German War Graves Commission

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Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge
legal form registered association
founding December 16, 1919
Seat Kassel and representative office in Berlin
purpose To record, preserve and look after the graves of German war dead abroad.
Chair Wolfgang Schneiderhan (President), Daniela Schily (General Secretary)
sales 45,576,000 euros (2018)
Employees 567 (2018)
Members 82,030 (2019)

The Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. , also known as Volksbund , was founded on December 16, 1919 and is a registered non-profit association with a humanitarian mandate. He receives and looks after the graves of the victims of war and tyranny ( war gravesites ) abroad, helps relatives to find graves and develops the war gravesites into places of learning about history.

War cemeteries for all groups of victims

Since the 1960s, the war cemeteries have included resting places and memorials for all groups of victims: soldiers, bomb victims, victims of the Shoah and other persecuted people. The Volksbund maintains the graves of over 2.7 million war dead from the First and Second World Wars in 832 cemeteries in 46 countries. Furthermore, cemeteries and monuments of the German colonial times, the Franco-German War of 1870/71 and the German-Danish wars, i.e. the Schleswig-Holstein Uprising from 1848–51 and the German-Danish War of 1864 , are maintained.


Beginnings: Commemoration in the Reichstag in 1932

Economic framework

The Reich government at that time was neither politically nor economically in a position to look after the graves of the fallen abroad. Returning soldiers, relatives of the victims and other citizens looked for ways to change this situation, which many felt to be unbearable.

Framework conditions through the Versailles Treaty

The Central Office of Evidence for War Losses and War Graves took care of the war graves of the First World War and some of them thereafter. On December 16, the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. founded with reference to Article 225 of the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919. The Versailles Treaty stipulated that every state, regardless of the nationality of the dead, should look after all war graves on its territory. The German state was therefore denied the maintenance of German war graves in other states. The Volksbund, as a private association, took on the care of German war graves abroad with the approval of the government.

Origin and development in the early Weimar Republic

Concerning the war graves abroad, a number of organizations had already formed in Germany that tried to take care of grave care and provide information to relatives. In Bavaria, for example, there was the "German War Graves Protection Association" since September 14, and in Braunschweig the Association for Research and Conservation of German War Graves e. V. , in Salzwedel the "German War Graves Association" and in Hagen (Westphalia) the "Bund Heimatdank".

After the end of the First World War, eight men decided on September 10, 1919 in Berlin to found a German war graves organization. Among them were the architect Heinrich Straumer , who had already been involved in looking after graves towards the end of the war, and Siegfried Emmo Eulen , who had organized the construction and care of war cemeteries in Poland and Turkey during the war. The association was entered in the register of associations in January 1920. The first president was Colonel a. D. Joseph Koeth (until 1923). On August 23, 1919, Eulen had drafted the statutes of an "International War Graves Commission". Geneva was intended to be its seat in order to enable close cooperation with the League of Nations . However, these plans did not materialize.

The Volksbund was supported by political parties, business, the military, trade unions, the Red Cross, the Caritas Association, and Christian and Jewish communities. Konrad Adenauer , Walther Rathenau , Max Liebermann and Fritz Schumacher supported the Volksbund.

In 1921 there were 300 local groups and 30,000 members. For its 10th anniversary in 1929, the number of members had risen to 133,033.

time of the nationalsocialism

Right at the beginning of the NSDAP's takeover of power, the association tried to enforce legal protection of the memorial day by lobbying the Reich government . This aroused great interest. After a conversation with Hitler, Eulen reported that he:

"... showed a warm interest in the work of war grave care ..."

- Sigfried Emmo Owls

In addition, Eulen has called for more government support for Memorial Day. He went on to report:

"I also advertised our Reminiscere memorial day and prepared the Chancellor for our request to announce the legal recognition of this day in a solemn act at the beginning of our conference."

- Sigfried Emmo Owls

In 1933, the Volksbund passed a new statute which, in addition to the dead of the World War, also integrated the so-called martyrs of National Socialism and the dead of the post-war battles into its own work. Thus the Volksbund placed itself entirely at the service of National Socialist hero honor. In the context of the Gleichschaltung , Emmo Eulen became a federal leader following the Führer principle . Through direct intervention at Goebbels , Eulen succeeded in transforming the day of national mourning into a memorial day for heroes in 1934 .

The Volksbund remained in existence. The mindset changed from standing up for peace to the spirit of sacrifice. Jewish members were forced out. The Volksbund was only responsible for those who fell in the First World War. For the war dead of World War II who were Wehrmacht Information Office and the Army Graves Service under the supreme command of the armed forces responsible.

During the time of National Socialism , the number of members rose sharply: At the end of 1934 there were 151,110 members in 1,830 local groups, in 1936 4,747 local groups with 295,000 members and in 1943 993,572 members. During the 1930s, the VDK benefited from numerous major projects and built so-called burial castles on St. Annaberg in Upper Silesia and - for around 4,000 German soldiers who fell in the Piave battles - in Quero , northern Italy.

The federal office in Berlin was destroyed on February 15, 1944, the Volksbund was dissolved in 1945 and the re-establishment of the GDR was prohibited.

Federal Republic of Germany

In Oldenburg in 1946 a temporary office was set up in which Wilhelm Ahlhorn strove to rebuild the organization. At the request of the Bavarian State Ministry of the Interior, the Volksbund was admitted to the US occupation zone on September 4, 1947 , and the office was relocated to Nienburg an der Weser in May 1948. An additional agreement to the Geneva Agreement now secured the permanent right of rest for the war dead. In May 1951, the headquarters were moved from Nienburg to Kassel. In the western occupation zones, the association was commissioned to record and maintain the war graves inland. In 1952 the "Law on Care for War Graves" was passed by the Bundestag. The Volksbund has been responsible for war graves abroad, and the federal states for war graves in Germany. At first it was only possible to work in the western states. The Graves Act of 1965 provides in Section 1, Paragraph 2, No. 4 that graves of fallen soldiers from both World Wars, victims of National Socialist violence and civilian bomb victims are now cared for.

Almost 600,000 members were listed in 1956. The reburial service had 117 German and 150 foreign employees in 1958. From 1966 the Volksbund also looked after the war graves of the First World War and the Franco-Prussian War from 1870 to 1871.


After the reunification of Germany, five new regional associations were founded in the new federal states in 1991 . West and East Berlin were combined in the Berlin Regional Association. The membership in the candidate countries is around 13,000. Members are informed about their dead relatives, and municipalities are advised on the maintenance of war graves in their area.

Only with the fall of the Iron Curtain was it possible to work in the relevant nations.

In 1995 the Volksbund looked after a total of 459 cemeteries with 1.6 million war graves in 34 countries.

In 2019, 46 countries and 832 war cemeteries with a total of 2.8 million victims of war and tyranny, who were looked after by the Volksbund, were already there.

Members, offices

Current organization

The seat of the Volksbund is in Kassel . The current Federal President is the patron . The former Inspector General of the Bundeswehr , General a. D. Wolfgang Schneiderhan , acting President. On April 28, 2017, he was elected as the new President for four years at the Extraordinary Federal Representatives' Day in Berlin.

The federal board conducts the business. The general assembly within the meaning of the association law is called the Federal Representative Day. The general secretary, who is also a voting member of the federal executive committee, implements the resolutions and heads the office. General Secretary is Daniela Schily.

The Volksbund works on behalf of the Federal Republic of Germany and also with funds from the Federal Foreign Office.

In every federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany there is a regional association, i.e. a total of 16 regional associations in Germany, further subdivisions are 22 district, 295 district and 4,903 local associations. Within the regional associations there are youth working groups (JAK) of young people and young adults who are looked after by full-time youth officers. The 14 youth working groups are involved in grave maintenance, management of international work camps and public relations.

In 2019, the total of 82,030 paying members were distributed among 81,046 in Germany and 884 abroad. There were a total of 208,103 paying donors in 2019. The number of terminations / deaths of members exceeds the number of additions by new members. The association loses an average of 9,000 members each year; Since the mid-2000s, the number of members has decreased by around 40%. The average age of the members is over 70 years.

National Board of the Volksbund (from left to right: Richard Reisinger , Dr. Thomas Bauer, Tore May, Wolfgang Schneiderhan , Detlef Fritzsch, Hartmut Tölle, Prof. Dr. Loretana de Libero , Daniela Schily, Michael Breuer , Heinz Fromm , Wolfgang Wieland , Markus Kohl)

President of the Volksbund from 1919

Term of office Surname
1919-1923 Joseph Koeth
1924-1928 Fritz Siems
1928-1932 Otto Gessler
1933-1945 Siegfried Emmo Owls
1946-1949 Wilhelm Ahlhorn
1949-1952 Eberhard Hagemann
1952-1959 Gustav Ahlhorn
1960-1970 Walter Trepte
1970-1977 Willi Thiele
1977-1982 Josef Schneeberger
1982-1987 Eduard Haßkamp
1987-1998 Hans-Otto Weber
1998-2002 Karl-Wilhelm Lange
2002-2013 Reinhard Führer
2013-2016 Markus Meckel
since 2016 Wolfgang Schneiderhan
The former president of the Volksbund Markus Meckel with his predecessor Reinhard Führer


The Volksbund derives its tasks from the statutory obligations to preserve the memory of the victims of war and violence, to maintain peace among peoples and to respect human dignity .

War dead, war graves, prisoner of war cemeteries

  • There are 46 bilateral agreements with foreign partner countries. The partner countries are regularly informed about the status of the construction, relocation and identification work in their area. Inquiries to the Volksbund about foreign war graves in Germany will be clarified.
  • New construction, maintenance of the substance and maintenance of war cemeteries abroad on behalf of the Federal Government are carried out by the Department of Cemetery and Building Maintenance . In 2019, 832 war cemeteries from the First and Second World Wars in 46 countries and more than 800 graves / monuments from the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 were cared for.
  • The Volksbund works with the Federal Archives (Germany) , (formerly the Deutsche Dienststelle , previously the former Wehrmacht information center for war casualties and prisoners of war - WASt ) in Berlin and also uses their databases for research. This office maintains the data and identification numbers of soldiers deployed in World War II. The Volksbund also cooperates with other tracing services, for example the tracing service of the German Red Cross . The Volksbund provides these institutions with the reburial protocols for further identification (e.g. using the identification tags ) or for updating the documents.
  • The reburial service retrieves war dead from the original grave sites and reburies them in collective cemeteries in Eastern Europe, Germany and Western Europe. According to the research, the reburial includes the probing, exhumation and possible identification and transfer of war dead. Since 1991 the Volksbund has reburied 796,053 war dead in 82 war cemeteries. In 2019, 19,735 transfers were carried out, mainly in Russia, Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. War dead are discovered through WASt documents, contemporary witnesses, historical photos of grave fields by former combatants, support on site, differences in the vegetation from the adjacent area, but also by chance during construction and road works. Findings that serve for identification are personal belongings (signet ring, fountain pen, pipe), remains of uniforms, dental status, dog tags, German steel helmet. The names of the missing are, e.g. B. in Rossoschka , recorded on large granite cubes for relatives and posterity.
  • For the later identification of unknown war dead, the reburial service documents the place where it was found, the identification tag (if still available), remains of clothes and found objects, body size, skeletal features and dentition in a reburial pad .
  • 180 of the estimated 6,200 prisoner of war cemeteries have been restored (as of 2011). All prisoner of war cemeteries can no longer be preserved, but those who died in captivity are remembered in selected facilities.

German war cemeteries by country and conflict

Online cemetery search

The Volksbund has created an overview of the German war cemeteries. For each cemetery listed, the geographical location, directions, the number of dead, the military events in the area and the architectural design are recorded.

Some war cemeteries

German war cemetery in Solers , France
German war cemetery in Zagreb, Croatia
German war cemetery of World War I in Laventie, France
War cemetery from the time of German South West Africa
Australia - World War I and World War II
  • German war cemetery Tatura (war dead: 250)
Austria - First and Second World War
Belgium - World War One
Belgium - First and Second World War
Belgium - World War II
Canada - First and Second World War
Croatia - World War II
  • Split German war cemetery (Lovrinac)
  • Zagreb German war cemetery
Egypt - World War I and World War II
Finland - World War I and World War II
Finland - World War II
France (West Front) - First World War
France (Normandy) - World War II
South of France - World War II
Ireland - World War I and World War II
Israel - World War One
Italy - World War II
Luxembourg - World War II
Namibia - World War One
Netherlands - First and Second World War
Russia - World War II
Spain - First and Second World War
Tunisia - World War II
United Kingdom - World War I and World War II

Images of war cemeteries

Advice to domestic bodies

According to the Graves Act, graves from war and tyranny in municipal cemeteries in Germany are maintained exclusively from public funds. The dead have a permanent right to rest. The graves privately tended by relatives are not included.

The Volksbund advises domestic authorities on the design and redesign of domestic war cemeteries with 1.8 million German and foreign war dead from the First and Second World Wars, as well as on legal issues relating to the Graves Act . The advisory assistance is predominantly accepted by the eastern German federal states. In the Federal Republic of Germany itself, only the war cemetery in Golm (Usedom) / Kamminke in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the forest cemetery Halbe in Brandenburg and the German war cemetery in Meersburg-Lerchenberg are used by the Volksbund for 69 dead soldiers from the First World War brought here from Switzerland and as a memorial looked after for the missing of both world wars.

Care of relatives, members and donors

  • The Relative Care Unit helps with the search for war graves, with clarifying the fate of the war and informs relatives.
  • The area of ​​graves records records German war dead from both world wars and their graves, prepares reburial work and creates grave markings, memorial plaques and name books for the fallen and missing persons for the memorial rooms of the war cemeteries in Western and Eastern Europe.
  • War graves trips with memorial and dedication events for the relatives are undertaken to the graves. Grave decorations and photos of the graves can be commissioned from the Volksbund and excerpts from the name books of the cemeteries can be ordered. In 1999 around 800,000 people visited German war cemeteries.
  • The membership magazine frieden (title until 2012: Voice & Path - Work for Peace ) has a circulation of 125,000 copies (as of 2020) and reports every six months on commemorative events, international understanding, grave maintenance, war cemeteries, trips to war cemeteries, help from the armed forces and reservists, Publication of eyewitness reports.
  • The Volksbund, Landesverband Berlin, looks after a community grave site for founders of the Volksbund and their relatives at the Waldfriedhof Heerstraße in Berlin near the Olympic Stadium. The community burial site is located in the southeast of the cemetery and is accessible via the side entrances at Olympiastraße and Insterburgalleee. A donation to the Memorial and Peace Foundation in the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge acquires the right to burial and care for the grave for 20 years. One third of the annual income from the donated capital goes to the charitable purpose, to the maintenance of the donor's grave and to the preservation of the donor's capital. Urn, tree and earth burials are possible for donors from the federal territory who feel connected to the Volksbund. The names of those buried are affixed to bronze ginkgo leaves on natural ashlar stones.

Care and repair of the graves

Bundeswehr soldiers on a mission at the Vienna Central Cemetery

Care is provided by our own staff, companies, municipal companies, parishes, associations or private individuals. Cemetery facilities and gravestones are regularly repaired on a voluntary basis by members of the German Armed Forces , reservists , members of the technical relief organization , senior groups and international participants in youth work camps. The grave markings are also part of the maintenance. Caring for the resting places costs EUR 24.428 million annually (as of 2019). Because of the limited resources, the cemeteries are divided into five maintenance categories. Cemeteries in the vicinity of capital cities, which are also visited by official representatives as protocol cemeteries, are classified in maintenance category one. War cemeteries from the First World War are assigned to Category 3 and are less well maintained.

Search for graves online

The Volksbund has created a freely accessible online database with data sets (as of 2019: over 4.8 million) of fallen or missing German soldiers from the First and Second World Wars, which can be accessed online under Volksbund Gravesearch.

Most of them are German military personnel who perished in the First and Second World War and for whom a grave site on a German war cemetery is known. Of these, around one million records relate to the time of the First World War. The file has expanded significantly since it was first published. In recent years a large number of other members of the military who died in the years of World War II without a known grave site, as well as missing persons, were added. The German Office in Berlin helped to supplement the data sets .

War cemeteries and war dead from the First and Second World Wars in Germany are also documented in the database. There are 897,953 war deaths known by name in 13,080 cemeteries and grave fields, as of 2011. These include war deaths brought to Germany or those who died at home. In general, however, only those are named who are buried in separate honorary cemeteries within civil cemeteries and not in civil individual or family graves.

The database also includes victims of the bombing war , prisoners of war and civilian prisoners, in some cases also foreign members of German auxiliary troops from the Second World War and even some members of the Wehrmacht who died before the Second World War .

For the as yet unexplained fate of German soldiers, a grave research application can be submitted in paper form or online to the Volksbund. Due to the frequency of some surnames , it is important that all first names and the date of birth of the missing person are given. If possible, the date of death, the last unit and the last message received are also required . In retreat skirmishes, the dead could often no longer be buried. Detailed documents on the war dead in World War I were digitally recorded on a voluntary basis.

Memorial of the dead

The following memorial of the dead is read out every year during the official celebrations on the day of national mourning, both at the central event in the Bundestag (here by the patron, the Federal President ) and at the numerous local commemorations that the Volksbund organizes. The speaking of remembrance of the dead by the Federal President was introduced by Federal President Theodor Heuss in 1952.

“Today we think of the victims of violence and war, of children, women and men of all nations.

We commemorate the soldiers who died in the world wars, the people who lost their lives as a result of acts of war or afterwards in captivity, as displaced persons and refugees.

We remember those who were persecuted and killed because they belonged to another people, belonged to a different race, were part of a minority or whose life was declared unworthy of life because of illness or disability.

We remember those who died because they resisted tyranny and those who died because they held fast to their beliefs or beliefs.

We mourn the victims of the wars and civil wars of our day, the victims of terrorism and political persecution, the Bundeswehr soldiers and other emergency services who lost their lives on deployment abroad.

Today we also remember those who have become victims in our country through hatred and violence against strangers and the weak.

We mourn and share their pain with all who suffer for the dead.

But our life is characterized by the hope of reconciliation among men and peoples,

and our responsibility is for peace among people at home and around the world. "

- Federal President Joachim Gauck: Remembrance of the dead
forget Me Not
Forget-me-not - the symbol flower for commemorating war dead

Forget-me-not memorial flower

On the occasion of the memory of the First World War, the Volksbund uses the forget-me-not as a symbol flower, similar to the British Remembrance Poppy , where the poppy is used as a symbol of commemoration of war dead.

Due to its name, the forget-me-not is an international symbol for memory and for loving farewell, combined with the desire not to be pushed out of the memory of a loved one. It has a name with the same meaning in many languages. Numerous poems and songs exist about this flower. The forget-me-not is traditionally the Canadian memorial flower and is also used to commemorate the genocide of the Armenians .

Youth work

Young people from different countries are involved in the youth work of the Volksbund, i. H. in peace work, caring for graves, researching historical connections and recognizing European integration.

  • Department of Youth, Specialist and Adult Education (JFEB): Training of specialists and multipliers for extracurricular education.
  • Department Jugendbegegnungs- and educational institutions (JBS) is in Lommel in Belgium, Niederbronn-Les-Bains in France, Ysselsteyn in the Netherlands, on the Golm (Kamminke, Usedom Island) and in Halbe / Brandenburg in Germany the coming together of young people on the subject Peace, a democratic culture of remembrance, war graves and memorials made possible.
  • Department of Peace Education: Schools and universities: Project days and educational modules on war cemeteries support the topic of peace.
  • International Youth Encounters Department : In Germany, Western and Eastern Europe, young people between the ages of 12 and 26 from 32 countries (as of 2015) are involved in the maintenance and repair of war graves and memorials through work camps. Encounters with one another and with the population of the host country break down prejudices.

Culture of remembrance

  • International cooperation in all matters relating to war graves
  • European-oriented, contemporary culture of remembrance
  • Project war biographies of former combatants and other contemporary witnesses
  • Traveling exhibitions in Germany
  • Travel to war cemeteries
  • Organization of the day of national mourning or participation in it

The helper

Reporting in the press

Reports on the Volksbund, the work camps, the cemeteries, the clarification of the fate of missing persons and the peace work are reported in the press, on the Internet and in exhibitions. The Volksbund supports reporting through press releases, cooperation with editorial offices and journalist trips.


Half of the around 52 million euros spent by the Volksbund (as of 2019) were used for caring for the resting places, a good quarter for maintaining commemoration and the rest for association expenses. Almost two thirds of them were financed by collections, bequests, donors, members, parishes / churches / schools, monetary requirements / fines and a good third by reimbursement from the federal government (war graves), the federal states (domestic grave maintenance) and for work camps . The Commemoration and Peace Foundation was established in 2001 . Your income will be used to maintain capital and as a distribution for projects.

Help from the armed forces and reservists

Members of the armed forces and reservists volunteer to help with street gatherings, work on the war cemeteries and with the transport of the workcamp participants. The maintenance of war graves abroad with work for peace is often carried out together with the armed forces there.

Work camps

In work camps (youth camps) in Germany as well as in work camps in Western and Eastern Europe with participants from many countries, German war cemeteries, war cemeteries of other nations and concentration camp memorials are repaired in the sense of international youth exchange. Furthermore, seminars on historical and political education are held and youth group leaders are trained.

Self-image and external impact

While the Volksbund itself worked under the post-war motto of the 1950s "Reconciliation over the graves - work for peace", parts of the population in Germany by no means always perceived it as part of the " peace movement ". The Volksbund never presented itself as such. The founding generation of the Volksbund consisted largely of soldiers from the First World War. After the Second World War, a critical examination of their own past as part of the pre-war propaganda of National Socialism in the development generation, mostly war participants or grave officers, largely failed to materialize. In addition, the Volksbund's program remained a vague “warning for peace” without deriving any concrete political demands. After its re-establishment in 1947, the Volksbund always saw itself as politically neutral. Today the association deliberately maintains close contacts not only with the Bundeswehr, but also with the armed forces of numerous nations and works according to its own standards through international cooperation in the maintenance of memorials, especially for international understanding among the young generation. However, the membership shows a relatively high average age, many still belong to the so-called "war generation" of the Second World War. Critics claim that in the past, old or neo-Nazis were members or even employees of the Volksbund in some cases . The Volksbund itself, however, distances itself from right-wing extremist efforts. For example, at the end of 2007, several NPD members of the state parliament who had become members during the year were excluded from the Volksbund. The reason given was that membership in the NPD was “incompatible with the aims of the Volksbund”.

Appreciation by the German heads of state for the 100th anniversary

In an advertisement in national newspapers on June 22, 2019, Federal President Frank-Walter Steinmeier , Bundestag President Wolfgang Schäuble , Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel , Federal Council President Daniel Günther and the President of the Federal Constitutional Court Andreas Vosskuhle paid tribute to the People's Association of German War Grave Services under the heading “Together for peace in Europe “In the hundredth year of its existence. Today the Volksbund is a “citizens' initiative for peace”, it has many partners at home and abroad and, since the fall of the Iron Curtain , has been promoting dialogue with Central and Eastern Europe in particular. The text says, among other things:

Peace in Europe cannot be taken for granted. Overcoming nationalism and racism, hatred and intolerance, oppression and persecution takes courage and perseverance. Today nationalism is growing again. That is precisely why it is important that we remember the victims of the wars together and exchange ideas across borders about past suffering, its causes and the conditions for peaceful coexistence. The Volksbund brings together young people from all over Europe. The exchange helps to better understand the perspective of the other, it creates friendships and heightened awareness that peace is a good that must be preserved together.

The text of five signatories ends: War grave care is work for peace in Europe. For 100 years the Volksbund has been living off the support of the population. We support him too.


Partner organizations abroad

Data on the war victims and war victims' organizations in other countries during the two world wars are available on the Internet:

  • Austria: The Austrian state has stipulated in the War Graves Care Act and in the State Treaty for the Care and Preservation of War Graves in Austria that the Austrian war cemeteries are maintained by the Austrian Black Cross . War graves in Vienna's central cemetery are still being looked after by the Volksbund.
  • Netherlands: Dutch war graves around the world are searched for and maintained by the Oorlogsgravenstichting .
  • Belgium: Institut des Vétérans - Institut National des Invalides de Guerre, Anciens Combattans et Victimes de Guerre (IV-INIG) with graves database.

See also


Web links

Commons : Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. (Ed.): Labor balance 2019 . Kassel, April 2020
  3. ^ Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. (Ed.): Peace, Trust and Reconciliation. Speeches for Memorial Day 2016. Kassel 2017, ISBN 978-3-9817711-4-5 . Wolfgang Schneiderhan: Welcome, p. 16.
  4. Loretana de Libero: To remember also means to contradict loudly and clearly. In: Peace needs courage: 100 years of the Volksbund. Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., Kassel 2020, p. 48.
  5. War cemeteries - construction, maintenance and repair. Retrieved December 16, 2019 .
  6. Armin Jäger: "Peace is a very vulnerable good." In: Peace needs courage: 100 years of the Volksbund. Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., Kassel 2020, p. 103.
  7. Loretana de Libero: To remember also means to contradict loudly and clearly. In: Peace needs courage: 100 years of the Volksbund. Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., Kassel 2020, p. 43.
  8. Armin Jäger: Peace is a very vulnerable good. In: Peace needs courage: 100 years of the Volksbund. Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., Kassel 2020, p. 103.
  9. Oktavia Christ: 100 years of the Volksbund. Senate reception in Hamburg City Hall, Friday, August 9, 2019, 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. Handout.
  10. ^ Thomas Peter Petersen: The story of the day of national mourning . Ed .: Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. Extended edition. tape 2 . Bad Kleinen June 1998, p. 18-20 .
  11. Meinhold Lurz: War memorials in Germany. Volume 5: Third Reich. Heidelberg 1986, ISBN 3-88326-154-8 , p. 72.
  12. Sabine Stamer: Forgetting about the graves. In: Die Zeit vom November 13, 1987 (accessed on December 31, 2019)
  13. Loretana de Libero: To remember also means to contradict loudly and clearly. In: Peace needs courage: 100 years of the Volksbund. Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., Kassel 2020, pp. 44–45.
  14. Olav Teichert: In the course of the magazine. 90 years of the Volksbund's membership magazine - 1921–1950. In: Voice & Way. 1/2011, pp. 10-13.
  15. Loretana de Libero: To remember also means to contradict loudly and clearly. In: Peace needs courage: 100 years of the Volksbund. Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., Kassel 2020, p. 46.
  16. Armin Jäger: "Peace is a very vulnerable good." In: Peace needs courage: 100 years of the Volksbund. Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., Kassel 2020, p. 107.
  17. In the course of the magazine. 90 years of the Volksbund's membership magazine - 1951–1966. In: Voice & Way. 2/2011, pp. 12-13.
  18. Martin Dodenhoeft: Historical date. The Volksbund in the new federal states. In: Voice & Way. 4/2011, pp. 20-21.
  19. In the course of the magazine. In: Voice & Way. 4/2011, pp. 14-15.
  20. ^ Daniela Schily on the website of the Volksbund. Retrieved August 4, 2017 .
  21. Guido Westerwelle: Letter to Reinhard Führer. In: Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. (Ed.): Letters to the President. Kassel 2014, p. 227.
  22. War Graves Commission loses massive members | MDR.DE. Retrieved August 23, 2020 .
  23. ^ Member bodies . Retrieved August 9, 2017 .
  24. ^ Statutes of the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge, § 3 - Tasks and legal bases
  25. Interview with Markus Meckel, in: Katholische Nachrichten-Agentur , November 14, 2014, p. 32.
  26. Diane Tempel-Bornett: There 's someone lying there ... Interview with Umbetter Joachim Kozlowski. In “Frieden”, October 2017, p. 39.
  27. Beate Kalbhenn: The name is decisive. Grave research by the Volksbund. In: Voice & Way. x / 1997, pp. 24-25.
  28. War cemeteries - construction, maintenance and repair. Retrieved December 16, 2019 .
  29. List view of war cemeteries | Retrieved December 16, 2019 .
  30. Woodland Cemetery . Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  31. Google Maps . Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  32. Gerbéviller German Military Cemetery ( French ) HoriZon 14-18. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
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  37. ^ Volksbundes Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V .: Community grave site for sponsors of the tasks of the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. Volksbundes Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., accessed on December 16, 2019 .
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  56. Contact group for war grave services. In: peace. May 2016, p. 33.
  57. War Dead Register added. April 14, 2015, accessed December 16, 2019 .

Coordinates: 51 ° 19 ′ 9.1 ″  N , 9 ° 29 ′ 42 ″  E