A pedigree dog is a dog that has been bred according to the guidelines of a cynological umbrella organization, in particular the breed standard and the pedigree certificate over several generations of ancestors of the same dog breed .
Pedigree dogs are usually bred in breed associations and are always entered in the stud book. The affiliation to a breed is documented by the pedigree of the respective breeding association , the so-called papers. When breeding the dogs, the breeding associations comply with the respective breed standard. Most of the breed associations in Germany belong to the Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen (VDH), which in turn is a member of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), a global umbrella organization for dog breeding and dog sports . There are uniform breed standards within the FCI. However, different associations in which the same breed is bred differ in their specific breeding goals. There are sometimes even within the associations different currents with different goals.
Pedigree dogs are demonstrably pure -bred dogs that have been bred over many generations . Pure breeding ensures a high phenotypic stability of the breed, so that the offspring of pedigree dogs in turn (with a very high probability) correspond to the breed standard. In pedigree dogs, the genes for many traits are inherited .
In the understanding of the breed associations (i.e. especially in the understanding of the rules of the VDH and the FCI), all dogs are considered mixed breeds that do not have a pedigree from a recognized breed association. This also includes, for example, offspring of two parent animals of the same breed if they have not been bred according to the breeding rules or if they have exclusive characteristics (e.g. color defects ).
For some years now, molecular markers have been used to determine the origin and breed of a dog on a genetic basis.
- Erik Zimen : The dog. Descent, behavior, people and dogs (= Goldmanns Taschenbücher. 12397). Full paperback edition. Goldmann, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-442-12397-6 .
- Erik Zimen: The dog. Descent, behavior, people and dogs. 1992.
- Bärbel Gunreben, Stefanie Hölzer and Elisabeth Müller: Genetic Breed Assignment of Dogs