Fritz Schumacher

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Fritz Schumacher, etching by Leopold von Kalckreuth (1916)
Tax authority at the Gänsemarkt : facade diagonally upwards
Veddel elementary school
Fritz Schumacher statue in the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE)

Fritz Schumacher (born November 4, 1869 in Bremen , †  November 5, 1947 in Hamburg ; full name: Friedrich Wilhelm Schumacher ) was a German architect , urban planner , construction clerk and university professor who was senior construction director in Hamburg from 1909 to 1933 . He was a co-founder of the Deutscher Werkbund and promoter of modern brick construction in Northern Germany.


Youth and education

Fritz Schumacher was the son of the lawyer, historian and syndic of the Bremen Chamber of Commerce Hermann Albert Schumacher and the brother of the economist Hermann Schumacher . The father was Prime Minister of the German Empire in Bogotá and New York . After his childhood, the family returned to Bremen in 1883. He attended the old grammar school in Bremen . His school friend was the later historian Karl Ludwig Hampe . The Bremen architect Friedrich Schumacher was his cousin.

Schumacher studied mathematics and natural sciences at the Technical University of Munich from 1889 to 1896 and finally switched to architecture, with Friedrich von Thiersch among others .

Architect and university professor

Schumacher started his professional career in the office of the Munich architect Gabriel von Seidl , who already temporarily accepted him into the group of employees during his studies and employed him after graduation. As a result, he came into contact with the project of the Bavarian National Museum twice . Fritz Schumacher found great pleasure in working with Seidl, a prominent representative of historicism . The young architect particularly valued his employer's stipulation to incorporate historical epochs within the architecture of the new National Museum through the use of contemporary forms and moods.

During his time in Munich, Schumacher met Ferdinand von Miller and the art collector Alexander Günther. For Günther, he independently took on tasks to redesign his castle ( Schloss Prösels ) in Tyrol and later residence on Lake Garda . He supported him financially between 1895 and 1898 on his study trips.

In 1896, on the recommendation of Theodor Fischer , he took up his work in the Leipzig City Building Office under the direction of Hugo Licht , which lasted until 1901. Here Schumacher came together with Friedrich Naumann and his reform ideas for society and was a member of various reform-oriented groups. During the Weimar Republic he was close to the German Democratic Party . The friendly relationship with Max Klinger quickly brought him into contact with avant-garde circles in Leipzig. The increasingly conflictual collaboration with his superior Hugo Licht promoted his departure from historicism. In a letter to his brother, Schumacher described the new town hall in Leipzig, which was planned by Licht within a competition, selected anonymously and then built, as a “hideous work”, which he was able to influence with several suggestions for improvement. This controversy was embedded in a current art-critical discourse , to which Schumacher contributed in 1899 with his own play Fantasias in Auerbachs Keller . Its performance served the festival on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Leipzig. He tied the roles of Faust and Mephisto in a dispute about aspects of modern art. Contacts with publishers in Leipzig encouraged Schumacher to draft the book design and bookplates , selected works of which were shown in the German Book Trade Museum in 1901 .

In 1901 he was appointed professor at the Technische Hochschule Dresden - an office that he held until 1909. Schumacher's activity as a university lecturer at the building construction department of the Technical University and his enthusiasm for John Ruskin's culture-critical impulses prompted him with reflections and a contribution to the revision of the role of the architect in his society. During his professorship in Dresden, Schumacher was involved in founding the urban development seminar. From these experiences he described in retrospect in 1916, at that time already working as building director in Hamburg, the architectural development of the 19th century as a period of singularly emerging works, according to which each endeavored to "assert itself in a kind of defensive position against its surroundings". Schumacher combined this view with the demand for better consideration of urban planning contexts, which he already perceived as a change that was taking place around 1916. In his opinion, “significant new demands are placed on the education of architects”, which necessitate tasks as an economist and architectural director. The great challenges for any responsibly designed development plan , especially in the area of ​​large cities, consist in the harmonious connection of economic and architectural goals.

“It [the cultural ideal] has changed; in the epoch of the big city and the machines it is colored by social and economic demands; Department stores, small apartment complexes, elementary schools and factories cannot be solved with the aristocratic world of forms of antiquity; at most the rhythmic values ​​of their clarified nature can serve as guides. We had to find the expression for the great social organizations of our time. An art that creates for the people will be our next task according to its content, and the ideal goal that stands behind this task will be to slowly develop from it not only an art for the people, but an art of the people. "

- Fritz Schumacher : Basics of Architecture, 1916
The Geschwister-Scholl-Haus in Leipzig , the first German commercial college , built in 1910

In addition to his work as a university lecturer, he was able to build several private houses across Germany. Many of his designs were created in his spare time and on weekends. He wrote a lot and commented on various topics of urban planning and architecture. During his time in Hamburg he met contemporaries who were keen to discuss and discussed his designs. For him, building made an essential contribution to the reform of art and thus of life in general.

Together with Hermann Muthesius , Friedrich Naumann and Henry van de Velde, Schumacher was the initiator and co-founder of the Deutscher Werkbund and gave the opening speech at the inaugural meeting on October 5, 1907. The building he completed in 1910 for the first German commercial college (today's Geschwister-Scholl- Haus ) in Leipzig is an outstanding example of his conception of reform architecture . As a conservative representative of reform architecture, he was critical of further developments and criticized the “construction fanaticism” of a new objectivity ”of the Bauhaus, which arose from the Werkbund idea . Nevertheless, Schumacher was one of the representatives of the New Building in the 1920s , especially with his functionalist Hamburg school buildings, and advocated a moderate modernism based on regional traditions.

Schumacher was also very fond of the theater his whole life. In addition to the play Fantasias in Auerbachs Keller , he staged Hamlet in Dresden in 1908 .

Working for Bremen

In Bremen he applied for the construction of the new town hall in 1908/1909 , an order that his first employer Gabriel von Seidl received after a limited competition. In 1908 he designed the Franzius Monument on the Weser Bridge in Bremen. Once again, from 1925 to 1930, he was able to work on urban and regional planning for Bremen. In doing so, he prevented a road breakthrough at the bishop's gate.

Appointment to Hamburg

After the cholera epidemic of 1892 , the Senate under Mayor Mönckeberg decided to demolish the Gängeviertel in the eastern old town and redesign it on a large scale. These measures include the construction of Mönckebergstrasse , the course of which corresponds to the route proposed for the subway between Rathausmarkt and Südbahnhof in 1901 . As part of the city ​​development as a result of the growing importance of trade after the customs connection in Hamburg, there was also a growing need for office space in modern office buildings . In the previous Gängeviertel , smaller businesses and, above all, workers' apartments dominated. In addition to the need for up-to-date transport links to the center, it was above all the newly built commercial buildings, almost all of which were designed without apartments, that satisfied the need for office space in the early 20th century. It was also a goal of all those involved to beautify Hamburg's cityscape according to its size and economic power.

Hamburg was on the way to becoming a big city and the Senate under Mayor Mönckeberg was looking for someone with a corresponding vision as a city planner. Schumacher adjusted to the special requirements, but the city was aware of this and specifically chose an artist rather than an administrative expert. When he took office there were 31 new buildings and nine renovations. His predecessor Carl Johann Christian Zimmermann had withdrawn to pure design activities for several years. Albert Erbe , who had represented Zimmermann and had applied for the position, finally moved to Essen in 1911.

In 1908 he was appointed building director and head of building construction in Hamburg, where he took up the position on September 1, 1909. His buildings from this first phase in Hamburg adapted local models from building history and had a particularly formative effect with the use of clinker that was appropriate to the work . The buildings from this period include the Tropical Institute (1910–1914), the University of Fine Arts on Lerchenfeld (1911–1913), the Johanneum (1912–1914), the Fritz-Schumacher-Haus (building N 30) in the Hamburg University Hospital -Eppendorf , the current Medical History Museum at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (1913) with the section hall from 1926 and the Museum of Hamburg History (1914–1923).

David Guard
Bernhard Nocht Institute

Hans Mackowsky paid tribute to Schumacher's Hamburg work as early as 1914, denying the regional aspect related to homeland security and emphasizing the technical characteristics of brick and clinker.

After winning a competition, Schumacher was given leave of absence in Hamburg and accompanied the urban development of Cologne from 1920 to 1923 as an alderman and city planner under Lord Mayor Konrad Adenauer , where the demolition of the fortress rings allowed the construction of the Cologne green belt and the Lindenthal canals . After his return he was appointed senior building director in Hamburg and worked there until his dismissal by the National Socialists on May 3, 1933. The exact reasons for his dismissal are not known. In 1924 he took part in the Great Berlin Art Exhibition with the Dresden crematorium and brick buildings.

The building department was expanded under his direction and finally had over a hundred employees who were also given responsible planning tasks, so the exact proportion of the design cannot be precisely determined for a number of buildings attributed to Schumacher.

He worked closely with his colleague Gustav Oelsner , who was the Senator for Construction and City Planning in Altona from 1924 to 1933. Their common concepts continued to work after their dismissal in 1933 and were pursued by Konstanty Gutschow , who had already worked under Schumacher, after 1933. In October 1945 Schumacher took part in a discussion on reconstruction and advocated the principles of loosening up and greening the cityscape.

A number of public buildings were built based on his designs, including the tax authorities on Gänsemarkt , the commercial building on Holstenwall (today the seat of the Chamber of Crafts), the extension of the courthouse on Sievekingplatz, the remand prison, the judicial authority in the Drehbahn, the Museum of Hamburg History on Holstenwall, the chapel 13 and the crematorium in the Ohlsdorf cemetery , the Davidwache , the pilot house Seemannshöft , the planetarium (former water tower ) in the city park, the Finkenau Clinic and the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine and also several tombs in the Ohlsdorf cemetery, etc. a. that for Alfred Lichtwark .

Schumacher remained unmarried and lived with his two sisters in a house. From 1943 until his death in a Hamburg hospital, Schumacher lived in Lüneburg . He was buried in the "Althamburg Memorial Cemetery", a part of the Ohlsdorf cemetery , in Ohlsdorf, right next to the grave of the art hall director Alfred Lichtwark.

Hamburg's city planner

Fritz Schumacher's grave in the Ohlsdorf cemetery

In Hamburg, Schumacher worked primarily as an urban planner. The temporal circumstances were favorable in the growing metropolis before the First World War thanks to a senate that was open to the modern. The Hamburg Building Maintenance Act of 1912 had already been prepared by Albert Erbe, but was influenced by Schumacher's ideas. A building maintenance commission was set up to assess all new building designs. The commission consisted of architects, citizens and artists who paid attention to the design quality. Hipp sees this as an important source of discipline and consensus building.

The Hamburg city development plan "Schemas of the natural and real development of the organism Hamburg", which Schumacher presented in 1919, shows the development axes of the metropolis that are still valid today, including the generous green spaces that have shaped the image of the green city.

Individual measures are mentioned here as examples:

The construction of the street was already well advanced by the time he took office, and Schumacher tried to help determine the design of the buildings when allocating the building sites for the perimeter development.

“Mönckebergstraße can be described as the last attempt on a grand scale to achieve a properly developed roof shape instead of the crippled city roof. In many places it was unsuccessful, and so it came about that the motif of the recessed upper floors .... became the main motif of the other commercial buildings integrated into this street. The visible roof disappeared and at the same time an economically and formally clear type emerged, when the roof, which was built as intensively as possible, represented it.

- F.Schumacher: State buildings (vol. 3, p. 19)
The only building by Schumacher on Mönckebergstrasse is the fountain with the small temple-like structure at the place where Spitalerstrasse joins at an angle.
The idea of ​​a public park for Hamburg goes back to the late 19th century. Alfred Lichtwark feared that the city would become increasingly uninhabitable due to the lack of green spaces. In 1903, the city bought the Sierich'sche wood near the newly planned residential areas in Winterhude and other adjacent areas. The design competition that was carried out remained without a winner. In 1909, Schumacher, together with his chief engineer Ferdinand Sperber and the head of the horticultural department, Otto Linne, took over the structuring of the areas and gardens. The line from the water tower (now Planetarium Hamburg ) mounted on a draft Dresdners Oskar Menzel back, on the playground and lawn, the cascade, the Stadtparksee for in World War II bombed-out city hall became the main central axis of the park. The connection of the Stadtparksee with the Goldbek Canal and the navigable expansion up to today's turning basin at the Stadthallenbrücke were among the measures.
After the construction of the Fuhlsbüttler lock (1913), Schumacher presented a concept for channeling the Alster below this lock as far as Eppendorf. It provided for a strict architectural setting with embankment walls, terraces and basins, some of which have been preserved in the Alsterdorf area. The engineering of the city of Hamburg had planned a natural planning. The drafts were discussed controversially, Schumacher's approach was only partially implemented.
The Alster channeling was part of Schumacher's concept for an Alster city that should create an attractive development area for the elevated civil construction and has ultimately created.
The settlement was built in 1919 as an example of a garden city in order to use simple means to create living space for those who took part in the war and those who were disabled. Due to the lack of building materials, only 660 of the planned 800 apartments had been completed by 1921 with a living space of 75 - 80 m² and a garden area of ​​650 m². The houses designed as semi-detached houses or terraced houses outside of the city are considered to be early urban outskirts of terraced houses.
The redesign of the town hall market and the construction of the memorial (1929–1932) were a long-term concern that was pursued against political resistance. Schumacher intended to restore the original appearance of the square, especially the equestrian statue of Wilhelm I by Johannes Schilling was a thorn in his side. The increasing traffic then gave him the opportunity to demand the relocation of the monument to Sievekingsplatz. The sculptor's heirs, however, filed a lawsuit and failed. The space created led to the redesign of the Kleiner Alster with the quarter round and the memorial. Schumacher had intended Ernst Barlach as the artist when the competition for the memorial on the Kleine Alster was announced .

After the First World War, numerous apartments in a four- to six-storey construction with mostly two apartments per landing ( two-in-hand ) in the sense of reform housing were built in the areas accessible by the subway in Barmbek-Nord . The adjoining the west Jarrestadt and the easternmost area of Dulsberg were awarded in a competitive and rapidly built in the 1920s. The buildings were mostly made of clinker brick by Hamburg architects. Schumacher himself took over the construction of the necessary schools and police stations.

His buildings, his style

The interaction of all the arts was a constant concern of Schumacher, and so he included sculptors and painters in the design of his buildings as early as the design phase. Hardly any of his buildings were built in silence, a generation of contemporaries who were open to discussion published everything new; at that time, building was seen as an essential contribution to the reform of art and thus of life in general.

Richard Kuöhl , who came to Hamburg in 1912 and knew Schumacher from the Dresden University, was a freelance artist who often took on the decorative design of the buildings with stone sculptures and above all with clinker ceramics. Fountains that were also made by Kuöhl have been preserved for a number of buildings.

In 1925 a program to promote and support visual artists in Hamburg came into force, which Schumacher used to equip several of his state buildings with contemporary art by 1933. The artists essentially belonged to the Hamburg Secession .

Museum of Hamburg History

Museum of Hamburg History, 1930

The Museum of Hamburg History (1913–1922) was built on a bastion of the old ramparts in place of the observatory that had been moved to Bergedorf, from which the time office and the normal clock were initially retained. In the conception, Schumacher attached great importance to the greatest possible flexibility of the exhibition rooms in order to enable changes in the arrangement of the collection; for some collections, rooms over two floors were provided. Various collection objects - the portal of the old town hall and other portals - were not integrated into the building, but placed in front of clinker brick surfaces. The existing old trees were spared and retained as far as possible. Towards the Holstenwall - the entrance area - the building was built higher, while the wing buildings are three storeys lower. The L-shaped inner courtyard is partially above the ground floor and was roofed over with a transparent grid shell in 1994.

Finance deputation at the Gänsemarkt

Tax authority: general view
Tax authority: facade detail with ceramic jewelry

The building in which the tax authorities are based today is one of Schumacher's largest buildings in terms of area. On a floor area of ​​3,100 m², 490 rooms with a usable area of ​​17,780 m² were created. Construction began in 1914 due to the prevailing unemployment and stalled due to the lack of funds in the First World War and during the years of inflation . In 1923, a further two billion marks were approved to combat unemployment; due to inflation, construction, which was to be continued as a job creation measure, was discontinued in December 1923, as the inflation-related additional demands could no longer be raised. In 1925, the continuation of the work completed in 1926 by senior building officer Göbel began.

The reinforced concrete building, veneered with Oldenburg clinker bricks, bears a rich facade decoration made of colored enamelled ceramic by Richard Kuöhl , with whom Schumacher worked closely.

Style change

After the currency stabilized through the introduction of the Reichsmark in 1924, numerous buildings could be implemented. In Schumacher's works, a move towards the “New Building” style can be seen . The high roof shapes he had planned so far are giving way in favor of flat roofs, his buildings now have windows over the entire stairwells, which are mostly on the sides of the building.

“It must have happened to many artists that, for unconscious reasons, they expressed themselves artistically differently after the war than before. [...] I noticed with a kind of inner astonishment that I had mastered a new language in which I could only say everything that was close to my heart with the help of grouping, proportion, lighting and color. "

Land registry hall (1927–1930)

Land registry hall

The civil justice building , built in 1903, did not offer enough space for the administration of justice in the growing city. The necessary extension was not designed as an extension, but represents a separate building, which was connected to the existing building with two passages. A counterpoint in dark clinker was added to the civil justice building, which was designed in yellow clinker brick in the Renaissance style, and was designed as a polygon to the ramparts. There are two stairwells at both corners. In the inner courtyard is the circular public hall with an atrium around an inner staircase and corridors and adorned with a blue ceramic fountain by Richard Kuöhl . A bronze sculpture by the sculptor Albert Wöbcke (1896–1980) is placed in front of the entrance .

The building consists of three departments: District Court, Regional Court and Land Registry. In the district court section are the office of the president, the work rooms of the presidians, 16 rooms for the chamber chairmen and eight conference rooms; there are another five conference rooms in the district court area.

The planning began as early as 1912, the actual construction, which Schumacher describes as a problem child , is resumed in 1927 and completed in 1930.

A new type of school for Hamburg

The lack of schools in Hamburg became evident in the late 1920s. In 1928 he postulated a new type of school for Hamburg , the objective of which he formulated: “Striving for objective simplicity, that wants to work through three things: Rhythmic values ​​of interior design and exterior body design, color, quality of work in those areas. Where the function of the building leads to manual detailing: 'cleanliness' in aesthetic things. ” Emil Krause , who was school senator at the time, influenced the design of the schools according to the principles of reform pedagogy .

The implementation of these principles made specialist rooms, gyms, auditoriums, dining rooms, teaching kitchens, school kindergartens, doctors 'rooms, dental clinics, music rooms, parents' consulting rooms and - in some districts - kindergartens and youth homes necessary. This brought an increase in space of over 60%. Since the average size of the building site only grew from 5000 m² to 6000 m², the building mass had to be concentrated. "Space economy and construction economy must join hands."

  • Two-sided development of the corridors
  • Large windows in the stairwells and on the front sides of the corridors for exposure
  • Moving away from the typical high roof shapes

The increase in construction costs was significantly below the increase in space (the costs of schools with auditoriums averaged 1.3 million Reichsmarks ).

Schumacher planned around 30 schools in Hamburg:

Ohlsdorf crematorium

The "new" crematorium (2007)

The “new” crematorium in Ohlsdorf cemetery , built in 1930–1932 as a replacement for the crematorium on Alsterdorfer Strasse, was Schumacher's last public building. It is located in the western part of the cemetery and is grouped around a high central celebration hall with a steep sloping roof. Parabolic concrete supports give the interior a sacred character. The impression of the space is shaped by the 37 stained glass windows (9 m high) designed by Ervin Bossányi .

Two mourners (mandolin players) by the sculptor Karl Opfermann stand on high wooden pillars in the music gallery . They correspond with the two slender bronze sculptures of Ludwig Kunstmann's mourners, bent slightly forward, on tall, fluted bronze columns on the outside of the staircase.

Angel relief at the crematorium

The building rests on a base made of the same dark clinker brick. The entire building decoration with ceramics was done by Richard Kuöhl. The large sculpture of the floating angel, which is composed of specially shaped bricks, is remarkable.

Schumacher wrote a letter to his brother Hermann at the end of 1932:

“My crematorium will be handed over in the second week of January, after 8 years of work. It will be my last big building and at the same time the most personal of everything I've built. I can show in him the same thing with which I began my activity in Dresden, that my strongest inclination is for the sacred. "

- quoted from: Ohlsdorf, Zeitschrift für Trauerkultur. No. 115, IV, November 2011 [2]

The actual cremation process remained hidden and excluded. The chimney has been given a tower-like structure. The technical rooms with the incinerators can be reached at ground level from Fuhlsbüttler Strasse by means of a jump in the terrain .

During the Second World War, thousands of victims from the Hamburg concentration camps were cremated here.

Another celebration hall was added to the building in 1952; this celebration hall “C” was equipped with glass windows by Alfred Mahlau .

The entire facility was renovated in 2010 and reopened in 2011 as a "funeral forum".


The catalog raisonné is in a separate list of works by Fritz Schumacher . The Schumacher Society lists 356 works in its catalog of works.

Works accompanying the work

Schumacher's work was documented by himself. He wrote a documentation of his “state buildings” in three volumes, in which the task, the special features of the site and the room layout were explained. These were supplemented by recordings. The estate included around 1,200 photographs, which were taken shortly after completion by the brothers Adolf and Carl Dransfeld , who founded their photo studio in Berlin in 1902 and moved to Hamburg in 1904, and which are available as glass negatives .

In 1919 , the first volume of state buildings was published in collaboration with Karl Schaefer from Lübeck , who was a monument conservationist in Lübeck and who had been director of the St. Anne's Museum since 1911 .

The third volume was designed by him after his release. The state buildings have recently been reissued and supplemented with descriptions of the current state under monument protection aspects.

In his writings he emphasizes his ambition not only to have to take into account the cultural purpose of the building, but also nature, i.e. the surroundings of the building site. He also gives the reason in his depiction of the buildings, for example in the state buildings.


  • with Wilhelm Arntz: Cologne, development issues of a big city . 1923 (representation of the Cologne plans).
  • Stages of life . 1935 (autobiography).
  • "Outlook for the future of our people in terms of art technology", lecture (held in June 1916 in Hamburg and on October 9, 1916 in Bremen) published by Gustav Kiepenheuer Verlag, Weimar 1916 .
  • Self-talk - memories and reflections . 1949.
  • Becoming a residential city . Hamburg 1932 (reprint: Georg Westermann, 1984, ISBN 3-7672-0866-0 ).
  • The spirit of architecture . Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart / Berlin 1938 (Reprint: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-421-02596-7 ).
  • The structural design . 4th edition. Gebhardt, Leipzig 1926 (reprint: Birkhäuser, Basel / Berlin / Boston 1991, ISBN 3-7643-2611-5 ).
  • The essence of the modern brick building . Callwey, Munich 1917 (reprint: Ziegel-Zentrum Nordwest eV, Essen (ed.), 1985, ISBN 3-7667-0775-2 ).
  • How the work of art Hamburg came about after the great fire: a contribution to the history of urban development (=  publications by the Association for Hamburg History ). Christians, Hamburg 1920.
  • Changes in the set design (=  Hamburger Theaterbücherei. Volume 1 ). Toth, Hamburg 1948, DNB  454521987 .

Fritz Schumacher Society

The Fritz-Schumacher-Gesellschaft eV was founded in 1994 in Dresden on the initiative of Hamburg and Dresden personalities. It deals with scientific questions and practice-oriented topics from the field of building culture with special reference to Schumacher's work.

Fritz Schumacher Institute

The institute, founded in 2003, is an institution of the Fritz Schumacher Society and (until 2013) of the Hamburg University of Fine Arts . In addition to building a library with Schumacher's writings, plans and photographs, projects in the area of ​​urban and regional development are to be funded here. After the HafenCity University Hamburg was founded in 2006, the Fritz Schumacher Institute is now an institution of this young university because it has taken over the training of architects from the University of Fine Arts.

Fritz Schumacher Prize


  • Maike Bruhns : Building jewelry at Fritz Schumacher. (= Series of publications by the Hamburg Architecture Archive. Volume 30). Dölling and Galitz, Munich / Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-86218-038-7 , with CD-ROM (“Catalog of works of artistically decorated Schumacher buildings in Hamburg”).
  • Manfred F. Fischer : Schumacher, Fritz . In: Franklin Kopitzsch, Dirk Brietzke (Hrsg.): Hamburgische Biographie . tape 2 . Christians, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-7672-1366-4 , pp. 388-390 .
  • Hartmut Frank (Ed.): Fritz Schumacher. Reform culture and modernity; also catalog for the exhibition "Fritz Schumacher and his time", Deichtorhallen Hamburg, May 20th – 17th. July 1994 (=  writings of the Hamburg architecture archive ). Stuttgart 1994. ISBN 3-7757-0491-4 .
  • Hella Häussler: Fritz Schumacher's commercial building. Its history and its treasures. , Hamburg 2010
  • Hermann Hipp:  Schumacher, Fritz Wilhelm. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 736-739 ( digitized version ).
  • Jobst C. Knigge : Fritz Schumacher and the Hamburg school building program 1927-1931 , Geneva 2020, open access PDF at zenodo (DOI: 10.5281 / zenodo.3993972)
  • Jobst C. Knigge : 100 Years of Fritz Schumacher Settlement in Hamburg , Berlin 2016, open access PDF Humboldt University Berlin.
  • Ralf Lange : Architecture in Hamburg. The great architecture guide . Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-88506-586-9 .
  • Roger Popp: Fritz Schumacher and the Dulsberg . Dölling u. Garlitz, 2018, ISBN 978-3-86218-110-0 .
  • Dieter skull (ed.): Hamburger Staatsbauten by Fritz Schumacher Volume 3 (1920-1933) . Dölling and Galitz Verlag, Munich / Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-937904-29-8 .
  • Dieter skull (Hrsg.): Reform of the big city culture. The life's work of Fritz Schumacher (1869–1947). Documentation for the exhibition of the same name at the Kunsthaus Hamburg. Sautter and Lackmann, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-88920-069-3 .
  • Gustav Schiefler: Friz Schumacher . In: Society of Friends of the Fatherland School and Education System (ed.): Hamburg in its economic and cultural significance for Germany . Hamburg 1925, p. 94 ff. [102] ( - Festschrift for the German teachers' meeting in Hamburg 1925). Fritz Schumacher: Hamburg State Buildings 1909–1919 / 21 an inventory of historical monuments . Ed .: Manfred F. Fischer. Hans Christians Verlag, Hamburg 1995, ISBN 3-7672-1248-X .
  • Fritz Schumacher: My Hamburg - Pictures and Memories . Ed .: J. Paschen. Medien-Verlag Schubert, Hamburg 1994, ISBN 3-929229-19-6 .
  • Fritz Schumacher: The structural design . Birkhäuser, Basel / Berlin / Boston 1991, ISBN 3-7643-2611-5 .
  • Thomas Völlmar: Image - Stage - Architecture. Fritz Schumacher's designs for the theater 1899–1920 . CulturconMedien, Berlin / Wildeshausen 2009, ISBN 978-3-941092-25-9 . ( Content , presspress )

Web links

Commons : Fritz Schumacher  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Recordings by Adolf and Carl Dransfeld  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Christian Weller: Reform of the lifeworld through culture. The development of central thoughts of Fritz Schumacher up to 1900. In: Hartmut Frank (Hrsg.): Reformkultur und Moderne . Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-7757-0491-4 , p. 48.
  2. ^ Christian Weller: Reform of the lifeworld through culture. The development of central thoughts of Fritz Schumacher up to 1900. In: Hartmut Frank (Hrsg.): Reformkultur und Moderne . Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-7757-0491-4 , pp 50-54, 300th
  3. ^ Christian Weller: Reform of the lifeworld through culture. The development of central thoughts of Fritz Schumacher up to 1900. In: Hartmut Frank (Hrsg.): Reformkultur und Moderne . Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-7757-0491-4 , p. 302.
  4. Fritz Schumacher: Basics of architecture. Studies on the profession of architect . Munich 1916, pp. 52-53.
  5. Fritz Schumacher: Basics of architecture. Studies on the profession of architect . Munich 1916, pp. 64-65.
  6. Staatsbauten 1909/21, p. 8.
  7. ^ Herbert Black Forest : The Great Bremen Lexicon . 2nd, updated, revised and expanded edition. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2003, ISBN 3-86108-693-X .
  8. Staatsbauten 1909/21, pp. 15f.
  9. Staatsbauten 1909/21, p. 9.
  10. ^ Eduard Prüssen (linocuts), Werner Schäfke and Günter Henne (texts): Cologne heads . 1st edition. University and City Library, Cologne 2010, ISBN 978-3-931596-53-8 , pp. 78 .
  11. Digitized exhibition catalog 1924.
  12. January Lubitz: Kurt Schumacher. In: architect portrait
  13. ^ Hella Häussler: Fritz Schumacher's commercial building. How it came about and its treasures (PDF; 1.7 MB)
  14. ^ Fritz Schumacher at
  15. ^ Hermann Hipp: Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. History, culture and urban architecture on the Elbe and Alster. Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-7701-1590-2 , pp. 100f.
  16. Scheme drawing in the picture archive cannot be shown here for copyright reasons
  17. ^ Marc Schäfer: The city park. ( Memento of the original from June 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Law magazine. 2004, issue 8. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  18. ^ Ralf Lange: Architecture in Hamburg. Hamburg 2008, p. 233.
  19. Dietmar Ridder: Monuments Hamburg-Nord: Bebelallee 10 and 11: Alsterstadt - large-scale project by Fritz-Schumacher. on:
  20. History page of the cooperative ( Memento of the original from February 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  21. Hilmar Schulz: The oasis of the Börner. In: Merian , March 2011 ( )
  22. Mein Hamburg, p. 28ff.
  23. ^ State buildings (vol. 3, p. 142)
  24. Staatsbauten 1909/21, p. 8.
  25. Staatsbauten, Volume 3, pp. 30 ff.
  26. Staatsbauten, Volume 3, p. 56 ff.
  27. Fritz Schumacher: stages of life. Memories of a builder. 1935.
  28. Staatsbauten, Volume 3, p. 110.
  29. Documentation at the judges' association , accessed on February 19, 2012.
  30. Staatsbauten, Volume 3, p. 164.
  31. Staatsbauten, Volume 3, p. 194 f.
  32. Axel Tiedemann: Schumacher's visible heirs. In: Hamburger Abendblatt, December 11, 2014, p. 12.
  33. Jobst C. Knigge, Fritz Schumacher and the Hamburg school building program 1927-1931, Geneva 2020, open access PDF at zenodo
  34. Lange, 2008, I 26.3
  35. ^ Upheavals in art and architecture, Stiftung Denkmalpflege, Hamburg 2019, p. 64
  36. ^ Norbert Fischer: Cremation and crematoria from the First World War to the Nazi dictatorship. (PDF) ( Memento of the original from December 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  37. The former celebration hall C and its glass windows. In: Ohlsdorf, magazine for mourning culture. No. 115, IV, November 2011 [1]
  38. Catalog of works of the Schumacher Society  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  39. Catalog of works at, accessed on September 11, 2017.
  40. Staatsbauten 1909/21, p. 13.
  41. Staatsbauten, Volume 3, p. 7.
  42. On Wikimedia Commons in Commons: Category: Photographs by Adolf and Carl Dransfeld
  43. Structural design, p. 56.
  44. ^ Fritz-Schumacher-Gesellschaft ,, accessed on December 13, 2014.
  45. ^ Fritz Schumacher Institute ,, accessed on May 22, 2014.