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Giant Schnauzer (FCI 181)
(Middle) Schnauzer (FCI 182)
Miniature Schnauzer (FCI 183)
FCI Standard No. 181, 182, 183
1.2 Schnauzer
Origin :


Alternative names:


  • Giant Schnauzer (181)
  • Schnauzer (182)
  • Miniature Schnauzer (183)
Withers height:

see description


see description

List of domestic dogs

Schnauzers are wire-haired domestic dogs with a strong mustache and thick eyebrows. There are three breeds of different sizes: the Giant Schnauzer , the Medium Schnauzer and the Miniature Schnauzer .

In the systematics of the FCI they are listed under No. 181, 182 and 183, Group 2, Section 1.2 . The origin of the three races is Germany .

Origin and history

Wire-haired pinscher and wire-haired miniature pinscher, drawn by Jean Bungartz in 1884

Schnauzers and pinschers are basically the same breed type. They only differ in the structure of their fur. Originally the Schnauzer type prevailed, i.e. the rough-haired type, although at that time he was called the wire-haired pinscher. Nowadays, both Schnauzers and Pinschers are further divided into three breeds of different sizes.

The Schnauzer originally comes from Württemberg and is of old origin, which goes back to the medieval beaver dog and the local shepherd dogs .

Originally the little schnauzer was used as a stable dog in southern Germany, he eagerly ambushed rats and mice, which earned him the name " Rattler ". When the Pinscher Schnauzer Club was founded in 1895, he was listed as a wire-haired pinscher. His hair is wiry, hard and thick in the ceiling and medium hard on the legs, beard and eyebrows. There are the colors pure black and pepper-salt for all three breeds (sizes) and additionally for the dwarfs the colors white and black-silver.

Giant schnauzer

The giant schnauzer originally lived as a shepherd and watchdog on the large alpine pastures. He also defended wagons from possible attackers. For a while he was called the “sooty (black) bear schnauzer”.

Since 1925 it has been recognized as a German police and service dog breed.

The Giant Schnauzer is a very alert, intelligent and sensitive dog that tends to be suspicious of strangers. In his family, however, he is very affectionate and needs attention. Since the giant schnauzer used to accompany carts on their long journeys, it needs a lot of exercise and activity, but also enough rest.

Giant Schnauzers are very sturdy and muscular dogs. The size varies from 60 to 70 cm. Giant Schnauzers can weigh around 35–50 kg. As with most large dog breeds, the Giant Schnauzer also has the hereditary disease hip dysplasia . However, the percentage of dogs affected is relatively small.

The fur, in black or pepper and salt, is very easy to care for: it is hard and wiry. The fur needs to be trimmed regularly . Properly cared for, the dog will lose less hair.

In Germany the Pinscher-Schnauzer-Klub 1895 e. V. the only one from the Association for German Dogs . V. (VDH) recognized breed association and therefore responsible for the standard of the breed.

Medium Schnauzer

The Mittelschnauzer (also called Standard Schnauzer or simply Schnauzer) is the original type of the breed and has long been popular in Munich, where it accompanied carts and lived with the horses in the stable. The dogs had to defend the goods as well as the belongings of their owners reliably and confidently, which is still reflected in the behavior of the Schnauzer today. The medium schnauzer becomes 45 to 50 cm tall and weighs 15 to 18 kg. It is available in black and pepper-salt.

Miniature Schnauzer

Miniature Schnauzer in the run

The Miniature Schnauzer has been bred since 1880. The Miniature Schnauzer is a scaled-down copy of the Schnauzer, without the defects of dwarf breeds. According to the breed standard, he is small, strong, stocky rather than slim, wire-haired and elegant. Another feature is the square construction, with the height at the withers roughly equal to the length of the body. The size is 33 to 38 cm for males and 30 to 35 cm for females. The weight of an adult miniature schnauzer is four to eight kilograms. Approved colors are pure black with black undercoat, pepper and salt, black and silver and pure white with white undercoat. However, only about seven percent of the puppies are white.

The characteristics of the Miniature Schnauzer basically correspond to those of the Schnauzer, but are complemented by the typical temperament and demeanor of a small dog. As a result, the Miniature Schnauzer is alert and very vigilant. He is said to be smart and fearless. In dog encounters, he is often disrespectful and does not shy away from confrontation. The Miniature Schnauzer is initially suspicious and reserved towards strangers. Otherwise he has a robust, lively temperament.

The Miniature Schnauzer has a breed disposition for mucopolysaccharidosis type VI .


Giant Schnauzer at the protection service

The giant schnauzer is used as a service dog by the military, customs and police. In private hands you can find it in working dog sport . The breed is one of the recognized working dog breeds . Giant and medium schnauzers are also used as rescue dogs . Due to its balanced nature, the Schnauzer is also ideal as a guide dog and assistance dog.

In the private sector, Schnauzers are suitable for obedience and agility, among other things . Due to the excellent smelling performance, they are also successfully guided in tracking or mantrailing .

In addition to all these areas of application, Schnauzers are often kept as family dogs.


Schnauzers were used as rattlers to keep pens free of rats and mice. This task required the dogs to be brave, agile, nimble and persistent. Since the guarding of wagons and yards was one of the tasks of the breed, these dogs are characterized by their attentive, courageous, absolutely incorruptible and loyal nature. It is often aptly said that the schnauzer goes through fire for his family. These features characterize the Schnauzer. All Schnauzers need a very early and above all consistent upbringing, as many like to try to get their way when their position in the family is not clearly defined.


  • Hans Räber : Schnauzer. Everything you need to know about the Schnauzer - keeping, breeding, upbringing, exhibition, health care. Kynos-Verlag , Mürlenbach 1997, ISBN 3-929545-37-3 .
  • Rüdiger Bludau: The giant schnauzer. Practical advice on housing, care and upbringing. 3rd, revised edition. Parey, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-8263-8467-9 .

Individual evidence

  1. Hans Räber: Schnauzer. 1997, p. 82.
  2. a b c d e Doris Baumann: The Miniature Schnauzer . In: The dog . No. 4 , 2012, ISSN  0323-4924 , p. 13-17 .
  3. a b c d Breed standard No. 183 of the FCI: Miniature Schnauzer  (PDF)
  4. ^ Margret L. Casal: Hereditary diseases. In: Peter S. Suter and Barbara Kohn: Internship at the dog clinic. 10th edition, Paul Parey, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-8304-4141-0 , p. 194.
  5. Madleen Morina: The role of assistance dogs in the inclusion of people with disabilities in society. disserta, 2015, ISBN 9783954258666 p. 22
  6. Astrid Maritzen, Norbert Kamps: Rehabilitation for visual impairment and blindness . Springer 2013, ISBN 9783642298691 , p. 222

Web links

Commons : Schnauzer  - collection of images, videos and audio files