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Dysplasia (from ancient Greek δυσ- dys- 'miss-, un-' and πλάσσειν plassein , 'form, form'; modern Greek δυσπλασία dysplasía ) in general terms in medicine a malformation or malposition .

This term is also understood to be reversible changes in cells, tissues and organs which are characterized on the one hand by atypical growth processes and loss of differentiation . The transitions to anaplasia are fluid. On the other hand, aplasia is also to be regarded as dysplasia, which, however, in contrast to agenesis, is characterized by the non-development of an organ despite the presence of an organ.

When looking at the fine tissue structure of an organ, the term dysplasia is understood to mean a deviation of the tissue structure from the normal picture. If dysplasias appear more frequently in the microscopic examination results of a histological examination , these can be precancerous stages .

Moderate and severe dysplasias are classified as precancerous lesions , which are precursors of a malignant tumor .


General malformations

Skeletal and connective tissue dysplasias

The dysplasias of the skeleton and connective tissue are systemic disorders of the bone and cartilage tissue . Thus, they are not organ - but tissue defects.

Special tissue dysplasia as a precancerous stage

  • Epithelial dysplasia of the skin
  • Dysplasia of pigment cells in the skin ( dysplastic nevus )
  • Epithelial dysplasia of the gastric and esophageal mucosa
  • Epithelial dysplasia of the bronchial mucosa
  • Epithelial dysplasia of the cervix ( cervix uteri )
  • Epithelial dysplasia of the vulva ( vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia )
  • Thyroid cell dysplasia

See also


  • Elsevier, Lingen (Ed.): Medicine. Human. Health . Approved special edition. Elsevier (content), Munich; Helmut Lingen Verlag (Ed.), Cologne 2006.