Dog breeds in the FCI system
The Fédération Cynologique Internationale , the largest international cynological umbrella organization , systematizes the dog breeds recognized by it by dividing them into groups and sections, some of which are subdivided again. A sortable list of all breeds can be found under List of FCI Dog Breeds .
Presentation of the system
The division of the races into groups and sections
- Group 1: Herding dogs and cattle dogs (excluding Swiss Mountain Dogs) (see category: FCI Group 1 )
- Group 2: Pinschers and Schnauzers - Molossoids - Swiss Mountain Dogs and other breeds (see category: FCI Group 2 )
Group 3: Terriers (see category: FCI group 3 )
- Section 1: Tall terriers
- Section 2: Low-legged terriers
- Section 3: Bulllike Terriers
- Section 4: Dwarf Terriers
Group 4: Dachshunds (see category: FCI group 4 )
- Section 1: Dachshund
- Group 5: Spitz and primitive type dogs (see category: FCI group 5 )
- Group 6: hounds, sweat dogs and related breeds (see category: FCI group 6 )
- Group 7: Pointing dogs (see category: FCI group 7 )
- Group 8: Retriever dogs - Rook dogs - Water dogs (see category: FCI group 8 )
Group 9: Society and assistance dogs (see category: FCI Group 9 )
- Section 1: Bichons and related breeds
- 1.1 Bichons
- 1.2 Coton de Tuléar
- 1.3 Petit chien lion
- Section 2: Poodle
- Section 3: Small Belgian breeds of dogs
- 3.1 Griffons
- 3.2 Petit Brabancon
- Section 4: Hairless Dogs
- Section 5: Tibetan Dog Breeds
- Section 6: Chihuahueño
- Section 7: English Society Spaniel
- Section 8: Japanese Spaniels and Pekingese
- Section 9: Continental Miniature Spaniel , Russian Toy and Prague Ratter
- Section 10: Kromfohrländer
- Section 11: Small mastiff-like dogs
- Section 1: Bichons and related breeds
Group 10: Greyhounds (see category: FCI Group 10 )
- Section 1: Long-haired or feathered greyhounds
- Section 2: Wire-haired greyhounds
- Section 3: Shorthaired Greyhounds
Definition of the group
The group was defined in 1983 by Raymond Triquet as "the entirety of breeds that have a certain number of hereditary distinctive traits in common".
Breed standard numbers
In the process of recognition by the FCI, the breed standards submitted by the member associations are given unique numbers. The list of recognized breeds currently includes 346 standards (October 2018). Numbers 18 ( Basset d'Artois ), 23 ( Levesque ), 26 ( Chambray ), 27 ( Normand-Poitevin ), 29 ( Artésien Normand ), 69 ( Chien de Trait Belge ), 79 ( Braque Belge ), 112 ( Gråhund ), 174 ( Griffon à Poil Laineux ), 178 ( Braque Dupuy ), 210 ( Harlequin Pinscher ), 256 (Japanese Middle-size Dog), 258 ( Sanshu ), 275 ( Rastreador Brasileiro ) and 280 ( Steinbracke ) were deleted, the highest Number is 361 ( Segugio Maremmano ). Under the standard with the number 21 ( Gascon Saintongeois ) two breeds are listed: 21 Grand Gascon Saintongeois and 21 (b) Petit Gascon Saintongeois .
Origin and Patronage
Each breed of dog belongs to a specific member country of the FCI. This country is known as the country of origin of the breed. The breed association of the country of origin creates the breed standard for each breed, which is approved by the FCI and published in the four official languages of the FCI. For breeds whose country of origin does not belong to the FCI, either a national breed association or the FCI itself takes on the patronage and fulfills the relevant tasks towards the FCI. Origin and patronage of the breed are indicated in the respective breed standard.
System around 1950
The classification of the FCI breeds, which came into force in the 1950s, is described by the French cynologist Yves Surget in 1988 as follows: “The old nomenclature comprised ten breed groups. The first group consisted of the herding dogs, with and without a working trial. The second group was that of guard and protection dogs (Molossians, mountain dogs, various Spitz breeds), also with and without a working trial. The third group consisted of the terriers, the fourth group was reserved for the dachshunds, while the fifth and sixth groups were dedicated to the hounds for big game and the hounds for small game. Finally, in the seventh group there were the hunting dogs, the non-British pointing breeds, and in the eighth group there were the British pointing, retrieving and spaniel breeds. The ninth group consisted of companion or companion dogs and the tenth group were the greyhounds. "
It was a classification that was essentially based on the use of the respective races for the division into 10 groups. Before that, a division into 11 groups was common.
Origin of the system from 1987
The currently valid nomenclature of the dog breeds in the FCI was decided by the General Assembly of the FCI in June 1987 in Jerusalem. It is based on a proposal by Raymond Triquet. At the time, he was a lecturer at the University of Lille III and a judge at the French association for dog breeding Société Centrale Canine (SCC). In 1981 he was commissioned by the FCI Breeding Commission to reform the nomenclature of dog breeds. Triquet is based, among other things, on the classification of Pierre Mégnin from 1897 (see dog breed , historical systematics ) and Raoul Baron's criteria for the physique of dogs. He replaced the use-oriented classification with a division into groups and subgroups of dogs that correspond to the same type and suggested that they be classified on the basis of common characteristics.
The new distribution of the races into ten groups was based on related morphological characteristics and similar abilities, but also took administrative requirements into account.
Provisionally accepted races
FCI member countries can submit applications to these to recognize new breeds. With the accepted application, a provisional number of a breed standard is also assigned. The breeds are then considered “provisionally accepted breeds” and are entitled to take part in competitions according to the FCI regulations, but are excluded from the CACIB .
The following breeds are provisionally accepted by the FCI (breed with standard number and date of acceptance; as of November 2019):
- Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog (351) July 6, 2005
- Thai Bangkaew Dog (358) April 14, 2011
- Lancashire Heeler (360) May 1, 2016
- Segugio Maremmano (361) March 1, 2018
- Anjing Kintamani-Bali (Kintamani-Bali Dog) (362) February 20, 2019
- Prague Ratter (363) April 29, 2019
- Bohemian Shepherd Dog (364) April 29, 2019
- Yakutskaya Laika (365) September 04, 2019
- Estonian Hound (366) September 04, 2019
- Miniature American Shepherd Dog (367) September 04, 2019
Raymond Triquet: For a component-related definition of group, breed and variety.
- Quoted from: Yves Surget: The nomenclature of dog breeds. In: SCC Informations Ausg. 17, 1st quarter 1988. , published in: In: The current nomenclature of the races of the FCI: who, how and when? Part 1/2. FCI Newsletter No. 18 of December 20, 2013.
Yves Surget: The nomenclature of dog breeds. In: SCC Informations Issue 17, 1st quarter 1988.
- Published in: In: The current breed nomenclature of the FCI: who, how and when? Part 1/2. FCI Newsletter No. 18 of December 20, 2013.
- Raymond Triquet: The FCI Breed Nomenclature, thirty years later, by its author. In: The current breed nomenclature of the FCI: who, how and when? Part 2/2. FCI Newsletter No. 19 of February 28, 2014.
- Breeds provisionally recognized by the FCI. Retrieved November 3, 2019.