from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mantrailingteam in action
Graphic representation of the track and individual smell that has drifted away

Mantrailing ( Engl. One 'man' and trail , track '), the People Search using working dogs that Mantrailer or persons sniffer dogs may be mentioned. The dogs' excellent sense of smell is used.

The difference between a mantrailer and other search dogs is that the mantrailer can distinguish between different human smells when searching and, despite many temptations, is based exclusively on the olfactory characteristics of the person searched for.

Mantrailers can not only be used in the footsteps of pedestrians, even the relative seclusion of a moving car does not prevent people from leaving traces. In contrast to tracking dogs, mantrailers can also be used in buildings and on built-up areas.

Scent trail

With mantrailing, the scent molecules of the target person are searched for and not the ground injuries as in tracking . In mantrailing, an odor carrier with the individual odor of the person to be searched for is used to set the dog on the trail. The quality of the odor carrier is decisive for the course of the search.

A person is constantly losing skin flakes - thousands every minute. The skin particles are swirled and scattered when the person moves. In addition to skin cells, the flakes often contain other components, such as cosmetic residues. An injured person will also lose blood, which is then found on the trail. It has not yet been conclusively researched which components of the human individual odor the dog perceives in its search. The most common explanation for the generation of human odor is the idea that human odor, in addition to the body's own metabolic breakdown products, is produced by bacterial effects on dead skin cells and secretions. It is assumed that the olfactory pattern produced during decomposition is unique. There are many indications that the human odor is just as unique as the fingerprint or DNA. The individual human body odor is determined by various factors that are either permanent or vary depending on environmental influences. Human cells are preserved for different periods of time: skin cells around 36 hours, red blood cells, however, around 120 days. That alone limits the shelf life of a scent trail. In addition, there are influences such as weather, the chemical substances already mentioned and other substances that are responsible for a longer or shorter shelf life of the scent trail. In principle, currently validated statements about the traceability of an odor trail are only available to a limited extent. Studies show trace ages of 48 hours up to six months.

Particularly suitable breeds

Often for the Mantrailing breeds like Bloodhound or bloodhounds favors, but also breeds such as have Labrador Retriever and Golden Retriever proven in practice. The achievements achieved depend on the individual abilities of the dog. In principle, dogs with the corresponding genetic predisposition with regard to the size of the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory sensory cells located therein are particularly well suited.

Mantrailer in action

More and more mantrailers are being trained in the area of ​​rescue dog work. By using the mantrailers, the missing person can usually be given a direction of turn. Thus it is possible to use the area search dogs more specifically and to prioritize larger areas to be searched accordingly. The interaction between mantrailers and area search dogs increases the efficiency of the search for missing persons. However, depending on the situation and the requester, only mantrailers or area search dogs are used to search for missing persons.

The Rhineland-Palatinate police reported back in 2004 about the successful training and commissioning of a Malinois male dog as the first person tracking dog, which differs from a classic tracking dog. In 2009, however, three service dogs , Bavarian Mountain Screeches , were presented as the first trained personal detection dogs in Rhineland-Palatinate. After pilot tests in 2004, the Bavarian police also used personal detection dogs . Since July 2009, the North Rhine-Westphalia police have been using trained mantrailers as service dogs. A total of six teams were trained in a two-year training course. The two-year training of three dogs began at the Lower Saxony police in October 2010. The police of the Free State of Saxony also began training four dogs in 2010. Three Bloodhounds and one Beagle have been in use since 2013.

There are also numerous mantrailer teams that offer their services without the required training and without a professional exam. In this context, warnings are given against their unrealistic statements about the durability of traces of smell. The lack of standards for training and practical work in Germany as well as inconsistent terminology are also criticized. In 2012, the Nuremberg-Fürth regional court ruled on the use of sniffer dogs as evidence. The criminal chamber specified requirements for such a mantrailer deployment in the Free State of Bavaria by the police. In the meantime, several judgments have been issued on the use of mantrailers of the Saxon police recognized by the courts, where the track age was several weeks.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. a b Thomas Baumann: Beware of the Mantrailer Part 1 in: Der Hund 2/2009 Deutscher Bauernverlag Berlin ISSN  0323-4924 pp. 32–35
  2. Sabine Ditterich: Mantrailing for each dog, ISBN 978-3-00-028887-6 , pp. 82, 83
  3. a b Mario Seydel: Mantrailing: Criminology's miracle weapon or dowsing for investigators? In: Criminology yesterday - today - tomorrow. Festschrift for the 10th anniversary of the German Society for Criminology . tape 4 . Richard Boorberg Verlag GmbH & Co KG, 2013, ISBN 978-3-415-05101-0 , p. 447-482 .
  4. a b c Thomas Baumann: Caution Mantrailer Part 2 in: Der Hund 3/2009 Deutscher Bauernverlag Berlin ISSN  0323-4924 P. 76-79
  5. a b c d Leif Woidtke: Mantrailing - facts and fictions . Self-published by the University of the Saxon Police (FH), Rothenburg / OL 2016, ISBN 978-3-938015-62-9 , p. 252, 213-214 .
  6. Leif Woidtke: Human individual odor as a forensic identifier . In: Christine Schüler, Klaus Püschel (Ed.): Faszinosum Spürhunde - Quo vadis? tape 30 . Publishing house Dr. Kovač, Hamburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-8300-8763-2 , p. 151-172 .
  7. Sandrine Tacher et al. : Olfactory Receptor Sequence Polymorphism Within and Between Breeds of Dogs . In: Journal of Heredity (Ed.): Journal of Heredity . tape 96 , no. 7 , p. 812-816 , doi : 10.1093 / jhered / esi113 ( ).
  8. Police RLP: Police Service Dogs - First person tracking dog in action. ( Memento of the original from February 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. December 22, 2004
  9. Bruch presents the first police detection dogs , ( memento of the original from October 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. October 21, 2009 on the website of the Rhineland-Palatinate state government
  10. Anouk has the right nose . In: Westfälische Nachrichten . January 16, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  11. Police NRW, U. Senff: State Secretary Brendel presents new Man Trailer. ( Memento of July 23, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) July 6, 2009
  12. Three person detection dogs for Lower Saxony's police Weser-Kurier digital, October 11, 2010
  13. A visit to the training of the mantrailer dogs . In: Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung , December 29, 2010
  14. ^ Leif Woidtke: Mantrailing at the police of saxony . In: Kwartalnik Policyjny . Vol 38, no. 3 , 2016, ISSN  1898-1453 , p. 70-77 ( ).
  15. Robert Hankowetz: Mantrailing use of sniffer dogs as evidence? . In: . Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  16. ^ LG Nürnberg-Fürth, December 13, 2012 - 13 KLs 372 Js 9454/12 . In: . December 13, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2016.