As a rule, however, in these cases there is no danger for the children, since during their "absence" they are in the care of an adult to whom they have a close bond.

The biggest recent event that also made Central European people missing was the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake . In connection with the disaster, over 1000 German nationals were temporarily missing, mainly vacationers on the coasts of Thailand, India and Sri Lanka. A year later, only 15 people were missing.

Identification of corpses to resolve missing persons

In the past, it was not easy to reliably identify victims of war and disaster. In the case of soldiers, this often only happened through the identification tag , which the soldiers always had to wear on duty and on which their names and personal identification number or the like were stamped. These marks are still common in many armed forces today. In this way, corpses could still be identified many years after their death by comparing them with the existing files. Another possibility is a system that is also used in the civil sector and is based on the examination of teeth ( dental status ). Today a DNA comparison is largely carried out.

In Germany, every person who has known the person concerned is obliged as a witness to help identify a corpse ( Section 88 StPO in conjunction with Sections 48 ff. StPO).

Legal consequences

In addition to the psychological consequences for the relatives of the missing, there are often legal difficulties that can drag on for years and endanger the survival of the bereaved. Pension payments can be refused up to a declaration of death . Inheritance too often cannot be settled. In Germany this is regulated by the Absence Act .

But inheritances can also be reclaimed if a missing person is found again after a declaration of death. Especially after the war, missing persons appeared at a time when the alleged widow was already remarried.

Search for missing people

There are individual data collections for the different groups of missing persons that can be used for further clarification.

Address book / search database / social network / search agency

Historical address books , up-to-date telephone books as well as people search engines and search engines provide initial indications of how long the missing person was listed and was mentioned on the Internet or in publications. There are also interactive search engines for people ( Facebook ), former student stay friends and missing people. The private search for missing persons in interactive search engines without coordination with the police is dangerous. Outdated search requests are no longer deleted, or the person they are looking for is exposed in the new environment by being published. Search agencies help with the search. They may be commercially oriented.

Population register

There are population registers in Germany at more than 5,000 residents' registration offices . The information required is first and last name, last known address, date of birth and marital status. The search should begin with the registration office for which the last address is known.

Digital civil status information

Some civil status information is stored at ancestry.de, tombstone information at genealogy.net, and war dead at volksbund.de.

Conflicts and disasters

The icmp International Commission on Missing Persons carries out DNA examinations for government agencies and courts. It is essentially a matter of performing the identification of the dead after conflicts and disasters, e.g. B. in the Western Balkans as well as in Asia, South America and the Middle East. The International Red Cross searches for missing family members from disasters and conflicts, broken down by country. The Federal Foreign Office helps find missing Germans abroad.

Investigation of heirs, emigrants

Professional heir investigators can be called in for estates for which no heirs have registered. As a rule, they receive 20 to 30 percent of the estate's value as a fee, provided they find the heirs who are still alive and the inheritance is paid out.

Descendants overseas and backward families in Germany are looking for emigrants. " The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints " has compiled a list of the emigrants' names (very extensive and easy to search) . Emigrations via Hamburg are included in the Ancestry databases (from the Hamburg State Archives). Emigrants via Bremen are also recorded. The emigrants from Baden-Württemberg were also registered. The passengers were registered in Ellis Island off New York.

Missing from WWII

Missing war dead and prisoners

Memorial for missing persons of the Second World War in Neustadt am Rübenberge

While the prisoners of war of the Second World War were released relatively soon from the camps of the western allies and were in contact with their relatives even during captivity, it was mainly missing persons who had been in Soviet captivity for many years and of whom nothing was known about their whereabouts. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and a number of national societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement operate tracing services that, even after decades, especially after opening various archives, have been successful in clarifying the fate of missing persons, even if mostly only Times or places of death. Survivors are rarely found even after decades. The International Red Cross in Geneva has an archive on prisoners of war and processes search queries.

The search service of the German Red Cross receives up to twenty search queries every day, several of them still relating to missing persons from the Second World War. The search service for missing persons from the Second World War will be discontinued at the end of 2023. The DRK tracing service helps find and reunite families with missing persons.

The International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen is responsible because of its collection of documents for the clarification of the fate of Nazi victims in the former German Reich: the concentration camp inmates, prisoners of war, forced laborers, the internees, deportees Displaced Persons (DPs) and displaced persons. He owns the archive of the child tracing service.

The Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e.V. provides information about missing persons and the burial sites of those who have fallen . V. in Kassel in his online graves file. Search notices for missing persons from the wars or feedback from contemporary witnesses are listed under Last Hope. Missing and dead people are also listed on the memorials for the fallen in their home communities. Grave research for the area of ​​Austrian war graves is carried out by the War Graves Commission of the Austrian Black Cross (ÖSK).

The clarification of the fate of war dead and missing persons during the Second World War is one of the tasks of the German Service (WASt) for notifying the next of kin of those who died in the former German armed forces. The missing persons picture lists compiled by the tracing service of the German Red Cross in Munich after the Second World War are accessible via the WASt. In the US, it is the Defense POW / MIA Accounting Agency based in Washington.

In the Federal Archives-Military Archives brief facts are given and their own research in the reading room are possible. The units' war diaries contain reports of casualties and missing persons. (Military Maps> Units> Unit Diaries).

The Saxon Memorials Foundation , Documentation Center Dresden, has data on around 250,000 Soviet prisoners from the Second World War. The Moscow Search Unit, League for Russian-German Friendship, takes on the search for missing Wehrmacht soldiers in the area of ​​the former Soviet Union on the basis of any archive files that may be available for a fee. The Association for the Clarification of the Fate of Missing and Fallen Persons (VKSVG) works on a voluntary basis, provides support and also helps with research into the grave sites of former Soviet soldiers in Austria.

Slave labor

An overview of regional archives on Nazi forced labor and forced labor camps during the Nazi era was compiled in the Federal Archives . The International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen provides information on forced laborers, displaced persons and people in concentration camps during the National Socialist era (around 17 million people) .

Murdered and survivors of the Shoah

The names of the Holocaust victims have been preserved in the database of the Jad Vashem Memorial in Jerusalem . Several institutions can search for missing victims of Nazi persecution. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum , USHMM, has multiple databases on survivors and victims. Dutch victims of the Neuengamme concentration camp are searched for on a website of the Freundeskreis.

Refugees and displaced persons

An information forum for refugees and displaced persons from East Prussia is the Landsmannschaft Ostpreußen in Hamburg with regional groups in the federal states, home district communities and home meetings. Data material for Silesia , the Association of Sudeten Germans genealogists e. V. (VSFF) with the Sudeten German Genealogical Archive (SGA) in Regensburg. The Church Tracing Service in Munich researched according to the hometowns of the displaced persons, family members, friends and work colleagues. In 2015 this tracing service ceased its activity due to lower demand, the collected documents were handed over to the load balancing archive (in the Federal Archives Bayreuth ), which will in future provide information on the basis of this material.

Children, parents

The children who were lost in the Second World War and in flight and displacement were searched for and introduced to the Suchkind campaign . The children of war ( occupation children ) of German soldiers in France and French soldiers in Germany are helped by the Amicale Nationale des Enfants de la Guerre ANEG (National Association of War Children) and the Association Coeurs Sans Frontières / Hearts Without Borders. The children of American occupation soldiers look for their fathers in American archives. Several European associations of children of the occupation are networked in the Born of War, international network. There are also interactive searches by the crew children for their parents. The Lebensborn children and wolf children from East Prussia are also looking for their parents.

Missing people from the GDR

Forced adoption children in the GDR are looking for their birth parents.

Currently missing


The Missing Children Initiative , which is part of an umbrella organization called Missing Children Europe , provides guidance on how to search for missing children and publishes its own search reports.

The private initiative Die-Vermisstensuche from Lutherstadt Wittenberg compiles reports of missing children and adolescents from Germany, Austria and Switzerland in a missing person database; the initiative also helps affected relatives in their search and provides assistance.

The International Center for Missing & Exploited Children and the resulting Global Missing Children's Network provide support worldwide through contacts in over 29 countries.


The International Red Cross helps in the search for missing migrants and missing persons through war, flight and displacement. The German Red Cross in Munich helps with international searches and family news.

Repatriates and ethnic repatriates

The DRK tracing service location Hamburg helps in the search for repatriates / ethnic repatriates and helps in the search for reference persons in procedures to determine German citizenship.

Missing person in other countries


The wanted persons file ( fichier des personnes recherchées FPR) is a collection of data from the French national police. It is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior in France and the Ministry of Defense .


Regarding the Yugoslav wars , around 21,000 people are still missing today.

The "disappeared" of Latin America

In the 1970s and 1980s, almost all countries in South America were ruled by politically right-wing military dictatorships for a long time . Almost all of them used violence to suppress the opposition. A common means of doing this was by secret kidnapping, the so-called disappearance of unpopular people by members of the security forces who remained anonymous. Because the victims simply "disappeared" in this way and, in fact, except for the kidnappers, nobody knew where they were, the relatives often reported these people to the authorities as "missing". The victims were usually tortured while imprisoned in secret prisons and, in many cases, were murdered afterwards (see Desaparecidos ). During the Argentine military dictatorship (1976–1983) alone, up to 30,000 people disappeared permanently and without a trace in this way.


In Austria there is the competence center for leavers. The police record the data on the missing person, which is stored in the Austrian search system (EKIS) and (automatically) in the Schengen information system (SIS).

In 2016, a total of 8,887 cases of dependency were processed across Austria and saved in the EKIS. Of these, 6,322 cases concerned EU citizens, except 44 cleared, and 2,565 non-EU citizens, except 264 cleared up. As of October 1, 2017, a total of 1,300 people were registered as missing in Austria: 349 were women, 198 of them minors. 951 were male, of which 597 were minors. The number of EU citizens who were stored in the EKIS as missing was between 400 and 500 at all times mentioned in 2015/2016/2017. In 2017, 10,000 missing persons reports were filed in Austria. As of May 1, 2018, 1,267 people were reported to be missing, 746 of them children and young people. Only 505 came from EU countries.

In January 2019 1037 and in January 2020 884 people were stored in the EKIS as missing. Between 2016 and 2019, 85 percent of missing persons were cleared up within a week, 95 percent within a month, 97 percent within six months and 98 percent within a year. In 2019, the KAP published a manhunt in only 13 cases, the result of which: 8 living, 3 dead, 2 still missing.

The legal status of the missing in Austria is regulated by the Death Declaration Act.


Missing persons must be reported to the police for missing persons, but none of the Swiss cantonal police have a special department for missing persons. Search operations by the police and rescue workers will be billed in full or in part, depending on the canton. The accident insurance covers search costs if the situation was not caused by gross negligence, if there is a risk to life and if there are justified chances of survival. Searching by helicopter is particularly costly.

In Switzerland, a declaration of absence can be submitted after five years. Then a guardian is appointed for the missing person. The anonymous deaths in which a found corpse could not be identified are archived. In Switzerland there are (as of 2011) 170 bodies that could not be identified, but the total number of missing persons is significantly higher. The Missing Children Switzerland Foundation works for children and young people missing in Switzerland .

One year after a life-threatening situation or five years after the last sign of life, the disappearance can be requested. If authorities have found an adult, responsible missing person, they are only allowed to inform other people of his whereabouts with his consent. He is responsible for compliance with the legal reporting requirements .

A relatively large number of people are missing in Switzerland due to accidents in alpine sports . Twenty-one climbers are missing on the (much climbed) Matterhorn alone (as of September 2012); according to a report by Southeastern Switzerland , forty people are missing in the Bernina region (2015). Since the melting of glaciers means that more and more corpses are released, the police have given instructions on how to deal with these finds: photograph finds, mark them, write down coordinates - and if there is a risk that the find or the place of discovery cannot be found again, the finds should be taken along and handed in at the nearest police station.

United States

Missing in Action (MIA) is in Anglo-American parlance the status designation for a soldier who was probably killed or missing in combat, but no further information is known about his whereabouts. The abbreviation "MIA" will take place next to the abbreviations "WIA" ( Wounded in Action ), "POW" ( Prisoner of War , prisoners of war ) and "KIA" ( Killed in Action ) common in casualty lists Anglo-American forces use.

The forces of the New York City Fire Department and the New York City Police Department who perished during rescue operations after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the World Trade Center are listed as Missing in Action .

See also: Missing Children and Teenagers in the United States

"Disappearance" as an offense in international law

The disappearance of politically unpopular people as a means of state repression, as described above, was and is not limited to South America. It is used by numerous states to this day, mainly in dictatorships . The systematic disappearance of people is defined as a crime against humanity under the Rome Statute, which came into force in 2002 . It thus forms one of the legal norms for the case law of the International Criminal Court in The Hague .

See also


  • Peter Jamin: Missing - and sometimes murder. About people who are disappearing and those who are looking for them. Verlag Deutsche Polizeiliteratur, Hilden 2007, ISBN 978-3-8011-0538-9

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b Police Service Regulation 389 ("Missing, unknown dead, unknown helpless people")
  2. Oliver Stöwing: Relatives, desperately wanted. In: Hamburger Abendblatt of July 21, 2017, p. 26.
  3. Until February 2018, only children whose missing report was not deleted at midnight are included here.
  4. From February 2018, only children who have been missing for at least four hours are included here
  5. a b c d e BKA , last accessed on February 19, 2020
  6. [1] , web link probably dead since the update on April 5, 2019, but the source of the numbers
  7. a b Archived copy ( memento of July 18, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), PDF
  8. a b Federal Criminal Police Office : The police processing of missing persons cases ( Memento from February 6, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), p. 7 no. 5, Wiesbaden, 2003 (PDF)
  9. from the earliest registered missing date June 6, 1950 or March 3, 1951
  10. [2]
  11. ^ Police NRW LKA Missing - Unknown helpless people - Unknown dead - North Rhine-Westphalia Statistics 2014
  12. "A criminal offense was allegedly the reason for the disappearance of young people in 8 of 2,256 cases and of children in 4 of 619 cases." From Section 8.5 (no page number) Processing of youth matters by Horst Clages, Reingard Nisse Verlag Deutsche Polizeiliteratur, from 22 February 2013, 117 pages according to footnote 167 data from the Bavarian LKA from 1992 Evaluation of the cited statistical data from page 222 of the book: Author Günter Milke: Missing - what now? Case processing - legal situation. Problem - Fate, Verlag Boorberg, 1994, ISBN 3415019209 , 9783415019201, 271 pages
  13. a b c October 6, 1975 outlier: “Just away from home” Spiegel.de
  14. dnn.de
  15. Berliner Zeitung June 24, 2018 Thousands disappear every year
  16. shz November 14, 2014 As if swallowed by the ground.
  17. bild.de
  18. a b c 11,776 people thereof 9772 “in Germany” at the beginning of December 2019 n-tv zeit.de
  19. 11,711 on October 1, 2015 of which 9780 “in Germany” Welt.de
  20. "in Germany" as of October 1st: 2017 14,903, 2016 15,700 2015 9,900 according to a notification from the BKA - Almost 15,000 people are reported missing - December 23, 2017 - 9:28 am - dpa - [3] [4] [ 5]
  21. 500 in 2012 Lübecker Nachrichten
  22. a b c 18 million inhabitants on missing persons: Police NRW LKA Missing - Unknown helpless people - Unknown dead - North Rhine-Westphalia Statistics 2014, 2011 13,086, 2012 19,205, 2013 20,146, 2014 20,405, [6] [7] [8] 2015 17700, 2016 23200, 1st half of 2017 11,500, 615 long-term missing [9] [10] [11] [12] 2008 15,180, 2017 23,840, 605 long-term missing
  23. Bremen citizenship printed matter 19/1979 December 18, 2018
  24. Source: Bing people search engine
  25. Search engine for schools and students at Stayfriends (partial data only)
  26. yasni interactive search engine for missing persons ( memento of the original from January 7, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.missing-people.com
  27. Oliver Stöwing: Relatives, desperately wanted. In: Hamburger Abendblatt of July 21, 2017, p. 26.
  28. www.i-psp.de International People Search Pool ( Memento of the original from May 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.i-psp.de
  29. Find old friends again. In: Test, 2/2016, pp. 14–15.
  30. Ancestry Digital Data Collections
  31. ^ Search for tombstone information at genealogy.net
  32. Graves file of the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge
  33. ^ Website of the International Commission on Missing Persons
  34. ↑ Tracing Service of the International Red Cross for missing relatives
  35. Federal Foreign Office website
  36. Addresses of the consulates by country
  37. field of activity of professional investigators heritage erbenermittlung.de,
  38. Fee claims from heir investigators ( Memento of the original from January 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , susie-online.de @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.susie-online.de
  39. ^ Directory of names of the emigrants of the Church of Jesus Christ
  40. ^ Emigrations via Hamburg at Ancestry
  41. Emigrants via Bremen
  42. ^ Emigrants from Baden-Württemberg
  43. Passenger lists of immigrants via New York
  44. Contacting the ICRC archives: Agency archives / Prisoners of war (prisoners of war )
  45. ↑ Tracing Service Bavarian Red Cross District Association Munich
  46. Second World War. Search for missing persons will end at the end of 2023. In: “ Hamburger Abendblatt ”, May 5, 2020, p. 5. Agency code: afp.
  47. ↑ Tracing Service German Red Cross Hamburg
  48. International Tracing Service Bad Arolsen ( Memento of the original from November 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.its-arolsen.org
  49. Missing and graves file of the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge
  50. Last hope - unexplained fate - search for names at the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge
  51. Fallen memorials according to federal states, districts and names
  52. ^ Website Austrian Black Cross (ÖSK)> Grave research for war graves in Austria
  53. German Office (WASt)
  54. Kelly McKeague, 58, a retired Major General in the U.S. Air Force, has been the agency's director since September 2017. Paid items in Spiegel, SPON , March 2018
  55. Military archive in Freiburg ( Memento of the original from October 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.bundesarchiv.de
  56. ^ Website of the Saxon Memorials Foundation, Dresden Documentation Center for former Soviet prisoners of war
  57. Web Search Unit Moscow, League of Russian-German friendship. Commercial search for missing former Wehrmacht soldiers
  58. website of VKSVG with missing persons database
  59. Internet portal of the Federal Archives on forced labor with a list of places of detention and evidence of the regional archive holdings
  60. International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen provides information for victims of forced labor and their family members
  61. Jad Vashem's website with Shoah victims' names
  62. ^ Website of the Shoah working group with information on people search services
  63. ^ Internet site of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, USHMM, with Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database, Displaced Children Registry
  64. Stichting Vriendenkring Neuengamme. Oproepen.
  65. ^ Website of the Preußische Allgemeine Zeitung with archive search
  66. ^ Association of Sudeten German Family Researchers V., Regensburg
  67. Website of the church tracing service for displaced persons ( memento of the original of June 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.kirchlicher-suchdienst.de
  68. Website of the Amicale Nationale des Enfants de la Guerre ANEG with family research / Avis de recherche
  69. Coeurs sans Frontières website with wanted ads
  70. gitrace website with its local groups and current searches
  71. ^ Website of the occupation fathers for American occupation children in Germany and Austria
  72. Born of War website with European member associations
  73. Interactive search queries from crew children in the missing persons forum of the VKSVG
  74. ^ Association of Traces of Life V. with Lebensborn homes in Europe
  75. War children Denmark with search reports
  76. ^ Lebensborn homes in Norway
  77. Documentation of the history of the wolf children
  78. ^ Website Help for Victims of Forced Adoptions in the GDR > People Search
  79. ^ Website Forced Adoptions in the GDR
  80. ^ Website of the Missing Children Initiative> Missing Children
  81. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): Restoring Family links (Eng.)
  82. DRK: make search requests. DRK tracing service location Munich
  83. DRK: make search requests. DRK tracing service location Hamburg
  84. Competence center for people leaving
  85. Competence center for graduates: PDF
  86. 4 years KAP
  87. derstandard.at
  88. tt.com
  89. Death Declaration Act 1950 on ris.bka.gv.at
  90. TV show Please report! Production RTS 2011. Sent in 3sat on January 18, 2012, 20.15–21.05.
  91. Website Missing Children Switzerland ( Memento of the original from August 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.missingchildren.ch
  92. Death on the Matterhorn. In: Observer Nature, September 2012, based on information from Bruno Jelk
  93. Southeastern Switzerland, July 25, 2016: After more than 50 years: body of a missing person identified.
  94. ^ Book presentation by Peter Jamin