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Viehschau Kempten 1896.jpg

The stud book (also herd book or breeding stud book ) is an orderly compilation of certified pedigree certificates of breeding animals , domestic animal breeds , animal families or animal phyla , kept by a breeding association .

The animal husbandry has to know a lot of interest, the origin of breeding animals, because their offspring will have more secure the required properties more purer parents and ancestors of the animal concerned in the particular race are continuously grown, and the more pronounced this had the estimable Rasseeigentümlichkeiten. Through inbreeding and line breeding , however, breed typical genetic diseases are also increasing; For example, the dog's hip dysplasia has a frequency ( prevalence ) of over 50 percent, depending on the dog breed (see also Qualzucht ).


The first known stud books date from the 2nd millennium BC. For example, there are stud books in the Hittite language from the 14th century BC. In England the first modern stud book was created in 1793 with the General Stud Book , which has been continued to the present day and contains the pedigree of the English thoroughbred horses. The first German stud book for horse breeding was the North German Stud Book from 1842.

In 1868 the Association for the Improvement of Cattle Oldenburg Breed was founded in the Kingdom of Saxony , which created the first known stud book, the herd book for pure breeding of the Oldenburg dairy breed in the Kingdom of Saxony .

Starting from the English horse breeding, numerous breeding associations for domestic animals developed in the 19th century, which created herd or pedigree books. The first breeding book for wild animals was the breeding book for bison , which was run by the International Society for the Conservation of bison, which was founded in 1923 and based on the years of work of Kurt Priemel , the then director of the Frankfurt Zoo , and Ludwig Zukowsky , the scientific employee of the pet shop Carl Hagenbeck , could fall back. After 1945 the management of the stud book was transferred to the Warsaw Zoo . The second stud book for wild animals was the stud book for Przewalski horses , the only subspecies of the wild horse that has survived in its pure form to this day. It was initially run by Erna Mohr and handed over to the Prague Zoo in 1959 on the occasion of the 1st International Symposium on the Conservation of Wild Horses , where it is still run today.

In the years that followed, various zoos around the world took over the management of herd books for endangered species. For example, Tierpark Berlin keeps the stud books for African wild asses , half donkeys , Vietnam sika deer and Mesopotamian fallow deer , Zoo Leipzig the stud books for Siberian tigers , anoas and maned wolves , Zoo Helsinki the stud book for snow leopards and Zoo Rostock the stud book for polar bears .

Cattle breeding

From 1860 onwards, breeding organizations and associations were founded in various German countries as well as in Holland and the USA to improve the performance of dairy cattle. The first breeding associations had a closed herdbook within their area of ​​distribution. Animals from other breeding areas were not included in the herdbook. In addition to the milk performance test , animal shows were important for further breeding work from the start. These were initially bred to a uniform phenotype .

From the 1960s, the herd books of the breeding associations for dairy animals were opened. In particular, the German Holstein breed was a pioneer, using male and female Holstein Friesians imported from the USA . The best-known sire, who spread widely through artificial insemination , was the bull Pabst Ideal . Almost all other dairy breeds followed later.

In herd books for beef cattle, a breeding value for meat use is included. The Angus and Wagyu breeds have a closed herdbook in which only animals with a complete pedigree are included.

Up until the 1980s, livestock breeding was subject to state controls, where special “animal breeding offices” were set up to implement the relevant laws and regulations. These first became a specialist department of the agricultural offices before they were completely dissolved at the end of the 1980s. Since then, breeding has been organized under private law.

Pig breeding

The breeding cooperative for the Meißner pig was founded in 1888 and kept the first herd book for pigs in the German-speaking area. Like many other original land races , it later became part of the German land race . After the pure breeding of pigs in favor of cross-breeding of fattening pigs from fertile mothers (German Landrace, Belgian Landrace or Danish Landrace ) and meat-rich sires ( Pietrain ) had been largely displaced since the 1960s, hybrid breeding has now endangered many old pig breeds and the herd books guarantee only maintenance breeding .

Purebred poultry farming

Within the Federation of German Racial Poultry Breeders (BDRG) there is the possibility to participate voluntarily in a stud book of the respective breed. In addition, several breeding rings keep their own stud book as part of maintenance breeding.

Dog breeding

The first stud book ("stud book") for pedigree dogs was published in 1873 by the English " The Kennel Club ". Today the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) is the largest international umbrella organization for dog breeding . It lays down rules for breeding and publishes its national member organizations' specifications on breed standards. In Germany, the Association for German Dogs (VDH) coordinates the various pedigree dog breed clubs.

Horse breeding

In horse breeding , mares are entered in the stud book and licensed stallions are entered in the stallion book.


  • Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition from 1888 to 1890
  • Heinrich Dathe : Registration offices for wild animals. On the history of the stud books. In: Urania. 3/1980, Leipzig / Jena / Berlin 1980, pp. 18-22.
  • Hellmuth Wachtel : Dog Breeding 2000 . healthy dogs through genetic management, population genetics for dog breeders and other cynologists, dog breeding based on genetic knowledge, the path to genetically healthy dog ​​breeds, the fate of genetically determined diseases. 3. Edition. Kynos Verlag, Mürlenbach 2007, ISBN 978-3-938071-32-8 , pp. 288 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Herd book  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Stud book  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Quail 2000
  2. HD statistics by breed on the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals website , accessed on January 31, 2013.
  3. a b c Wilfried Brade, Edwin Brade: Breeding history of the German Holstein cattle. In: Reports on Agriculture - Journal of Agricultural Policy and Agriculture. Volume 91, Issue 2, 2013 ( [1] ).
  4. Fleischrinder Verband Bayern: Guide to Herd Book Breeding (PDF), accessed on May 28, 2015.
  5. State Office for the Environment, Agriculture and Geology (ed.): On the development of pig breeding and production in the state of Saxony 1850–2000. In: Series of publications by the Saxon State Agency for Agriculture. Issue 1, 2003, p. 9 ( publications.sachsen.de ).
  6. ^ Stud book of the Federation of German Purebred Poultry Breeders , accessed on November 7, 2015.
  7. Five breeding rings within the Initiative for the Conservation of Old Poultry Breeds , accessed on November 7, 2015.
  8. ^ Anne Rogers Clark, Andrew H. Brace: The International Encyclopedia of Dogs . Howell Book House, New York 1995, ISBN 0-87605-624-9 , p. 8: “In the strictest sense, dog breeds date back only to the last couple of decades of the nineteenth century, or to more recent decades in this (the twentieth) century but distinct types of dogs have existed centuries earlier. "