Protection police

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Police officer in front of the Hamburg City Hall

The Schutzpolizei ( SchuPo , S ) is an organizational unit within the German police force ( Landespolizei ). The members of the protection police usually do their duty in police uniform .


The main task of the security police is to ensure the maintenance of public safety and order within the assigned protection area ( hazard prevention ). The tasks include crime prevention , the recording of illegal acts and the prosecution of administrative offenses.

The criminal police will then continue to pursue and process the criminal offenses.

Fields of activity

Traffic post of the Berlin Police in 1924

Typical fields of activity of the police force are:

The police force includes the following police forces:


In the 19th century in the German federal states there were usually the municipal police forces in large cities, the gendarmes who were delegated to cities, municipalities and rural districts, who were members of the military until 1919, and the state police force . In 1820, the job title Kriminalkommissar was introduced in Berlin ; the organizational separation between the protective and criminal police in the Kingdom of Prussia took place in 1872, which was later adopted in other parts of Germany. So was z. In Munich, for example, the local gendarmerie company was converted into a protection team in 1898 and subordinated to the state police headquarters as a "civil institute". The term Schutzmannschaft became common for the lower ranks of the uniformed police responsible for public safety in the cities.

In Prussia , the police were reorganized after the First World War by the administrative lawyer and later State Secretary Wilhelm Abegg . The officers of the Prussian protection police under the leadership of the longstanding Prussian interior minister Carl Severing were regarded as the "republican protection force". After the National Socialists came to power , the police were transferred to the Security Police (SiPo) under Reinhard Heydrich and the Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) under Police General Kurt Daluege , which was responsible for maintaining public safety and order . The OrPo itself was divided into the protective police (SchuPo), the community police and the gendarmerie , and later also the fire brigade as fire-fighting police .

After the Second World War , the police in Germany became a matter for the federal states again . The protective police of the federal states took on general tasks of maintaining public safety and order, general law enforcement and road traffic monitoring. In the GDR from 1948 to 1990 the German People's Police had, among other things, protective police tasks.

Officials of the Schutzmannschaft or police force were called " policemen" until the 20th century , and from the 1920s to the 1950s they were often referred to as "Schupo". In Switzerland and Austria , the term Schutzpolizei was and is not in use, the term Security Police is similar to the Schutzpolizei (in Switzerland it is part of the cantonal police and the city ​​police , in Austria it is part of the security administration).

Individual evidence

  1. cf. Website of the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Police: Die Schutzpolizei ( Memento from March 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 12, 2020.
  2. cf. Article "Schutzmannschaft" and "Polizei" in Brockhaus' Konversationslexikon, FA Brockhaus in Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna, 14th edition, 1894–1896
  3. ^ Peter Leßmann-Faust: The Prussian Police in the Weimar Republic - patrol duty and street fighting . Verlag für Polizeiwissenschaft, 2012. ISBN 3-8667-6196-1 .
  4. Heiner Lichtenstein: Himmler's green helpers. The protection and order police in the "Third Reich". Bund-Verlag, Cologne 1990, ISBN 3-7663-2100-5 .
  5. Thomas Lindenberger : People's Police. Rule practice and public order in the SED state 1952–1968 ( contemporary historical studies ; vol. 23). Böhlau, Weimar 2003, ISBN 3-412-02003-6 (plus habilitation thesis, University of Potsdam 2002).