As occupying children are called children that the connection of a local woman with a crew of soldiers come. Occupation children were conceived in almost all war or post-war occupation periods. For the first time since the two world wars they are receiving wider attention in Europe; their special social status and that of their mothers are publicly known and the subject of scientific research. Their fate is often associated with serious taboos in their family and social environment. Many of the occupation children living today are so-called Wehrmacht children : They were conceived in the countries that the German Reich occupied during the Second World War . In the years after 1945 , many children were fathered by the occupying soldiers in the zones of occupation , especially in Japan, Germany and Austria, especially soldiers from the US Army , the Red Army , the British Army and the French Army .
Discrimination against mothers and children
In the German-language Economic Encyclopedia, which was largely created by Johann Georg Krünitz between 1773 and 1858 , the following compounds are listed for the term "child", which contain a social assessment: "Beykind", "Findelkind", "Frühkind", "Hofkind", "Hurkind" , “Jungfernkind”, “Kebskind”, “Parish child”, “Mantelkind”, “Natural child”, “Foster child”, “Illegitimate child”, “Foster child”.
Regarding “Hurkind” it is stated: “The Hurkind, in the hard way of speaking.
- In the narrowest sense, a child produced by a public whore, or a child produced out of marriage, whose father the mother cannot state with certainty, a bank type, French 'Fils de putain'.
- In a wider sense, an illegitimate child, a child born out of marriage, but whose father is known, a natural child (i.e. a child who was conceived purely from a natural need, purely according to the state of nature, without observation of the civil order ) in the German Bible whore child, with more decent expressions bastard, a Beykind, Kebskind, virgin child, if the mother was not previously married, in the old frieze. 'Hornink', 'Hörning'; Formerly a love child, or love child, a stickleback, Latin 'Infans adulterinus', 'nothus' or 'spurius', 'Filius naturalis', French 'Bâtard', 'Enfant naturel'. An illegitimate child conceived before the priestly consecration is, in a largely outdated word, called a cloak child [...]. "
To the later composites include the Swiss Verdingkinder that Schwabenkinder that latchkey children and the most likely to "Hurkindern" to be counted "occupation children". This also means at the same time that illegitimate children of foreign soldiers never played a special role, although they were certainly always noticed. Because the history of wars , as recent war and civilization research shows, cannot be separated from the history of civilization , so that warfare expresses an image of the role of men and women that is always embedded in culture.
Susan Brownmiller quotes Genghis Khan as a “heroic rapist ” who expressed what war meant to him: “The highest task in a man's life is to break the resistance of his enemies, to drive them along, to take all their possessions to hear the wailing of their loved ones, to take their horses between their thighs and to hug the most desirable of their wives. "
Carl Zuckmayer gives a much-cited description of the Rhine as “the great people's mill ” and “the wine press of Europe” in the first act of his play Des Teufels General from 1946/1966, by making fun of the Aryan evidence and glorifying the fate of the occupation children into anecdotal form turns: “There was a Roman captain, a black guy, brown like a ripe olive, who taught Latin to a blonde girl. And then a Jewish spice dealer came into the family, he was a serious person, he became a Christian before he married and established the Catholic household tradition. And then a Greek doctor came along, or a Celtic legionnaire, a Graubündner Landsknecht, a Swedish horseman, a soldier from Alsace, a fat boatman from Holland, a Magyar, a Pandur, an officer from Vienna, a French actor, a Bohemian musician - All of that lived on the Rhine, fought, drank and sang and had children and - and Goethe, who came from the same pot, and Beethoven, and Gutenberg, and Matthias Grünewald, and - oh well, look it up in the dictionary . They were the best, my dear! And why? Because the peoples mixed there. Mixed - like water from springs and streams and rivers, so that they flow together into one great river. From the Rhine - that means: from the West. That is the natural nobility. That is 'race'. "
Regardless of rape leading to pregnancy , women who got involved with the "enemy" were in the 20th century in Belgium, Denmark, Germany (see also Rhineland Bastard ), France, Holland, Italy, on Jersey, in Norway (see Tyskerbarn ) and Spain ( Francoist soldiers raped and sheared women who were believed to have links with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War ) and were subjected to discriminatory revenge. For the Nazi leadership , the occupation children were a fact that could not be overlooked and which could be welcomed in Northern and Western Europe because of the "racially valuable" population growth. On the other hand, children from German-Soviet connections were initially regarded as “racially undesirable”, before they too should be recorded “as a valuable substitute for the births that were lost due to the war”. In addition to their Russian first names, as the Jews were given the additional first names “Israel” and “Sarah”, they should also have the first names “Friedrich” or “Luise”. Little is known so far about how the Soviet Union treated the Soviet female companions of Germans and their children, except that unknown numbers of them were sent to Siberia or shot. After the First World War, France occupied the Rhineland and parts of Hesse - also through black colonial regiments (see “ Allied Rhineland Occupation ” and Ruhr Occupation 1923). When a woman gave birth to a black baby, it was popularly known as the Rhineland bastard or "black disgrace ".
Wehrmacht children in World War II
The number of German "Wehrmacht children" between 1939 and 1945 is likely to be between one and two million across Europe.
For Ebba D. Drolshagen , the term “occupation child ” is so fixated on the German and Austrian post-war period that she prefers the term “Wehrmacht children” for the children conceived by German and thus also Austrian and ethnic German soldiers throughout Europe . For the term war child used by some does not apply to the facts either, because it refers to every child who is born or grows up in times of war.
The fact that she first got away with her book Not unscathed in 1998 and had to remember the “Wehrmacht children” in more detail in 2005, she attributes to the long-standing “ignorance” of the Germans: “The simple truth is that we Germans, so to speak, have a relationship with all of Europe because we have brothers and sisters, nieces and nephews, cousins and cousins everywhere. "
The number of Wehrmacht children in Belgium ("cuckoo children") from the regions of Flanders and Wallonia is estimated at 20,000 to 40,000. Among them are the children who were born in the Lebensborn home “Foyer Ardennen” in Wégimont near Liège.
The first Belgian war child, the Belgian Gerlinda Swillen, born in 1942, received German citizenship within three months of the application in July 2010.
The number of occupation children in Denmark is estimated at 18,000.
The number of occupation children in Finland is estimated at 4,000, born between 1940 and 1946. After the war ended, the children were "hidden" because they were not wanted. There is an association for children of the Wehrmacht soldiers in Finland. More than 200,000 Wehrmacht soldiers were stationed in Lapland, a region then with around 180,000 inhabitants. Finnish troops fought in the Continuation War (1941–44) alongside Wehrmacht troops, some of which were stationed in Finland.
The number of Wehrmacht children and children of German prisoners of war in France between 1941 and 1949 is estimated at 75,000–200,000.
In France, for example, after decades of silence ( taboo ), it can now be established that the status of women accused of horizontal collaboration and of them as “enfants maudits” (damned children) or “bâtards de Boche” ( bastards of a Boche ) has changed vilified children a lot: black sheep became victims. In 2009, a two-volume title "L'Enfant Maudit" was published in the comics , which are very popular in France .
The association “Amicale Nationale des Enfants de la Guerre” (ANEG) has existed since 2005. In its statutes, it has set itself the main task of helping the occupation children of a French mother and a German father to find their roots. Furthermore, its members have set themselves the task of looking after the children of the occupation, who have a French father and a German mother. These were usually conceived after 1945, when French soldiers occupied the French occupation zone, including the Saarland .
The following constellations existed in how French occupation children were conceived with a French parent. Either the mother was French and had a child with a German soldier in France or as a voluntary worker in Germany. Or the father was French and came as a prisoner of war to a stalag for men or offlag for the officers and then worked (on a farm, in a craft, in a factory) or came as a voluntary worker or forced laborer and got with a German or a wife of another Nationality a child. Sexual encounter with a German was also possible for a soldier of the French occupation forces in Germany. Documents about the fathers are scattered in different archives. Furthermore, the German prisoners of war fathered children in France in the post-war period.
Another French association with a search section (Recherches) for French occupation children is “Coeurs Sans Frontières / Hearts without Borders”.
Successful Franco-German family reunions using the example of French occupation children are the subject of the two films entitled “Feindeskind” and “Occupation Children”, in which the phases from the search to family reunification are presented from the perspective of the siblings involved.
Thanks to the initiative of Bernard Kouchner (French Foreign Minister and Minister for European Affairs in the government of François Fillon from May 18, 2007 to November 14, 2010) and the consent of the Federal Government, the children of the Germans in France have had dual citizenship since 2009 request.
Around 60 such applications for naturalization were submitted within a year, and over 30 were approved. The 'National Circle of Friends of War Children' demands that the Franco-German special regulation become a European regulation. In June 2010 there was a special kind of Franco-German family reunion near Stuttgart; there this demand was confirmed.
The number of occupation children in the Netherlands is estimated at 20,000. The members of the Wehrmacht in the Netherlands who had relationships with Dutch women were often assigned to other countries after a short time due to the war. Women who became pregnant from these relationships were able to give birth in homes in Amsterdam. The family reunification after the Second World War was difficult. Children were often not informed about their origin.
The number of occupation children in Norway is estimated at 10,000 to 12,000. 8,000 of these were registered by the German occupying forces. After the war there were attempts by Norway to sell the children to Australia as labor slaves. There is a Norwegian War Children Association. See Tyskerbarn .
Baltic countries, Poland, Soviet Union and Balkans
The situation of children who were conceived by German soldiers in the Slavic and Baltic countries during the war between 1939 and 1945 has remained the least clear. Regina Mühlhäuser treats the fate of the occupation children in the Soviet Union in a chapter of her 2010 book Conquests. Sexual violence and intimate relationships between German soldiers in the Soviet Union 1941–1945 . The number of children born by German Wehrmacht soldiers in the area of the "Eastern Front" is estimated at one million children.
Excursus: Children of War in Germany
During the Second World War, both prisoners of war in Germany with women from the German population and German supervisory staff with forced laborers in Germany became fathers of war children .
Occupation children after the Second World War
In Germany, during the Second World War and the subsequent occupation, numerous children were conceived, both through rape and by mutual consent in the context of love affairs. Estimates from 2015 assume at least 400,000 children for 1945–55, 300,000 of them with Soviet fathers.
Many soldiers were banned from fraternization ; it was later relaxed, repealed, or ignored.
In addition to poverty and hunger, the consequences of the war in Germany also included the fact that many mothers had to raise their children alone, as the German fathers were either prisoners of war or had died. Against this background, prostitution could be a way for women to support themselves and their families; This was called "survival prostitution".
The Allied forces were stationed in Germany for several years after the Second World War. In the book "GIs and Fräuleins" by Maria Höhn, 66,000 children of the occupation of soldiers of the Allied troops are named for the period 1945–1955:
- American parent: 36,334
- French parent: 10,188
- British Parent: 8,397
- Soviet parent: 3,105
- Belgian parent: 1,767
- other / unknown: 6,829
Soviet occupation zone
Initially, there were no regulations on how Soviet soldiers would deal with German women. On the part of the German parents, their daughters' relationships were viewed with suspicion. From 1947 the Soviet soldiers were forbidden from all private contact with German women. Soviet soldiers, whose handling of German women became known, were picked up by the military police and had to return home to a labor camp. Soviet soldiers who defected to the Americans or hid with Germans were treated as deserters , and their families were held in kin custody in the Soviet Union . Correspondence between the transferred Soviet soldiers and their former German friends was forbidden. Farewell letters to end the relationship had to be written. There were an estimated 100,000 children of Soviet soldiers and German women, be it from rape or from romantic relationships.
American zone of occupation
The soldiers of the Western powers were received by the population in a generally more friendly manner than Soviet soldiers. The US soldiers were prepared for Germany through propaganda films. Initially, for political reasons, fraternization with the German civilian population was not allowed. The fraternization ban was however relaxed. With the continued duration of the occupation and the change in occupation policy (beginning of the Cold War ), many relationships developed between local women and occupation soldiers. According to estimates by the Federal Statistical Office, around 100,000 occupation children were born in West Germany , and according to other sources over 220,000 children were born from relationships with US military personnel alone . An estimated 15,000 German women married American soldiers.
Special location of the Brown Babies
The situation was most conspicuous and most serious for mother and child when the father was a British or French soldier of black African origin or an African-American soldier in the US armed forces . Here the racist propaganda of the “Third Reich” had its effects, affected women were often insulted as “Negro whores” and the “mixed race children” met with widespread social rejection. (The 1952 feature film Toxi documents this rejection and a socially acceptable “ happy ending ” - the child of the occupation is brought to the United States by his biological father).
The fraternization ban on American soldiers was lifted in October 1945. From then on, black soldiers were allowed to go out with German (white) women. In 1948, racial segregation in the US Army was lifted. The American fathers were z. B. moved to Korea . About 7,000 of the " Brown Babies " were taken in by black adoptive parents in the United States. The German youth welfare offices helped arrange the adoptions . If the German mother signed the release for adoption, she no longer had the right to research the child. The children were brought to the United States by plane from Frankfurt. The racial segregation in the United States was not lifted until 1964, so that the children were also discriminated against in the United States because of their skin color (herb, colored). They were no longer allowed to speak German and were also used as farm workers. By chance, by advice from the adoptive parents or by genealogists, some of the Brown Babies managed to find their mother's grave or their German siblings. The feeling of not belonging anywhere remained.
Hamburg was occupied by British troops from 1945 to 1958. The occupation was carried out by soldiers as well as civilian British servants. Some of the British families followed suit. For the British, around 50,000 Hamburgers worked in the office, household and as drivers. There were around 1,000 marriages between Britons and Hamburgers. At least 700 illegitimate occupation children were born.
French zone of occupation
The French zone of occupation was established on July 14, 1945 on the basis of the Potsdam Conference. In the beginning there was rape and looting. At first there was a ban on fraternization. However, at the end of 1945, off-duty contact with the Germans was allowed. A French father could recognize his child from the relationship with a German woman, but was not allowed to marry. Dislocations, e.g. B. to Indochina , and a lack of support in the search for the former German girlfriend were obstacles to family reunification. Occupation children were deported to homes .
In Austria, too, the situation of soldiers' children was heavily dependent on the respective occupation zone. According to research, the number of those affected across Austria is likely to be around 20,000 children with a high number of unreported cases who were born between 1946 and 1953. In Austria it was considered discriminatory to be a “Russian child” or a brown baby (or, for mothers, to have one). The mothers received no financial support and lived with their children in poor economic conditions.
In Austria, women who entered into an affair with the occupation soldiers were dubbed "Amischickse" or "Dollarflitscherl" in the population, and in the case of a dark-skinned person they were called disparagingly "Chocolate Girls".
The army newspaper Stars and Stripes wrote in April 1946 that “pregnant Fräuleins” (pregnant = pregnant) should not expect any support from the military authorities: “A› Kraft-durch Freude ‹girl who has tasted the forbidden fruit must face the consequences herself The United States has pursued this policy to the present day.
Dark-skinned offspring was a completely new phenomenon for Austria, whereas it was known in the Rhineland - the French occupied the Rhineland with colored colonial regiments after the First World War - and was called "black disgrace" or Rhineland bastard.
Dark-skinned occupation children from Austria between the ages of four and seven were flown to the United States - probably initiated and organized by Austrian youth welfare offices - and adopted there by people of color.
Bosnia and Croatia
The unbiased attention that had become possible since the 1990s extended very quickly to the events of the war in the former Yugoslavia , so that Muslim Bosnian women and Croatians who were raped in special Serbian rape camps with the aim of giving birth to " Chetnik children" were not exposed to any taboo fate needed to be when they could overcome their shame and find refuge in appropriate aid organizations.
Situation of mothers, children and fathers
Protection of children
Awareness of the marginalization and harassment that can happen to children through the fate of their mothers led to the adoption of the Children's Rights Convention in 1989 . Since 2008, the United Nations Security Council has also outlawed sexual violence as a war crime , which at the time was called a "historic act".
Integration into a new family
Children who are born as a result of rape or who come from a “forbidden” love affair are at risk of being disadvantaged or excluded from their environment. If a new partner of the woman or other relatives are willing to knowingly recognize and accept the child as part of the family, this stigma can be averted.
Ignorance of children
The Wehrmacht children wondered why they were disadvantaged compared to their siblings and often only found out about their status late and by chance:
- through comments from schoolmates, relatives or neighbors,
- if they required official documents (e.g. family register ) or
- when her mother passed away.
The silence of the fathers
The occupying powers often took too rigorous measures to prevent fraternization with the population of the occupied territories. Affected couples often kept their relationship a secret because of such prohibitions and because of the mood in the population of the occupied country. The fathers of occupation children were protected from maintenance suits from the defeated countries.
The connection on the part of the fathers was broken when the Wehrmacht soldiers suddenly received marching orders without being able to say goodbye. Some of the fathers died during the war, or contact with the friends and occupation children was extinguished. In the post-war period, the Allies hindered the return of German fathers to their former friends and their occupation children. When they returned to their German family, married former Wehrmacht soldiers often kept silent about their relationships with their former friends.
The silence of the mothers
From the end of the war, mothers and children of occupation soldiers were exposed to spontaneous “punishments” and “criminal trials” by the angry population. They were then socially and economically marginalized.
The French historian Fabrice Virgili has been concerned since the 1990s with the acts of revenge against French women who were accused of having too close a relationship with a German occupier that occurred between 1943 and 1945 . The first incidents of women shearing were caused by Resistance forces who wanted to warn collaboration groups and remind them of their national duties. After the liberation by the Allies from June 1944 onwards, hair shearing had become widespread, and it had increased again from May to July 1945.
As soon as the mothers of the occupation children were able to marry men from their home country, they were respected again by those around them and no longer stigmatized as single mothers. In the ANEG book, the former friend of a Wehrmacht soldier in France describes how she managed to avoid shaving her head and the trauma that weighed on her relationships and her professional life. Some mothers died during the war. Some mothers gave their Wehrmacht children to homes. Others tried to come to terms with their new partner, their jointly conceived children and the Wehrmacht child (see also “ blended family ”).
The late search of the children of the crew for the biological father was mostly difficult and (despite a long search) often inconclusive.
The occupation children look for their fathers
The network of European war children, "Born Of War - international network", has existed since October 2007. Every year these national war children's associations meet in Berlin to exchange ideas and to develop positions. At retirement age, many children of the occupation from the Second World War finally want to push ahead with the search for their roots (without being restricted in their work or family life). Often the children of the fathers from the corresponding German family are also interested in family or descendant contact. Much of the public has understanding and compassion for the people who have secretly suffered. Few fathers are still alive. The majority of mothers have left their children in the dark about their origins throughout their lives after being humiliated by their families or neighbors.
Children from the time of the Second World War
Search in German archives
There are several central data collections in Germany:
- The military route of the Wehrmacht soldiers can be requested from the German Office (WASt) .
- The Federal Archives-Military Archives in Freiburg has some copies of personal files and "war diaries" for each unit of the Wehrmacht, in which the movements and losses per day were recorded.
- The files on party memberships in the Third Reich, which were previously kept in the Berlin Document Center , are now in the Federal Archives, Berlin-Lichterfelde location . Research can be carried out thirty years after the death of the wanted person in Berlin-Lichterfelde. The information required is surname, first name, date of birth and information on occupation and activity.
- The Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge has an online searchable grave file of those who died in the war.
At the beginning of the search, the complete birth file (not just an extract) should always be viewed. You should also check whether there is a certificate from the National Socialist People's Welfare , Foreign Organization - Office for People's Welfare and Winter Relief Organization (1941–1944) about maintenance payments, old photos with dedications or private letters.
Children from the time of captivity
Looking for fathers from France
Children whose mothers have been displaced find it particularly difficult to obtain reports or documents from their mothers' previous work environment, circle of activity and circle of friends. The Association of Sudetendeutscher Familienforscher e. V. (VSFF) with the Sudeten German Geological Archive (SGA) in Regensburg.
There are various options for children and grandchildren of French prisoners of war. Prisoners of war were also often systematically recorded, and documents still exist in the archives. In Paris there is an archive for the search for the unknown mother or the unknown father. In France there is an archive of the French army in Caen . In La Courneuve there is an archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with a reading room. The International Tracing Service in Arolsen ITS offers one possibility to search for French forced laborers and prisoners of war .
The search of the children of the occupation for their fathers in the post-war period often reaches its limits due to inaccurate information about the father, locked archives or destroyed documents. The majority of the children grew up without a father and find no evidence of their biological fathers.
Finding fathers from the United States
Since 2009, affected children of legal age have also been part of the Germany-wide association GI Babies Germany e. V. at your side with words and deeds.
Looking for fathers from Canada
Canadian Roots UK is helping war children in the UK find their Canadian father. Conversely, it helps find a child fathered by a Canadian soldier in the United Kingdom during or after World War II.
Search for fathers from the former Soviet Union
The association Russenkinder e. V. provides information on how the fathers from the former Soviet Union can be searched for. He also helps with the search.
Psychological examination and help
As part of a dissertation at the University of Leipzig , the psychological consequences for the occupation children are examined and published anonymously (status: 2013).
Second World War
- Ebba D. Drolshagen : Don't get away with it. The fate of women in the occupied countries who loved Wehrmacht soldiers. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-455-11262-5 .
- Ebba D. Drolshagen: Wehrmacht children. In search of the never-before-known father. Droemer, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-426-27357-8 .
- Alexandra Stiglmayer (ed.): Mass rape. War against women (= Fischer 12175 The woman in society ). License issue. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1993, ISBN 3-596-12175-2 .
- Marc Widmann, Mary Wiltenburg: Children of the Enemy. In: Der Spiegel , December 22, 2006 ( online URL ).
- Silke Satjukow , Rainer Gries: “Bankers!” Children of occupation in Germany after 1945. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main et al. 2015, ISBN 978-3-593-50286-1 .
- Ute Baur-Timmerbrink : We occupation children . Daughters and sons of allied soldiers tell stories. With contributions by Heide Glaesmer and Sabine Lee and a foreword by Mechthild Rawert . Ch. Links, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-86153-819-6 . ( Brief information as PDF )
Austrian occupation children
- Barbara Stelzl-Marx , Silke Satjukow (ed.): Children of the occupation. The descendants of allied soldiers in Austria and Germany (= research on the consequences of war. 7). Böhlau Wien , Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-205-79657-2 .
Belgian occupation children
- Gerlinda Swillen: Koekoekskind. Door de vijand verwekt (1940-1945). Meulenhoff et al. a., Amsterdam 2009, ISBN 978-90-8542-188-7 (Dutch; contemporary witness reports of 70 occupation children of Belgian women and German Wehrmacht soldiers).
French occupation children
- Fabrice Virgili: La France “virile”. Des femmes tondues à la Liberation (= Petite bibliothèque Payot. 502). Nouvelle édition. Payot & Rivages, Paris 2004, ISBN 2-228-89857-0 (French).
- Robert Colonel: Où es-tu, maman? (= Corps. 16, Document ). Éditions Grand Caractère, Paris 2005, ISBN 2-7444-0590-6 (French).
- Suzanne Lardreau: Orgueilleuse. Editions Robert Laffont, Paris 2005, ISBN 2-221-10210-X (French).
- Jean-Paul Picaper , Ludwig Norz: The children of shame. The tragic fate of German occupation children in France. Piper, Munich a. a. 2005, ISBN 3-492-04697-5 .
- Gérard Lenorman : Je suis né à vingt ans. Calmann-Lévy, Paris 2007, ISBN 978-2-7021-3865-6 (French).
- Amicale Nationale des Enfants de la Guerre (ed.): Des fleurs sur les cailloux. Les enfants de la Guerre se racontent. Editions Laurent Guillet, Limerzel 2010, ISBN 978-2-918588-01-6 (French; contemporary witness reports: disadvantages, life courses, search for the father).
- Fabrice Virgili: Naître ennemi. Les enfants des couples franco-allemands nés pendant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. Éditions Payot, Paris 2009, ISBN 978-2-228-90399-8 (French).
- Annette Hippen-Gondelle: Un seul jour, un seul mot. Le roman familial d'une enfant de Boche . L'Harmattan, Paris 2011, ISBN 978-2-296-56161-8 (French).
- François Pairault: Un amour allemand. Geste Éditions, La Crèche 2011, ISBN 978-2-84561-736-0 (French).
- Nadia Salmi: Des étoiles sombres dans le ciel. Récit. Oh! Éditions, Paris 2011, ISBN 978-2-36107-028-1 (French).
Norwegian occupation children
- Eystein Eggen : Gutten fra Gimle. Et NS-barns beretning. Aschehoug, Oslo 1993, ISBN 82-03-26010-1 (Norwegian; Eystein Eggen: Le garçon de Gimle. French).
- Kåre Olsen: Krigens barn. The norske krigsbarna and their mødre. Forum et al., Oslo 1998, ISBN 82-03-29090-6 (Norwegian).
- Kåre Olsen: Father: German. The fate of the Norwegian Lebensborn children and their mothers from 1940 until today. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main et al. 2002, ISBN 3-593-37002-6 (about Lebensborn children in Norway).
- Lars Borgersrud: Staten og krigsbarna. A historical undersøkelse of the state-of-the-art treatment of the krigsbarna in the first case. Institutt for Kulturstudier, Oslo 2004, ISBN 82-92298-03-7 (Norwegian).
- Dag Ellingsen: Krigsbarns levekår. En registerbasert undersøkelse (= Statistisk Sentralbyrå. Rapporter. 2004, 19). Statistisk Sentralbyrå, Oslo et al. 2004, ISBN 82-537-6655-6 (Norwegian).
- Lars Borgersrud: Vi ville ikke ha dem. State treatment av de norske krigsbarna. Scandinavian Academic Press, Oslo 2005, ISBN 82-304-0014-8 (Norwegian).
- Kjersti Ericsson, Eva Simonsen: Krigsbarn i fredstid. 2. opplag. Universitets-Forlaget, Oslo 2005, ISBN 82-15-00700-7 (Norwegian).
- Eva Simonsen: Into the open - or hidden away? The construction of war children as a social category in post-war Norway and Germany. In: NORDEUROPAforum. Issue 2, 2006, digital (PDF; 323 kB)). , pp. 25-49 (English), (
Danish occupation children
- Amalie Linde (author), Amalie Kønigsfeldt, Hørmand-Pallesen (2013): Børneimporten. This is the chapter in the chapter about the adoption of Udenland . ISBN 978-87-7467-136-7
American occupation children
- Ika Hügel-Marshall: At home on the move. A German life. Orlanda Frauenverlag, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-929823-52-7 (The autobiography of a "occupation child", a black German woman).
- Maria Höhn: GIs and Fräuleins. The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC et al. 2002, ISBN 0-8078-5375-5 (English).
- Charlotte Wiedemann: The interpersonal. In: Frankfurter Rundschau , October 31, 2003 (Rudi Richardson was born under the occupation; in 2003, after 50 years in the United States, he was in American detention as an “unwanted foreigner”).
Canadian occupation children
- Olga Rains, Lloyd Rains, Melynda Jarratt: Voices of the Left Behind. Dundurn Group, Toronto 2006, ISBN 1-55002-585-6 .
Soviet occupation children
- Winfried Behlau (ed.): Thistle flowers. Russian children in Germany. con-thor, Ganderkesee 2015, ISBN 978-3-944665-04-7 .
Contemporary witness reports in the film
Children of German Wehrmacht soldiers
French occupation children
- Enemy child. My father was a German soldier. Film by Susanne Freitag and Claudia Döbber. Production of the ZDF studio in Paris, 2007. Shown in: Phoenix on January 2, 2010, 2: 00–2: 45 p.m., a. ö. (Wehrmacht information center Berlin, discrimination against mothers and children, French association “Amicale Nationale des Enfants de Guerre” ANEG, family reunification of French and German siblings).
- “Children of shame.” How the French occupation children wrestle for their identity. 3sat Kulturzeit, April 2006. Also about the book by Josiane Kruger, Janine Stephan u. a .: Les embryons de guerre. Manuscript, Paris 2006 ISBN 2-7481-8244-8 (French)
- concerns. Occupation children. Shown in: SWR / SR from December 2, 2009, 8:15 pm - 9:00 pm. Production management John Dickbertel, SWR 2009. (Search and meeting of French / German siblings who have a German occupation soldier as father or a French occupation soldier as father. Interview with the French president of the Kriegskinder association.)
- In bed with the enemy - love and sex in war. Production France 2010. Shown in 3sat on January 11, 2013, 8:15 p.m. - 9:05 p.m. (200,000 children of German soldiers and French women.)
Dutch occupation children
- Love undesirable. 3-part documentary film. 2. The Meisje and the German soldier. Shown in: Phoenix on February 27, 2010, from 8:15 pm to 9:00 pm (subject: secret love affairs between German Wehrmacht soldiers in the Netherlands and Dutch women; children).
Children of allied soldiers
- Ute Baur-Timmerbrink: We occupation children . Daughters and sons of allied soldiers tell stories . With contributions by Heide Glaesmer, Sabine Lee and Mechthild Rawert. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-86153-819-6 .
- The fate of the children of the occupation with Ute Baur-Timmerbrink and Margot Jung. In: RBB Stilbruch, broadcast on April 16, 2015, 10:15 p.m. (accessed on May 13, 2015)
- Occupation children . In: ORF Menschen und Mächte, broadcast on May 1, 2015, 9:20 pm (accessed on May 16, 2015)
- Silke Satjukow / Rainer Gries: "Bankers!" Occupation children in Germany after 1945. Campus Verlag Frankfurt / New York 2015, ISBN 978-3-593-50286-1 .
- Hello Miss. Shown in: Phoenix on August 11, 2012, from 8:15 pm to 9:00 pm (Documentation on relations between German women in post-war Germany and Soviet, American, French soldiers; children)
- Barbara Stelzl-Marx, Silke Satjukow (ed.): Children of the occupation. The descendants of allied soldiers in Austria and Germany. Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 2015, ISBN 978-3-205-79657-2 .
American occupation children
- Brown babies. An eternal search. Film by Michaela Kirst, WDR 2011. Shown in: arte on September 14, 2011, 8:15 pm - 9:05 pm. BR, WR and arte 2011. (Dark-skinned crew children, adoptions).
- "Enfants Maudits": Germans in France and their damn children
- Mochmann, Larsen: in Europe. From politics and contemporary history 18–19 / 2005
- Irina Repke, Peter Wensierski: Wait for me . In: Spiegel Online , August 6, 2007
- Red Army soldiers in Austria Free and Liberator ORF
- Suzanne Krause : French-German war children are demanding their rights . dradio.de, June 11, 2010
- Clément Mutombo: Les damnés innocents du Vorarlberg
- John Keegan: The Culture of War . Reinbek near Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-499-60248-2 .
- See the material-rich presentation by the ethnologist Hans Peter Duerr : The Myth of the Civilization Process , Volumes 3 and 5.
- Susan Brownmiller: Against Our Will. Rape and male domination . Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1980, ISBN 3-596-23712-2 , p. 205.
- Fabrice Virgili .
- Ebba D. Drolshagen: Wehrmacht children. In search of the never-before-known father . Droemer, Munich 2005, p. 9. Also: Children of War in Europe .
- Niko Wahl: Heim ins Land der Fathers . In: Die Zeit , No. 52/2010
- Digital Archive Hessen-Darmstadt : “Black Disgrace” - by French colonial troops after 1918 . “There were never more than 25,000 colored (mostly North African) soldiers deployed. ... The black colonial troops from Senegal had to leave the Rhineland as early as 1920 because they couldn't stand the winter climate there. "
- Report in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung about children of German soldiers abroad
- Ebba D. Drolshagen (2005), pp. 11-13.
- Find the crew child Gerlinda Swillen
- Thirty occupation from Belgium want to report (French)
- Gerlinda Swillen receives German citizenship . In: Frankfurter Rundschau
- Thorsten Knuf: Children of the war . In: Berliner Zeitung , May 5, 2010, p. 3
- Danske Forening Krigsboerns
- Report and figures on the occupation children of the Second World War in Europe (French)
- Arne Schrader and Maurice Bonkat: Farewell to the German father. Appeal of the Wehrmacht children in Finland. In peace. Journal of the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., October 2013, pp. 36 to 37
- (en) Our Society of Wehrmacht soldiers 'children in Finland (Association of Wehrmacht soldiers' children in Finland ). ( Memento of October 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 9 kB)
- FAZ.net October 2014: Not with you!
- Armin Hass: Research and Reconciliation. Stories about children of war and the lost great-uncle Joseph. In: Arolser Zeitung , October 13, 2011.
- The Silence of the Lambs .
- occupation in the French comic .
- National (French) Association of Children of War e. V. (ANEG) .
- Dominique Hieblot: Allocution. (Speech). In: Lettre Ouverte no 7, April 2012 of the Amicale Nationale des Enfants de la Guerre. Pp. 15-17.
- Association Coeurs Sans Frontières / Hearts Without Borders
- Child of the enemy. My father was a German soldier. Film by Susanne Freitag and Claudia Döbber. Production by the ZDF studio in Paris, 2007. Shown in: Phoenix on January 2, 2010, 2: 00-2: 45 pm.
- concerns. Occupation children. Shown in: SWR / SR from December 2, 2009, 8:15 p.m. - 9:00 p.m. Production manager John Dickbertel, SWR 2009.
- AFP: French Wehrmacht children welcome dual nationality
- Report on the award of German citizenship to French children of German Wehrmacht soldiers on ZDF television from August 5, 2009, heute-journal, 21: 45-22: 15
- Suzanne Krause: French-German war children claim their rights . dradio.de, June 11, 2010.
- Love undesirable. 3-part documentary film. 2. The Meisje and the German soldier. Shown in: Phoenix on February 27, 2010, from 8:15 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. (subject: secret love affairs between German Wehrmacht soldiers in the Netherlands and Dutch women; children).
- The Norwegian-German Willy-Brandt-Foundation (Den norsk-tyske Willy-Brandt-stiftelsen): Children of war: traveling exhibition with photographs.
- FAZ.net October 2014: Not with you!
- Norges Krigsbarnforband NKBF (Norwegian War Children Association)
- Love in the War of Extermination .
- Regina Mühlhäuser: Conquests. Sexual violence and intimate relationships between German soldiers in the Soviet Union 1941–1945 . Hamburger Edition, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-86854-220-2 , pp. 309–365 ( review )
- Karin Krichmayr: Forgotten children of the war. In: Der Standard from September 25, 2012.
- Oliver Das Gupta: Unwanted Children of the Enemy. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung 09.02.2015 | 9.45 p.m. (accessed on May 26, 2015)
- Barbara Stelzl-Marx: The invisible generation .
- Research by KC McGee .
- Hello Miss. Shown in: Phoenix on August 11, 2012, from 8:15 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. (Documentation on relations between German women in post-war Germany and Soviet, American, French soldiers; children)
- Marc Widmann, Mary Wiltenburg: Children of the enemy . In: Der Spiegel . No. 52 , 2006 ( online ).
- See the relevant TV documentary in "Arte": Brown Babies. Shown in: arte on September 14, 2011, 8:15 pm-9: 05 pm. BR, WR and arte 2011.
- Judith Rekers: Black Germans - Look what it's like to be German . In: Die Wochenzeitung , Zurich, November 10, 2011; Retrieved November 28, 2011
- Ibid., Documentation Brown Babies
- Matthias Gretzschel: English soldiers and German "women". In: Hamburger Abendblatt , June 15, 2011, p. 19
- Hello Miss. Shown in: Phoenix on August 11, 2012, from 8:15 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. (Documentation on relations between German women in post-war Germany and Soviet, American, French soldiers; children)
- "Soldiers' ": taboo topic for 65 years on ORF from September 26, 2012, accessed on September 26, 2012.
- bik.ac.at ( Memento from August 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Barbara Stelzl-Marx - Deputy Head of the Institute: accessed on September 26, 2012
- Survey of occupation children in Austria. ( Memento from October 30, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Martin Kugler: 20,000 Children of Soldiers: A Fatherless Generation. In: Die Presse on September 29, 2012.
- Alexandra Stiglmayer (Ed.): Mass rape. War on women . Frankfurt a. M. (Fischer) 1993, ISBN 3-596-12175-2 , pp. 154-174.
- A historical act . In: Die Zeit , No. 27/2008
- The accepted 'illegitimate' rosette ( memento of August 3, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- Des fleurs sur les cailloux. Amicale Nationale des Enfants de la Guerre (ed.); Editions Laurent Guillet 2010, pp. 120, 128, 148, 162, 177 (French).
- Image by Robert Capa - MAGNUM / COURTESY - LIFE MAGAZINE: Femme tendue pour avoir eu un enfant d'un soldart allemand
- Virgili on "male" France.
- Des fleurs sur les cailloux. Amicale Nationale des Enfants de la Guerre (ed.); Editions Laurent Guillet 2010, pp. 35–52 (French).
- Network of European Children of War. "Born Of War - international network"
- Federal Archives (Germany), Berlin-Lichterfelde location: NS memberships
- Volksbund online search for graves
- archief-democratie.be illustration of typical documents (Dutch)
- Association of Sudeten German Family Researchers V., Regensburg
- Conseil National pour l'Accès aux Origines Personnelles CNAOP, 14 rue Duquesne, 75350 Paris 07 SP
- Ministère de la défense, Bureau des archives des victimes des conflits contemporains, SHD-BAVCC, BP 552, 14037 Caen Cedex, accessed on January 12, 2013
- Ministère des affaires étrangères et européennes, Direction des archives, 3 rue Suzanne Masson, 93126 La Courneuve Cedex
- Dominique Hieblot: Allocution. (Speech). In: Lettre Ouverte no 7, April 2012 of the Amicale Nationale des Enfants de la Guerre. Pp. 15-17.
- occupation demand state help. From: DPA, N 24 of September 27, 2012. ( Memento of January 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Organization gitrace (English)
- group of gitrace organization for German and Austrian occupation Children
- GI Babies Germany e. V. (German / English)
- canadianrootsuk.org Site Helping War Children Find Their Canadian Fathers
- https://www.russenkinder.de/ Page in German completely, information about the search in Russian, Polish, English, French
- Association kriegskind.de e. V.
- Research group is looking for crew children . Online at badlobenstein.otz.de from April 20. Accessed June 29, 2013.
- BØRNEIMPORTEN In: Kristeligt Dagblads Forlag, September 4, 2013, accessed on March 19, 2017. (Danish)
- Children of Shame: How France's Children of Occupation Wrestle for Their Identity. In: 3sat Kulturzeit. April 2006, accessed December 31, 2010 .