Golden retriever

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Golden retriever
Golden retriever
FCI Standard No. 111
Origin :

United Kingdom

Withers height:

Male: 56–61 cm.
Bitch: 51–56 cm

Breeding standards:


List of domestic dogs

The Golden Retriever is one of the FCI (No. 111, Gr. 8, Sec. 1) recognized dog breed from Great Britain . The current FCI standard dates from 2009.

The Golden Retriever belongs to the medium-sized dog breeds and was originally bred in Great Britain in the mid- 19th century for hunting in order to retrieve hunted water birds such as ducks undamaged .

Thanks to its gentle nature and easy handling, the Golden Retriever owes its popularity as a guide dog , tracking dog , search and rescue dog as well as being used as a hunting dog . The strong need to please the owner (“will to please”) has made the Golden Retriever one of the most popular family dog ​​breeds worldwide.

Origin and history of the breed

For a long time only little was known about the beginnings of breeding and the ancestors of today's Golden Retrievers; Until 1959 it was still certain that the dog breed descended from Russian circus dogs, which Dudley Marjoribanks, 1st Baron Tweedmouth had bought in England and brought to Guisachan in Scotland .

In 1952, Marjoribanks' methodological studbook records were found, which were submitted to the British Kennel Club ten years later . These records were approved by the Kennel Club in 1913 and are still held in the London office today.

According to the records, Marjoribanks mated his yellow wavy-coated retriever "Nous" with a now-extinct Tweed Water Spaniel named "Belle" in 1864 . He continued to breed this line until 1890, crossing another Tweed Water Spaniel, two black retrievers and an Irish Red Setter . Then the record of Marjoribanks ended, who died four years later.

In 1913 the breed was finally recognized by the British Kennel Club as a “yellow” or “golden” Retriever as a separate breed , and in the 1920s the official name of the breed was changed to Golden Retriever. That is why the British Kennel Club still functions as the breed bookkeeping association of the Golden Retriever. In the same year the British "Golden Retriever Club" was founded. The British Kennel Club standard is maintained in all countries except the USA and Canada.

The Scottish Lord and his dogs are remembered to this day, the property in Guisachan is regularly used as a location for golden retriever exhibitions and is revered by breed lovers as the original home of the breed.

The breed quickly gained popularity, especially in England, the United States and Canada, and in Germany at the beginning of the 1990s, mainly through frequent appearances in television commercials and films.

Today the Golden Retriever is one of the most popular and, according to the litter statistics of the responsible breed associations, the most frequent pedigree dogs in German-speaking countries. It is also widespread as a domestic dog in the Scandinavian and Benelux countries . Golden Retrievers can also be found in France, Brazil, Canada and the USA today.


British Golden Retriever
American golden retriever
Canadian golden retriever

The Golden Retriever is a medium-sized, strongly built breed with a dense, water-repellent, mostly wavy coat in the colors gold to cream with good feathering on the back of the forelegs, the underside of the tail, as well as in the chest and stomach area. Golden retrievers have muscular bodies and great stamina, which can be traced back to their origins as hunting and shooting dogs. The skull has a pronounced stop, a muscular neck and a deep, well-arched chest.

Due to the widespread historical popularity of the Golden Retriever, regional variations have arisen in the breed, which are primarily reflected in the external appearance of the dogs; even if the standards of the AKC ( American Kennel Club ) and the British KC ( The Kennel Club ) partly correspond verbatim.

British Golden Retriever

British-type golden retrievers are mostly found in Europe and Australia. According to the Kennel Club standard, the body should be harmonious and the back should have a straight upper line. Overall, a symmetrical, harmonious and powerful appearance is the breeding goal. The skull of the dogs is therefore wide, without appearing coarse, the stop is pronounced. The ears are medium-sized, set at eye level, and fall to about the height of the corner of the mouth. The eyelids, iris, lips and nose are always well pigmented , although the noses of a number of dogs turn a little lighter in color in winter. The Golden Retriever has a well developed, complete scissor bite . The eyes are round and dark, which is in contrast to the triangular or oblique composition of the American type. British Golden Retrievers can have a coat of any shade of gold or cream, not red or mahogany. As with the American line, white is an unacceptable color in the show ring.

American golden retriever

American Golden Retrievers are lankier and less muscular, but the females are a few centimeters taller (55–57 cm instead of 51–56 cm). Their fur is darker and comes in various shades of shiny gold with moderate feathering. When trotting they have a free, supple, powerful and well coordinated gait. The requirements of the American standard for proportion, head and skull, neck, body, topline, fore and hindquarters correspond to the standards of the British Golden Retriever. While the FCI does not provide any information on the ideal weight of the breed, the American Kennel Club sets itself at 30–34 kg for males and 24–30 kg for females.

Canadian Golden Retriever

The Canadian Golden Retriever has a thinner and darker coat and is larger than the British or American dogs of this breed: males reach a height at the withers of 58–61 cm, bitches 55–57 cm. The weight of the Canadian Golden Retriever is between 29 and 34 kg (males) and 27-32 kg (bitches).


The temperament of the Golden Retriever is a trademark of the breed and is described in the breed standard and by dog ​​owners as friendly, open-minded, curious, attentive and balanced. Golden Retrievers make good family dogs and are generally equally open to strangers and people they know, including other dogs, cats, and most farm animals.

Typical Golden Retrievers are active and fun-loving animals with the patience bred to wait quietly for hours in a hunting seat . Adult Golden Retrievers love to work and have the ability to focus on one task. Other traits related to their hunting heritage include a size suitable for getting in and out of the boat and an excessive love of the water.

Golden Retriever doing dummy work

Golden Retrievers are exceptionally good and easy to train because of their intelligence, athleticism, and desire to please their handlers. That is why they are often used as guide dogs, search and rescue dogs. Since dogs of the breed live from human society and dedicate their lives to their people, they are now also among the most popular family dogs.

The keeping of a golden retriever, like that of all hunting dogs, is exercise and training-intensive: dogs that are under-challenged and not supported in their work facilities tend to develop undesirable behavior. That is why it is extremely important to find something that goes beyond “normal walking” for both dog and owner. Tracking work , dummy training , activity in a rescue dog squadron or a dog sport that has something to do with nose work or retrieving are well suited for this.

Like almost every breed of dog, however, the uneducated or not professionally trained to hunt, Golden Retrievers can also tend to poach or roam. However, it is usually not wildly sharp .


Golden Retrievers are water-loving and often good swimmers.

The Golden Retriever was originally bred for hunting . To - you put him to birds shot - even from the water fetch ( Engl . To retrieve "return"). This is also where most of the dogs of this breed have a high affinity for water; they are usually very good swimmers.

Today the breed is best known for its balanced nature, its good compatibility with strangers. In terms of facilities, all retrievers are characterized by a pronounced human fixation, which, as far as it is encouraged and steered with a lot of empathy and the necessary consistency, can be trained to be easy to handle with many other dog breeds. This so-called “will to please” can lead the observer to believe that it is the greatest happiness for the dog to read all of his people's wishes from their eyes.

The described ease of handling combined with a high level of intelligence and adaptability have resulted in the Golden Retriever, in addition to its original use for hunting, being kept above average as a family and companion dog today.


The breed has a comparatively high life expectancy for a dog of this size at 10 to 14 years. However, this has decreased over the past 30 years. 7 percent of all golden retrievers die before the age of five, 13 percent before the age of 8, and 22 percent will not live to be 10 years old. International studies have found that this is primarily due to an increase in bone cancer, blood cancer and lymphatic tissue diseases; around 60 percent of all golden retrievers in America and 40 percent of all golden retrievers in Europe die from these cancers. Mast cell tumors also occur more frequently than average .

Several hereditary diseases are described for the Golden Retriever in the veterinary literature , which occur more frequently than average in the breed:

Individual evidence

  1. Golden Retriever - Detailed description of the breed . German Retriever Club eV. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  2. ^ Everything You Need to Know About the Golden Retriever ( EN ) May 14, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  3. a b Most Popular Dog Breeds - Full Ranking List ( EN ) AKC. May 28, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  4. a b Conheça as 10 raças de cães preferidas entre os brasileiros ( PT ) In: CachorroGato . Terra. December 16, 2013. Accessed February 19, 2020.
  5. a b Pedrigree dogs exposes - FAQs ( EN ) RSPCA. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  6. a b Top Twenty Breeds in Registration Order For the Years 2009 and 2010 ( EN , PDF) The Kennel Club. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  7. ^ TASSO statistics: The favorite breeds of the Germans . Tasso . Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  8. a b Breed history of the Golden Retriever . Golden Retriever Club eV. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  9. a b c Jeffrey G. Pepper: Kennel Club Classics: The Golden Retriever . CompanionHouse Books, 1984, ISBN 978-1-59378-686-1 (English).
  10. Origin of the Yellow Retriever ( EN ) Golden Retriever Club of America. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  11. American and British Golden Retrievers - the same breed? ( EN ) Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  12. a b Golden Retriever Breed Informations ( EN ) Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  13. Puppy Statistics Germany . VDH. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  14. FCI breed standard (PDF) FCI. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  15. English Cream Golden Retriever ( EN ) Golden Retriever Club of America. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  16. Official Standard for the Golden Retriever ( EN , PDF) The Kennel Club. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  17. Canadian Golden Retriever Breed Standard ( EN ) The Golden Retriever Club of Canada. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  18. ↑ Breed standard No. 111 of the FCI: Golden Retriever  (PDF)
  19. a b Appearance, nature, character: Everything about Golden Retrievers . Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  20. Golden Retriever - Golden family and working dog . Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  21. About the Golden Retriever ( EN ) American Kennel Club. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  22. Bruce Fogle: Golden Retriever (Dog Breed Handbooks) . DK ADULT, 1996, ISBN 978-0-7894-1066-5 (English).
  23. MK Guy, RL Page, WA Jensen, PN Olson, JD Haworth, EE Searfoss, DE Brown: The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study: establishing an observational cohort study with translational relevance for human health. In: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. Volume 370, number 1673, July 2015, p., Doi : 10.1098 / rstb.2014.0230 , PMID 26056371 , PMC 4581032 (free full text) (review).
  24. a b Life Expectancy: How Old Do Golden Retrievers Get? . Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  25. a b A. Egenvall, BN Bonnett, Hedhammar, P. Olson: Breed-Specific Age and Survival Patterns and Relative Risk for Causes of Death. In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 46, p. 121, doi : 10.1186 / 1751-0147-46-121 .
  26. V. Janutta and O. Distl: Review on canine elbow dysplasia: pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevalence and genetic aspects. In: Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift , 2008, 11 (5): 172-81. PMID 18547017
  27. FH. Comhaire and F. Snaps: Comparison of two canine registry databases on the prevalence of hip dysplasia by breed and the relationship of dysplasia with body weight and height. In: Am J Vet Res 2008, 69 (3): 330-3. PMID 18312130
  28. P. Srenk et al. Genetic basis of idiopathic epilepsy in golden retrievers In: Tierärztliche Praxis 1994, 22 (6): 574-8. PMID 7716756
  29. A. Jaggy et al. Genetic aspects of idiopathic epilepsy in Labrador retrievers. In: Journal of Small Animal Practice 1998, 39: 275-80. PMID 9673903
  30. SJ. Schatzberg et al. Alternative dystrophin gene transcripts in golden retriever muscular dystrophy In: Muscle Nerve 1998, 21 (8): 991-8, PMID 9655116
  31. CE. Ambrósio et al. Identification of three distinguishable phenotypes in golden retriever muscular dystrophy. In: Genet Mol Res 2009, 8 (2): 389-96. PMID 19440974
  32. GB. Hunt: Effect of breed on anatomy of portosystemic shunts resulting from congenital diseases in dogs and cats: a review of 242 cases. In: Australian Veterinary Journal 2004, 82 (12): 746-9, PMID 15648933
  33. SE. Long and SM. Crispin: Inheritance of multifocal retinal dysplasia in the golden retriever in the UK. In: The Veterinary Record 1999, 145 (24): 702-4, PMID 10638798
  34. Susanne Massmann et al .: Canine juvenile cellulitis In: Kleintierpraxis 60 (2015), pp. 129–135.

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