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Mainau Island (2018)
Mainau Island (2018)
Waters Überlinger See , Lake Constance
Geographical location 47 ° 42 '18 "  N , 9 ° 11' 43"  E Coordinates: 47 ° 42 '18 "  N , 9 ° 11' 43"  E
Mainau (Baden-Wuerttemberg)
length 1.1 km
width 610 m
surface 44.758 4  ha
Highest elevation Grand Duke Friedrich Terrace
425  m above sea level NN
Residents 185 (2008)
413 inhabitants / km²
main place Mainau Island (part of the municipality)

The island of Mainau , mentioned as Mav (e) no (w) , Maienowe (1242) or Maienow (1357), Maienau , Mainowe (1394) and Mainaw (1580), is the third largest island in Lake Constance with an area of ​​around 45 hectares . The Molassekalkfelsen is located in the north-western part of Lake Constance called Überlinger See . It can be reached from the south bank of the Überlinger See over a bridge and has a jetty, which is served by scheduled and excursion ships of the White Fleet . The next bigger cities areConstance , Meersburg and Überlingen . The island belongs to the Litzelstetten -Mainau district of the city of Konstanz and has been owned by the non-profit "Lennart Bernadotte Foundation" founded by Count Lennart Bernadotte since 1974 . The count's family is still an important part of Mainau's attraction to this day. The island lies on the Upper Swabian Baroque Route .



The island lies at an altitude between 395 (sea level at medium water level) and 425 meters above sea level. According to the official maps, the highest point is at the Großherzog-Friedrich-Terrasse (historic water reservoir on the Vogelherd ). Its north-south extension is 610 meters, its greatest width (west-east) around 1050 meters. The circumference of the island is around three kilometers. The shortest distance from the sunken molasse plaice to the lake shore is 130 meters.


The island of Mainau has only a few inhabitants, Meyer's Konversationslexikon from 1888 gave a population of 28. At the 1961 census, the population was 123. Björn Graf Bernadotte lives on the island of Mainau.


Parks and gardens

Island plan
Entrance to Mainau Island from the jetty
Location of Mainau in the urban area of ​​Constance
Allmannsdorf district
plan from 1885 shows the island of Mainau as well as the St. Katharinen monastery as separate districts next to Allmannsdorf, with separately identified areas
Metasequoien avenue laid out in 1959/1960 (May 2006)

Due to the favorable Lake Constance climate, palm trees and other Mediterranean plants grow on the teardrop-shaped island . Because of its rich subtropical and partly tropical vegetation , Mainau is also known as the “flower island in Lake Constance”. Count Lennart Bernadotte , who died in 2004, liked to call his island the "flower ship". He also described the well-known destination, which is accessible to visitors for an entrance fee, in the following words:

"She is a flirtatious little lady, this Mainau, who always and constantly demands great attention, even more love and, above all, incessantly new clothes."

- Lennart Bernadotte

With the “new clothes” he may have initially meant the flower cover that is repeatedly woven by gardeners.

In addition to the historical buildings, the heart of the "Flower Island" is the park-like arboretum, which was laid out by Grand Duke Friedrich I from 1856, with its 500 different species of sometimes rare and valuable deciduous and coniferous trees. Among them is one of the oldest primeval sequoias ( Metasequoia glyptostroboides ) in Germany. The tree, which comes from China, was planted in 1952 as a 70 centimeter sapling in the bank garden. Some specimens of the giant sequoia ( Sequoiadendron giganteum ) are particularly powerful . The seeds of these trees came from California in 1853, and in 1864 Frederick I had numerous trees planted on the Mainau. This makes them one of the oldest of their kind in Europe. In addition to the giant sequoia trees, there are cedars , metasequoias and tulip trees . The arboretum extends northwest of the castle on the plateau.

In spring, at the end of March / beginning of April, the flower year begins on the Mainau in the palm house with a large orchid show . From late March to mid-May, tulips , daffodils and hyacinths bloom on the Mainau . For this purpose, thousands of tulip, daffodil and hyacinth bulbs were planted in the eastern part of the island on the so-called "spring avenue" parallel to the path. Pansies , forget-me-nots and primroses also thrive on the island in spring .

In the transition period from May to June, the flowers of the 200 rhododendrons and azaleas appear . To the west of the Comturey cellar you come to the rose garden, also laid out in the Italian style by Grand Duke Friedrich I. The so-called "Italian rose garden" is a strictly geometric complex with pergolas , sculptures and fountains . In summer, the scent of some 500 different infatuated rose varieties , especially Floribunda roses. There are around 30,000 rose bushes of 1200 varieties across the island. A baroque staircase leads up to the castle terrace with a great view.

The "spring avenue" leads to the "Mediterranean terraces" with their exotic potted plants, where palm trees , agaves , cacti and bougainvillea are shown in summer . From here you have a panorama of the Lake Constance landscape. In July the angel's trumpet and hibiscus flowers appear on the Mainau, and those of the passion flowers in August .

The “south garden” spreads to the south, where the dahlia fields with around 20,000 dahlia bushes of 250 varieties bloom from September to October . In the bank garden to the east, spring and summer flowers grow, including a collection of different species of fuchsia . A popular photo motif is the Lake Constance relief, a flower image in the form of Lake Constance that is differently designed according to the season.

On the north side of the island is the small port with a ship landing stage, where the excursion boats dock and there is another entrance.

Butterfly with transparent wings in the butterfly house

In the year-round butterfly house on the island, with around 1000 square meters the second largest of its kind in Germany, visitors can walk between 25 ° C and 30 ° C and 80 to 90 percent humidity through a tropical-looking environment with waterfalls and exotic plants. Depending on the season, 700 to 1000 colorful moths and up to 80 different butterfly species, mainly of South American origin, fly freely between the visitors. Around a third of the butterfly species shown reproduce here naturally. But it is very different how many offspring there are. For these reasons the butterfly house receives weekly deliveries of 400 pupae from breeders in Costa Rica , England and Holland. The budget for new caterpillars is around 20,000 euros a year. The garden around the butterfly house was designed as a habitat for local butterflies. Attached is a scented garden with more than 150 types of scented plants.

In addition to the parks and gardens, there is a peacock enclosure , a petting zoo with goats and ponies, and some dining options.

For children there is the approximately 1,100 square meter Mainauer Kinderland "Wasserwelt", a playground with a 60 centimeter deep water basin that is framed by river stones with a total weight of around 130 tons. In the middle of the lake, which is filled with 170 cubic meters of water, lies an island. On the lake, the children can ride around on rafts or pull themselves over on a wooden ferry. All around are wooden houses as climbing frames, which, according to the planners, are intended to remind of the time of the pile dwellings. The houses are connected by suspension bridges and chain walkways. There are also water channels and extra mud tables. If a child should be too deeply immersed in the water world while playing, the two Mainau planners Matthias Wagner and Markus Zeiler have also taken precautions: A clothes dryer has been set up in a kiosk at the playground, in which the parents can dry wet clothes themselves. Like all other playgrounds, the play area is approved by TÜV SÜD and regularly inspected.


Teutonic Order Castle

The Teutonic Order Castle

The Teutonic Order Castle was started on the castle stables of Mainau Castle, which was demolished in the 18th century, according to the designs of Johann Caspar Bagnato (Giovanni Gaspare Bagnato) and under his construction management in 1739 and completed after seven years of construction. The three-wing baroque palace was laid out around a courtyard of honor and with a side terrace garden. On the central risalit of the western part there is a large coat of arms of Grand Master Clemens August von Bayern, Landkomtur Philipp von Froberg and Mainau Comtur Friedrich von Baden. A coat of arms of the Teutonic Order is attached to the east gable (sea side). The castle is still the residence of the count's family today. You can tell from the count's flag that is hoisted on the castle roof whether the count's family is present. The private rooms are in the north wing, i.e. on the left of the castle courtyard, in the inaccessible part of the castle. The centerpiece is the former audience hall, the so-called “White Hall”, which is kept in white and gold and which was given its current appearance in 1883. It is only open to the public for concerts or special events. Changing exhibitions are shown in the central wing. In the south wing there is a café with a terrace under the tall palm trees of the palace terrace.

The palm house, an elaborate glass construction, originally only had a building permit for the winter months - now it protects the trees all year round. More than 20 species of palm grow here, including a Canary Island date palm ( Phoenix canariensis ) more than 15 meters high , which was planted in 1888.

Castle Church

St. Marien Church, west facade

The new construction of the St. Marien Castle Church from 1732 to 1739 on the southeastern end of the island next to the castle is considered the first work of Bagnato's numerous church buildings. The castle church is a rectangular hall church, 20 meters long and 9.5 meters wide, with a semicircular altar house. Rectangular fields in raised sections structure the outer front, with the side walls having arched windows. A gable rises above the west wall and above it the tower structure with a curved tower dome.

Interior of the castle church

The interior is divided into a rectangular nave with the semicircular choir and the organ loft opposite the altar. It is furnished with altars, a pulpit and sculptures by Joseph Anton Feuchtmayer (1696–1770). Franz Joseph Spiegler (1691–1757) added the high altar painting and the ceiling frescoes in 1737/1738 . His works are embedded in the extensive stucco work by Francesco Pozzi (1704–1789). Johann Baptist Babel (1716–1799) contributed a Black Madonna to the decor. The two side altars have very moving angel figures. The left side altar is crowned by a figure of the martyr Sebastian, the right by one of St. Nepomuk. The altarpiece of the high altar shows Mary with the child, the holy family and John the Baptist. The ceiling frescoes also deal with the life of Mary. In the crypt is Bagnato's tomb. The castle church is considered the starting point of the Upper Swabian high baroque and is used as a wedding church.

The organ originally built by the Konstanz master Johann Michael Bihler (1687/88 - after 1763) and decorated by Feuchtmayer was sold in 1823 and replaced around 1860 by a new organ in the late classical style. The builder is not known. The Schleiferladen instrument has 11 registers on a manual (Principal 8 ', Bourdon 8', Violflute 8 ', Octave 4', Spillflute 4 ', Superoctave 2', Mixtur IV 1 13 ', Cornet III) and a pedal (Bourdon 16 ', violone 8', trombone 8 '). The actions are mechanical.

"Gardener's tower", "Comturey"

Gardener's tower in front of the castle

To the west of the baroque palace and church ensemble is the so-called “gardener's tower”. The walls, part of the medieval fortress, are in contrast to the festive castle facade. In the past, a vaulted cellar was carved deep into the rock for storage and the press room .

In the 2013/2014 renovated and expanded restaurant Comturey you can eat with a view of the lake.

Sweden Tower

On a slope on the south-western side of the island, the so-called Sweden Tower rises about twenty meters. The building is currently not open to the public.


Prehistory and early history

The first traces of early settlement on the shores of Lake Constance were found on the south bank of the island in 1862 and secured by domain administrator Walter in 1864. These included wedges, broken pots, fragments of flint, an ax and a rubstone. The pile dwelling settlement of six houses was uncovered in the 1930s and in the Neolithic (Neolithic) around 3000 BC. Dated. Neolithic and Bronze Age pile dwelling settlements were found along the north beach and southwest of the island in the shallow water zone.

Around 400 BC The Mainau was possibly a Celtic settlement area. Favored by its island location, it offered the settlers, presumably from the Helvetii tribe , natural protection. However, there is no evidence of settlement.


The Roman general Tiberius brought together with his younger brother Drusus in the years 15 to 13 BC. BC Raetia and Vindelicia in the north under Roman rule. The was the order of the Roman emperor Augustus , her stepfather, preceded by the submission of the Rhaetians ordered inhabited land around Lake Constance round. According to the ancient Greek historian Strabo , the year 15 BC BC Tiberius used a "small Lake Constance island" as a naval base in the sea ​​battle against the Vindeliker . Each of the four islands of that time ( Lindau , Mainau, Reichenau and Wasserburg ) was alternately mistaken for this island. After the safe departure of Lindau and Wasserburg, the Reichenau and the Mainau still remain, but in view of the numerous Roman finds, only the Mainau comes into question. This would mean that the Romans briefly used the island, not far from what would later become Constantia ( Konstanz ), for a fort , a shipyard and a smaller naval station for the Roman Bodensee war fleet of Tiberius, which had its headquarters in Brigantium ( Bregenz ). However, there is no evidence of settlement.

Middle Ages and Early Modern Times

After the Alemanni replaced the Romans on Lake Constance in the 4th century, they probably also settled on Mainau. Settlement documents up to the Middle Ages are missing. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the strategically valuable Mainau became an Alemannic ducal estate and later part of a Franconian royal estate administered from Bodman . The Mainau became a knight seat.

Reichenau Monastery

In the year 724, the island, along with other areas on the Bodanrück, was given as a gift to the mighty Reichenau Monastery , although the written sources do not provide any details about the building. The Mainau was given to the lords of Maienowe (Berthold von Maienowe mentioned in 1242 and 1257) and later to the nobles of Langenstein as a fief .

German medal

In 1271 the island was given to the Teutonic Order by the Ministerial Arnold von Langenstein, who resided in Reichenau, with his four sons Hugo , Berthold, Arnold and Hugo the Younger . Then two of his sons were accepted into the German Order. In 1272 a commander was established here. The monastery also had to come to terms with this estrangement, but was able to achieve in a contract that Sandegg Castle ( Thurgau / Switzerland) and other goods were returned. The Teutonic Order House, originally located in Sandegg, was relocated to Mainau, and the castle complex was expanded. At the beginning, the convent consisted of members of ministerial families of the Reichenau monastery and foreign nobles, as well as clergymen who did not have to be of noble origin.

The Kommende Mainau belonged to the Alsace and Burgundy Ballei . The Landkomtur, who was the direct superior of the Komtur, sat from 1235 to 1288 in Ruffach in Alsace, from 1288 to 1455 in Beuggen near Rheinfelden and from 1455 to 1806 in Altshausen . Thanks to a progressive civil service and with the increasing power of the commander, the influence of the order as a whole increased, which also applied to the Mainau commander. The Coming Mainau had developed into the wealthiest Coming of the Ballei thanks to a steady acquisition policy .

From 1272 Allmannsdorf, Litzelstetten, Dingelsdorf and from 1367 Dettingen and Wallhausen belonged to the "Mainau landscape". The Teutonic Order was able to enforce lower jurisdiction throughout the Mainau region . The high jurisdiction of Austria for the offices of Dettingen, Dingelsdorf and Litzelstetten was transferred to the Landkomtur of the Ballei Mainau around 1730 by means of a pledge (later "Eternal Pledge"). The high jurisdiction of the Landgrave von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg for the Allmannsdorf office was transferred to the Landkomtur der Ballei Mainau in 1777 by pledge and in 1783 by sale.

In the 16th century, Mainau was occupied by Austrian troops after the opening rights during the Schmalkaldic War (1546 to 1547). In the same century a watchtower was built on the island. The so-called " Sweden Tower " is dated to 1588.

During the Thirty Years' War (1618 to 1648), early in the morning of February 12, 1647, Swedish troops under the command of Carl Gustav Wrangel attacked the island with 17 heavily armored ships and 3000 soldiers. This was protected by double walls and was defended by 40 soldiers and a few servants of the commander. The outnumbered crew withdrew to the castle. This was taken under continuous fire from the ships' guns pulled ashore. The castle crew was incapable of fighting on the second day. On February 14, 1647, the commander-in-chief Johann Werner Humpis von Waltram accepted the (second) offer of the honorable withdrawal. After the Peace of Westphalia , the Swedes devastated the island in 1649 and withdrew with loot worth 4.5 million guilders (see Naval War on Lake Constance 1632–1648 ).

Crucifixion group Christ on the cross

With the occupation by the Swedes, the legend of the so-called "Swedish Cross" is associated. It is a cast bronze crucifixion group of Christ on the cross with the two thieves, life-size, naturalistic, on a late Renaissance stand at the entrance to the island. It is considered an expressive testimony of yet from the Gothic influenced mannerism on Lake Constance. The crucifixion group is said to have originally stood by the castle church and to have been thrown into the lake by the Swedes. It is said to have escaped the evacuation by the occupiers in a carriage with two harnessed horses because the crucifix on the mountain of Litzelstetten suddenly became so heavy that not even twelve horses could move it. It is also said that farmers then brought it back to its current location. There are two theories about the origin of the Swedes Cross: The first says that it was the "Teutonic Order Commander Schenk von Stauffenberg - reg. 1569–1577 - as a monument to the praise and honor of our Savior and Redeemer was erected ”, according to oral tradition after a successful sea voyage. The second says that the commandery had a gunmetal made from the remains of the cannons and placed next to the jetty in the lake as a souvenir and thanks for the repossession. It became an important pilgrimage destination.

18th and 19th centuries

Teutonic order in Mainau around 1800
Mainau island around 1820
Colored postcard (Gebhard Gagg)

After a slow recovery from the war, the famous builder of the Teutonic Order Johann Caspar Bagnato began building the baroque church of St. Mary in 1732 under Commander Reinhard Ignaz Franz Freiherr von Schönau (1731–1736). This was consecrated in 1739. Bagnato was commissioned to build a new castle in the same year. The walled castle was demolished for the new church and castle. It was apparently still in good condition, was on the steep bank in the east of the island and was supported by a high base. After seven years of construction, the Teutonic Order Castle was completed in 1746. The architect died in Mainau in 1757 and is buried in the church's crypt.

Grand Duchy of Baden

Due to the secularization under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806 , the German Order also lost the Mainau. The Teutonic Order was dissolved and all possessions fell to the newly founded Grand Duchy of Baden . When the "Landscape Mainau" was transferred from the Teutonic Order, the four communities Allmannsdorf , Dingelsdorf , Dettingen and Litzelstetten were transferred to the state of Baden according to a takeover protocol . The island of Mainau was the seat of a Baden domain office until 1827.

After the secularization, under changing owners from various Austrian, Swedish and English royal and ducal houses, the structures were integrated into a new landscaped garden with the demolition of farm buildings (at the rear of the main courtyard and southeast of the church).

In 1827 the Hungarian Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy de Galantha bought Mainau for 65,000 guilders from Grand Duke Ludwig I of Baden . He began at great expense with the containment of the island, the planting of valuable trees and the settlement of numerous rare plants. But he could not hold the island long and in 1830 he left it to his illegitimate son, Baron von Mainau. From this, Mainau came through purchase to the heiress of Grand Duke Ludwig von Baden, who elevated this lady and her two children to the rank of count and endowed them with the property and name of the extinct family of the noble von Langenstein. Under this owner, the island began to be connected to the mainland not only by the jetty but also by a stone dam. In 1853 the Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden bought Mainau as a summer residence from her daughter Louise, who had married the Swedish Count Douglas .

The old footbridge was replaced by a trestle bridge in 1853 and a second bridge in 1977.

Friedrich set up the Grand Ducal Baden court gardening company on the island and had the island and the palace gardens redesigned by his court gardener Chr. Schlichter and above all by his successor Ludwig Eberling , who was in the service of the Grand Duke for 42 years from 1856. So were Mediterranean and exotic plants procured, alleys, gardens, arboretum created and a new way system. The island owes its current appearance to Friedrich's visions and ideas as well as the skill of his court gardener. At that time the focus was on the arboretum, the “Italian rose garden” and the orangery . Even then, visitors came to Mainau. They had to report to the court gardener, who then humbly asked the Grand Duke for permission.

In 1856 the Grand Duke married Princess Luise of Prussia , daughter of the future Emperor Wilhelm I. They became the great-grandparents of Count Lennart Bernadotte. They spent their honeymoon at the Mainau summer residence. During his reign, the Grand Duke had a number of over- portals from the Karlsruhe Palace moved to his summer residence. In 1862 the Grand Duke planted a " Victoria linden tree" out of joy at the birth of his daughter .

Ludwig Eberling died in 1898 in the “Gärtnerturm” in Mainau. Victor Nohl was his successor as court gardener.

20th century

Mainau in August 1979
Mainau (2010)

In 1907 Friedrich I died at the age of 81 on the Mainau. In the same year the island fell to his son, Grand Duke Friedrich II of Baden . Even if it was initially left to decay, the foundation stone for the much-vaunted "Flower Island" was laid during the reign of his father. Even after the end of the monarchy of the Baden Princely House in 1918, the island remained in the family's possession; the latter decided that Mainau should belong to the political municipality of Litzelstetten instead of to the municipality of Allmannsdorf (which was incorporated into Konstanz on January 1, 1915). Until 1923, Mainau was the widow's seat of Grand Duchess Luise von Baden.

Swedish royal family

Friedrich II. Von Baden died on August 9, 1928. Since he was childless, he bequeathed the island to his sister Viktoria von Baden . In 1881 she had married the Crown Prince Gustav of Sweden and Norway, who had been King Gustav V of Sweden since 1907 ; so this inheritance came into the possession of the Swedish royal family in 1928. In 1930, after Viktoria's death, Mainau fell as intended to her younger son Prince Wilhelm of Sweden . However, this one had no use for them. At that time the castle was musty and full of vermin, the park was overgrown and resembled a jungle.

Lake Constance relief made of flowers (August 2018)

In 1932, Prince Wilhelm of Sweden transferred the administration of Mainau to his 23-year-old son, Prince Lennart Bernadotte , who had already spent many summer weeks on the island in his youth. Lennart rose to the challenge and took pleasure in restoring the Mainau as a flower paradise.

Time of the Bernadottes - the touristic Mainau

When Lennart Bernadotte renounced all titles and a possible succession to the throne in 1932 after leaving the Swedish royal family because of his marriage to the bourgeois Karin Nissvandt , he withdrew to the Mainau and made the island his new home. Thanks to his initiative, it was soon accessible to visitors, but not with free entry. During the time of National Socialism , it experienced a tourist boom, which was also promoted by leisure organizations such as “ Kraft durch Freude ” (KdF). In 1935 50,000 people visited the island.

Second World War

During the Second World War, Bernadotte - he stayed in his neutral homeland from 1939 to 1946 - leased Mainau in the summer of 1943 to the Organization Todt (OT), the technical department of Albert Speer's armaments ministry , which made a rest home in southern Germany for senior officers and industrialists who wanted to set up armaments. She renovated the castle and furnishings and procured furniture from France. Three wooden barracks were set up at the "Schwedenschenke" for the staff. In fact, the island was never used by the OT as planned, the rest home was never realized because of the approaching Allied troops. In the autumn of 1944, the barracks were assigned to French collaborators around Jacques Doriot . By the end of the war, his leadership group of 100 to 200 people, starting from Mainau, tried to organize resistance against “communist-Gaullist” rule in France: all French groups on German soil were supposed to submit to him, after a reconquest of France he was head of government intended. A radio station was made available to him, he brought out the newspaper Le Petit Parisien in Constance, and he was already planning acts of sabotage in France. In early 1945 he proclaimed a French liberation committee on the Mainau in order to “liberate France from the rule of the Gaullists and Communists”.

After the war, Lennart gave Bernadotte for the book Die Mainau. Chronicle of a Paradise from 1977 provides an explanation for this lease: The contract came about due to coercion, they wanted to expropriate it in order to present the island to the armaments minister Albert Speer after the final victory. But trade with the National Socialists is different: The offer was not inconvenient for Bernadotte, as tourism was restricted after the outbreak of war in 1939. Despite wartime, he was allowed to rake in a considerable lease, and the maintenance of the site was also taken care of. Neither the Mainau administrator nor the armaments minister had any report of coercion.

post war period

Flowers on the island
The Italian water staircase (spring 2010)

On April 27, 1945, the French troops reached the island. It was confiscated on May 16, 1945 by General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny . From May 18, 1945, it served for a few months as a sanatorium and quarantine for around 8,000 French former inmates of the Dachau concentration camp who were seriously ill, suffered from typhus and dysentery . For this he had the islands of Reichenau and Mainau evacuated by the German population in mid-May 1945 and occupied with sick prisoners. 4,000 French prisoners came to Lake Constance, the majority to Reichenau. The Mainau palace complex was primarily reserved for the seriously ill. 33 of them died and were buried on the island. The hospital was closed on September 15, 1945.

At Count Bernadotte's insistence, the idyllic flower island should not keep any traces of its dark chapter: In 1946, when the French had left, he had the 33 corpses exhumed, reburied in a French military department of the Constance cemetery and finally transferred to France. In March 1946, Bernadotte set up a camp for the Christian Association of Young Men in the former barracks . In 1951 the barracks were torn down, only the foundation walls can still be seen.

Bernadotte wanted compensation and claimed that the Dachau concentration camp inmates had stolen some silverware and various art paintings and antiques from his apartment. The French allies, fearing diplomatic complications, took the case very seriously. However, it was mainly Germans who had taken advantage of the time of need to steal inventory. The concentration camp inmates are still waiting in vain for an apology from the Count's House.

Redesign of the Mainau

Lennart Bernadotte bought the island from his father Wilhelm in 1951. From then on he devoted himself consistently to the redesign of Mainau, the park design changed permanently. In the post-war years, Count Bernadotte was forced to open the island to the public in order to guarantee the preservation of the spacious property. He worked consistently to make the island even more attractive for gardeners and tourists, and the infrastructure was gradually improved. The manor building was soon called the Schwedenschänke , and the castle, church and other buildings shone in new splendor. Additional gardens were created, including the "Italian Water Staircase", the "Garden for Everyone" and a nature discovery trail.

In 1955, the island was the scene of the Mainau rally , at which Otto Hahn and Lennart Bernadotte read the German and English text of a declaration against the use of nuclear weapons.

On April 20, 1961, the Mainau adopted the Green Charter , which was important in the field of nature and landscape protection in Germany.

Lennart Bernadotte Foundation

Lennart Bernadotte Foundation logo.svg

In order to avoid inheritance disputes with the children from Count Lennart's first marriage and to secure his work "Insel Mainau" for the future, Count Lennart and Countess Sonja Bernadotte brought the island and all of their properties to the Lennart- named after him on December 13, 1974 . Bernadotte Foundation . Before that, the Lennart Bernadotte Foundation, based in Constance, acquired its legal capacity on June 26, 1974 and was put under the motto “Gardening for people and for nature's sake”. The Lennart Bernadotte Foundation, which owns 99 percent of the operating foundation capital of Mainau GmbH , is a foundation under private law with its own legal personality, which exclusively and directly pursues charitable goals. This includes the promotion of sciences, the preservation of the land , the protection of the environment and monuments as well as the preservation of the homeland . The foundation finances its activities from dividends from the GmbH. The foundation's assets now amount to around two million euros in the form of a company participation in Insel Mainau GmbH .

Although the island had been protected from outside access as a foundation since 1974, the operating company experienced several savings with social plans and layoffs. In 1981 Countess Sonja Bernadotte became co- managing director of the Mainauverwaltung Graf Lennart Bernadotte GmbH . From 1987 to the end of 2001 she was supported by Volkmar Th. Leutenegger, second managing director of the GmbH. The company was founded in 1991 in flower island Mainau GmbH renamed and in 1998 changed its name to Mainau GmbH .

Since 1986 the foundation has organized the "International Mainau Youth Games" every year. Every spring around 400 fourth graders from Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Austria, Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein meet. The initiator of the event was the forester Hans-Heinrich Vangerow, known as the "father of the forest youth games" . In his honor, the Dr. Vangerow Prize has been awarded since 1997 at the "International Mainau Youth Games" .

In the early 1990s, the island had two million visitors a year (mainly tourists from the new federal states), and the numbers have been falling since then. In 2006 one could speak of halving the number of visitors.

The island successfully received its first eco-certification under EU law in 1998 - with a trick: the island was only awarded the seal (as the first botanical garden in Europe) because it was considered an agricultural operation because of its schnapps distillery. Certificates for tourism companies were not even planned at the time. After successfully completing the test, she voluntarily submitted to the environmental guidelines of EC Regulation No. 1836/93.

European Culture Forum Mainau logo.svg

With a view to the international Lake Constance region, the European Culture Forum Mainau was founded in September of the same year with the aim of bringing people together on a cultural level by means of new activities and also as a source of inspiration. This applies to initiatives in the fields of music, film, performing and visual arts in close cooperation with European regions of the same rank.

1999 was a year of disasters and high property damage for the island as well. The Whitsun floods caused floods in the lower parts of the island and on December 26th the storm Lothar raged , which uprooted numerous trees on the island. In 1999 Mainau GmbH posted a loss of 511,291 euros.

In order to create year-round attractions and to further increase the profitability of the island, the butterfly house was inaugurated in early 2000 . Also in 2000, the GmbH (under finance director Manfred Haunz) invested 2.3 million marks in the construction of an energy information pavilion, in infrastructure and in the castle café .

From 2001 to 2006 Sonja Countess Bernadotte was the sole managing director of Mainau GmbH. At that time the consolidation phase on the island was heralded, from the turn of the year 2001/2002 there was a new business structure. In 2002, her eldest daughter, Bettina Bernadotte, became her personal assistant. In 2005, the island had to cut jobs for the second time in five years due to further declining visitor numbers and corresponding losses. At the end of 1999 the island of Mainau had 340 year-round employees, from 2000 to 2004 295, the mountain of debt had risen to 20.1 million euros at the end of 2004. In 2005 and 2006, Bettina Bernadotte was the authorized signatory responsible for the “Fit 2006” restructuring program with downsizing and savings.

Since 2001 there has been the “Sonja Bernadotte Prize for Paths to Nature Education” and since 2004 the “Sonja Bernadotte Medal for Garden Culture”, both sponsored by the Lennart Bernadotte Foundation.

In September 2004, Count Lennart Bernadotte had around 250 possessions from the “Countess Bernadotte's Collections Insel Mainau Bodensee” auctioned off by the Stuttgart auction house Nagel . The turnover achieved was just under 1 million euros. As is customary in the industry, around half of this flows into the consignor's till, in this case the Bernadotte family. The value had been estimated in advance at 200,000 to 300,000 euros, it should serve to preserve the castle. The Mainau administration had given various information about the reasons for the auction, including fire protection reasons on the storage facility and insurance reasons. The auction, entitled “Hidden Treasures from Mainau Castle”, comprised paintings by old and recent masters, including Pietro Navarra (around 1700), Johann Wilhelm Schirmer (1807–1863), Joseph Moosbrugger (1810–1869) and Isaac Grünewald (1889–1946 ), with works from the German school of the 18th century being a focus. The majority of Mainau pieces were furniture, including cupboards, chests of drawers, and seating from the 17th to 19th centuries, as well as lamps, picture frames, and mirrors. Some of the objects had originally been in Karlsruhe Palace and had been brought to the island by Grand Duke Friedrich I, or in the possession of Queen Victoria of Sweden and other people with whom there were family ties.

According to the Freiburg regional council, there were around 20 items among the auction mass that had been entered in the inventory list in the monument book since 2003 “in agreement” with the owners. At that time, the regional council declared the core and the castle, around a quarter of the island, a cultural monument of special importance . With this, it was said, the life's work of the count couple experienced "special recognition and appreciation". Objects that are inextricably linked to the lock, such as furniture specially made for rooms, are also protected. Therefore, the removal of inventory should have been approved by the city of Konstanz in its capacity as a monument authority before being transported away in three trucks. However, the application for approval was neglected by the count's family in advance. Due to the combination of unfavorable circumstances, the auction house made incorrect assumptions when creating the auction catalog with 300 items. The auction house had declared in the days before that they had adhered to a list of the protected inventory submitted by Countess Bettina Bernadotte and deliberately left in the castle, which had to do with its history as the seat of the Teutonic Knights. The majority of the 20 controversial pieces could not be auctioned and returned to their place. However, some auction items could also be auctioned or were replaced by others.

Lennart Graf Bernadotte died on December 21, 2004 at the age of 95 at her castle. The founder followed the motto of “gardening for the sake of man”, abandoning the installation of rides like in an amusement park and leaving the island in its tourist form.


Mainau (company) logo.svg

As a result of Countess Sonja Bernadotte's cancer, which she succumbed in 2008, Countess Bettina Bernadotte took over the management of Mainau GmbH, which operates the commercial tourism business on the island, on January 1, 2007. Her brother, Count Björn Bernadotte, was actually intended to do this, but did not. Also on January 1, 2007, the management of the “Lennart Bernadotte Foundation” passed from Volkmar Theo Leutenegger - since 1979 board member and managing director of the Lennart Bernadotte Foundation - to Björn Bernadotte.

Gardening for everyone logo.svg
Green School Mainau logo.png

In addition to the “Mainau” umbrella brand, there are two other brands at the foundation level: On the one hand, the “Mainau Academy” founded in 2006. The registered association sits as a competence center for Mainau nature education in the "Lauenhaus" on the island. On the other hand, “Mainau-Aktiv”, a company founded in 2007 by Count Björn together with the Radolfzell physiotherapist Edwin Arnold, which offers nature and health seminars for managers and employees from the business world. The focus is on communication and team building. The “Gardening for All” association is also organized under the umbrella of the Lennart Bernadotte Foundation. The managing director of the association is Sandra Angerer, wife of Björn Bernadotte. The spectrum ranges from the service telephone for gardening enthusiasts to a support course for young people with learning difficulties. The “Green School” is one of the most popular offers.

The island is commercially managed by Insel Mainau GmbH , a limited liability company whose share capital is 99% owned by the Foundation and 1% owned by the Bernadotte family, in the form of Countess Sonja Bernadotte GmbH. The Mainau GmbH is a medium-sized private company that operates without state support and to market principles throughout the year 150 and in the flower season from March to October 300 employees provides jobs. Fixed assets include, in addition to the island and buildings, 420 hectares of forest on the mainland. The island has eight dining options. The main source of income is entrance fees gained through tourism. The island is one of the main attractions on Lake Constance: in 2007 more than 1.2 million visitors came, before that there were more than 2 million visitors annually. In addition to the entrance fees, income from restaurants and souvenir sales also count towards sales. The income of the GmbH in the 2006 financial year was EUR 3.5 million with sales of EUR 18.27 million. It remains unclear whether and what profit Mainau makes, because it only reports its earnings as value before interest, taxes and depreciation. Through the work of Countess Bernadotte, Mainau has developed into a synthesis of a botanical garden, a historic castle park and a place for international encounters.

In 2006 the Flower Island received the EMAS Award , the highest European award for corporate environmental protection, from the EU Commission for a communication campaign developed with partners. Part of the award-winning concept are six towers made from living willow on the Mainau. The installations explain in a playful way how the Mainau management turns environmental protection into an economic profit factor.

In 2007, Bettina Bernadotte, who studied tourism business administration at the Ravensburg University of Cooperative Education, set the goal for the next seven years to increase the equity ratio to 20 percent. After Mainau had reduced costs in previous years, income should now increase. For this reason, Bernadotte's strategy is to reduce its dependency on the weather and to expand its business with banquets, meetings and corporate events in order to come to 1.2 to 1.4 million visitors a year. Up to ten years from now, with the “Park Development Plan 2017”, she also wanted to develop those large areas of Mainau that were previously inaccessible to visitors. She wants to attract young families with lower prices. But she also wants more flexible offers from the hotels in the region. Today's vacationer is looking for packages for short breaks that can be booked at short notice. As a first step, with the start of the 2007 season, the possibility of free evening visits to the island was abolished. Instead, the so-called “sunset ticket” has been offered since then, which is counted as a consumption voucher for the island's gastronomy. Also in 2007, the so-called “Water World” was opened as a “contribution to nature experience for the whole family”. It replaces a 24-year-old play facility measuring 130 square meters that was donated to Uzbekistan and rebuilt there.

In February 2008 Insel Mainau GmbH received permission from the local council to leave the palm house next to the castle all year round. Originally, the palm house was only approved in 1993 if it would be dismantled again during the spring and summer months. Due to the high construction and dismantling costs, the Konstanz municipal council repeatedly allowed the building to remain in place during the summer months. Since weather protection for exotic plants is also an economic factor for the island of Mainau, Mainau GmbH applied for the palm house to be left standing until 2028. Finally, after concerns about the protection of monuments and nature, an agreement was reached on a duration until the end of 2016.

The motto of the 2009 season was 100 years of Lennart Bernadotte . At the opening on March 20, 2009, the island started with half a million spring flowers and the traditional orchid show in the palm house, at which over 2,500 tropical specimens were presented. The focus, however, was on the creator of the flower island, Count Lennart Bernadotte, who would have celebrated his 100th birthday on May 8, 2009.

The motto for 2011 was Auf grandfather's garden bench - immerse yourself in another time , where the Mainau looked back and revived the tried and tested. In 2011 there were two anniversaries: The “Green Charter”, which was signed on April 20, 1961, celebrated its 50th anniversary and the “Mainau Youth Games” were held for the 25th time. The perennial garden, which was laid out in 2010, could be seen all year round in 2011. Together with the entrepreneur Alexander Klaußner, the “Lennart Bernadotte Foundation” opened the “Erlebniswald-Mainau” in 2013 on the mainland belonging to Litzelstetten . In addition to a 1.6 hectare large climbing forest , this also included the former provost of St. Catherine , which historically belonged to Mainauer territory.

At the "Transparent Floristry", visitors can look over the shoulder of the gardeners and florists.

Arts and Culture

Steel sculpture, designed by Stefan Szczesny
Zeppelin NT with female nude

Concerts and exhibitions are held regularly on the island.

For the 2007 season, the artist Stefan Szczesny transformed the island of Mainau into a total work of art for one year as part of an art project called A Dream of Earthly Paradise . The Szczesny campaign was financed by Audi as the main sponsor. Szczesny redesigned the blooming slopes with sculptures, paintings, ceramics and mosaics. These included flower pictures designed by Szczesny, such as the largest crocus picture that ever bloomed on the Mainau, consisting of 70,000 crocus bulbs on the castle meadow. In addition, there were 53 so-called “shadow sculptures”, oversized silhouette cuts made of black steel plates, executed as moving female figures. The glass steles that Szczesny had lined up to form a “magic forest” along the bamboo grove at the gardener's tower were also flat and actually brittle in terms of material. According to the artist, they showed Eva, the original woman, immortalized in etched glass. As a highlight, the Zeppelin NT presented itself from April to mid-August 2007 on its flights around Lake Constance with two female nudes , artistic motifs of a mermaid and the island of Mainau. For this purpose, the airship was covered with a special film on both sides. The largest ceramic vase in the world with a height of five meters could not be realized for cost reasons.

Around 100 couples get married here every year. Not only the baroque castle church of St. Marien on the island is a place for church weddings, the city registry office also organizes regular external appointments for civil weddings.

Regular events (selection)

  • Dahlia blooms in early autumn: 12,000 dahlias in an area of ​​2,400 square meters bloom until the first frost breaks. Choice of the Mainau Dahlia Queen.
  • Seasonal gardens: Annual project in which five areas planned by students are implemented in collaboration with trainees in gardening and landscaping.


  • Michael Boppré et al .: Falter on the island of Mainau. The butterfly house - insights into the fascinating world of butterflies. Forest Zoological Institute of the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg im Breisgau & Flower Island Mainau, Freiburg im Breisgau and Island Mainau 1998
  • Hermann Brommer : Castle Church Isle of Mainau. Baroque jewel in Lake Constance. City of Konstanz, Fink, Lindenberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-89870-577-6 (Previously: Art Guide Volume 1207, Schnell and Steiner, Munich / Zurich first edition 1980).
  • Georg Dehio , Dagmar Zimdars (Hrsg.): Handbook of German art monuments. Baden-Württemberg II. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1997, pp. 431–433, ISBN 3-422-03030-1 .
  • Otto Feger : The German Order Coming Mainau. (= Writings of the Kopernikuskreis Freiburg . Volume 2). Verlag Jan Thorbecke, Lindau / Konstanz, 1958.
  • Gabriel Girod de l'Ai: Jean Baptiste Bernadotte. Citizen, French revolutionary general, Swedish-Norwegian king. Südkurier, Konstanz 1989, ISBN 3-87799-081-9 . (Biography of the progenitor of the ruling Swedish royal family and the "Mainau Count" Lennart Bernadotte, on the occasion of his 80th birthday)
  • Alexander and Johanna Dées de Sterio: The Mainau. Chronicle of a paradise. Belser, Stuttgart 1977. ISBN 3-7630-1271-0 .
  • Harald Derschka : Monastery islands in Lake Constance . In: Gabriela Signori (ed.): Island monasteries - monastery islands. Topography and toponymy of a monastic formation. (= Studies on Germania Sacra , New Volume 9). De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston, 2019, ISBN 978-3-11-064266-7 , pp. 149-165.
  • Hans Dorn: Flower Island Mainau. Park maintenance. 1993.
  • Hans Dorn, Bernd HK Hoffmann: Garden historical study island Mainau. In: The building center . Issue 8. 1997, p. 54ff.
  • Hans Martin Gubler: Johann Caspar Bagnato (1696–1757) and the construction of the Teutonic Order in the Alsace-Burgundy Ballei in the 18th century. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1985, ISBN 3-7995-7031-4 .
  • Jürgen Klöckler, Lothar Burchardt, Tobias Engelsing: Spots on the flower island of Mainau? Lennart Bernadotte during National Socialism and in the post-war years . In: Writings of the Association for the History of Lake Constance and its Surroundings . 132nd issue. Jan Thorbecke Verlag der Schwabenverlag AG, Ostfildern 2014, ISBN 978-3-7995-1720-1 , p. 149-187 .
  • Arnulf Moser: The other Mainau 1945. Paradise for liberated concentration camp prisoners. Universitätsverlag Konstanz, Konstanz 1995, ISBN 3-87940-519-0 . Extended and revised new edition: Hartung-Gorre Verlag, Konstanz 2020, ISBN 978-3-86628-664-1 .
  • Cross and sword. The Teutonic Order in southwest Germany, Switzerland and Alsace. Exhibition catalog, Mainau 1991.
  • Andreas Lück (Ed.): Szczesny. Mainau Island. A dream of an earthly paradise. Prestel, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7913-3916-0 .
  • Judith Pfindel, Heinz-Dieter Meier: The flora of the Mainau. A botanical guide to the island's parks and gardens. Hampp, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-936682-38-0 .
  • Karl Heinrich Roth von Schreckenstein : The island of Mainau. History of a Teutonic Order Commende from XIII. until the XIX. Centuries. British Library, Historical Print Editions, London 2011. (First edition Karlsruhe 1873), ISBN 978-1-241-40995-1 .
  • Petra Wichmann, Bertram Jenisch: The island of Mainau. Core area and parts of the historic park are now protected as a cultural monument of special importance. In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg. 33rd year 2004, issue 2, pp. 101-113. ( PDF )

Web links

Commons : Mainau  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Commons : Mainau  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Listed. Five facts about the island of Mainau . In: Südkurier from November 19, 2010.
  2. a b c d e f g The Mainau. In: Gerhard Fischer, Andreas Balze (Ed.): Bodensee. DuMont-Reiseverlag, 2005, ISBN 3-7701-6320-6 .
  3. a b c The flower island of Mainau makes millions of blooming dreams come true. In: Südkurier of August 21, 2007.
  4. International water protection commission for Lake Constance: Lake Constance: condition - facts - perspectives. 2nd corrected edition, Bregenz 2004, ISBN 3-902290-04-8 , p. 9.
  5. ^ Manfred Schmidt: Stream and inland lake islands in Germany. GRIN-Verlag, 2008, ISBN 3-638-95278-9 <, p. 15.
  7. ^ Housing directory 1961, State Handbook for Baden-Württemberg, published by the Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart 1964, p. 359.
  8. a b c Brigitte Elsner-Heller: Art of a "radical optimist". In: Südkurier of April 17, 2007.
  9. ^ Josef Siebler: Sequoia cut. In: Südkurier of February 13, 2008.
  10. ^ Richard Pott: Biotope Types. Ulmer, Stuttgart 1996, p. 363.
  11. a b c d e f g h i j Klaus Schäfer: From the Rhine to the Pyrenees III: pilgrims and church guides on the Way of St. James. Books on Demand, 2003, ISBN 3-8334-0266-0 , p. 27.
  12. ^ Mainau GmbH: Butterfly House Mainau: Butterfly House. Tropical world with colorful butterflies and flowers. Retrieved May 24, 2020 .
  13. The colorful butterfly dolls house. In: Südkurier of October 31, 2008.
  14. a b Frank van Bebber: Playground with tumble dryer. In: Südkurier from April 4, 2007.
  15. a b Family Paradise Mainau. In: Südkurier from April 19, 2007.
  16. a b New water world for children . In: Südkurier from January 23, 2007.
  17. Water world on the Mainau. In: Südkurier from January 19, 2007.
  18. Information about the organ (as of December 26, 2018)
  19. Chronicle of the island of Mainau
  20. Swedish Tower attraction
  21. Georg Christian Friedrich Lisch : pile construction of the stone period from the island of Mainau in the Ueberlinger Bucht of the Bodensee. In: Mecklenburgische Jahrbücher. Edited by the Association for Mecklenburg History and Antiquity. Schwerin 1864, p. 164
  22. a b c d e f Petra Wichmann, Bertram Jenisch: The island of Mainau. Core area and parts of the historic park are now protected as a cultural monument of special importance. In: Nachrichtenblatt Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg. Issue 2. 2004, pp. 101–113.
  23. See Strabo 01.0198 & query = book% 3D% 232 Geographica. Volume 7 p. 292 : There is also an island in it which Tiberius used as a base of operations in his naval battle with the Vindelici .
  24. ^ Archives for anthropology, ethnology and colonial cultural change . ed. from the German Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory. Braunschweig 1902, p. 182
  25. See writings of the Association for the History of Lake Constance and its Surroundings. Edited by the Association for the History of Lake Constance and its Surroundings. 1882, p. 97.
  26. Otto Feger: History of the Lake Constance area. Stuttgart 1956, p. 23. Anders Annemarie Bernecker: The campaigns of Tiberius and the representation of the subject areas in the "Geography of Ptolemaeus". Bonn 1989, ISBN 3-7749-2401-5 , p. 59.
  27. ^ Thomas Fischer: The Romans in Germany. Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8062-1325-9 , p. 21.
  28. See Franz Xaver Kraus, Josef Durm, Ernst Wagner: The art monuments of the Grand Duchy of Baden: Descriptive statistics. Ministry of Culture and Education Baden, Adolf von Oechelhaeuser, 1887. p. 300.
  29. In contrast to Ottmar Friedrich Heinrich Schönhuth: Chronicle of the former Reichenau monastery, illustrated from handwritten sources. 1835. p. 194, where the year 1293 is given.
  30. ^ According to other sources Albert von Langenstein
  31. ↑ His name was not Hugo. but Friedrich in a document from 1281
  32. Cf. Johann Samuelersch: Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, edited in alphabetical order by the authors mentioned and edited by JS Versch and JG Gruber. J. f. Gleditsch, 1840. p. 462.
  33. Source: Written elaboration from March 31, 2015 by Emil J. Mundhaas, Konstanz.
  34. Cf. A. Dessauer: Der Rheinische Bund. 1811. pp. 70ff.
  35. Emil J. Haas mouth: high and low jurisdiction of the Teutonic Order in the landscape Mainau. In: Hegau. Journal for the history, folklore and natural history of the area between the Rhine, Danube and Lake Constance. Yearbook 70/2013. ISBN 978-3-933356-69-7 . Pp. 233–254, here p. 233. (With maps of the Mainau's sphere of influence in the 18th century.)
  36. Source: Written elaboration from March 31, 2015 by Emil J. Mundhaas, Konstanz.
  37. Source: Written elaboration from March 31, 2015 by Emil J. Mundhaas, Konstanz.
  38. a b The island of Mainau and the Bodanrück. In: Eva Moser: Bodensee. Three countries: culture and landscape between Stein am Rhein, Konstanz and Bregenz. DuMont Reiseverlag, 1998. ISBN 3-7701-3991-7 .
  39. ^ After Fr. X. Kraus: Die Kunstdenkmäler des Kreis Konstanz ; L. Reich: The island of Mainau ; B. Baader: Folk tales from the state of Baden. In: The Schwedenkreuz from Mainau. In: Theodor Lachmann (ed.): Überlinger sagas, customs and morals. Georg Olms Verlag, 1979, ISBN 3-487-06872-9 , p. 86f.
  40. ^ The Swedish Cross of the Mainau. In: Theodor Lachmann (ed.): Überlinger sagas, customs and morals. Georg Olms Verlag, 1979, ISBN 3-487-06872-9 , p. 86f.
  41. a b cf. Josua Eiselein: History and description of the city of Constance and its immediate surroundings. 1851 p. 223f.
  42. Emil J. Haas mouth: high and low jurisdiction of the Teutonic Order in the landscape Mainau. In: Hegau. Journal for the history, folklore and natural history of the area between the Rhine, Danube and Lake Constance. Yearbook 70/2013. ISBN 978-3-933356-69-7 . Pp. 233–254, here p. 254. (With maps of the Mainau's sphere of influence in the 18th century.)
  43. Katharina Werner (1799–1850), raised to Countess von Langenstein in 1827
  44. H. Delgenkolb: Fourteen days of October on Lake Constance and im Breisgau , here: p 183 in: Austrian botanical journal. Volume 16 (1866). Springer-Verlag, 1866.
  45. Something about the nurseries in Switzerland and Lake Constance. In: Gartenbau-Gesellschaft Flora (Hrsg.): Illustrated garden newspaper. 9th volume (1865). Württembergischer Gartenbau Verein. E. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart 1865, p. 45.
  46. See Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe: Palace and Courtyard Karlsruhe. Guide to the castle history section. ISBN 3-937345-25-6 .
  47. ^ A b Arnulf Moser: From the Organization Todt to the French government in exile.
  48. a b From the hell of the Holocaust to the flower paradise. In: every two weeks. Number 03 . dated June 8, 1995
  49. See Jürgen Klöckler: Abendland - Alpenland - Alemannien. Dissertation. University of Konstanz 1998, p. 32f.
  50. Arnulf Moser: Islands of bliss. Reichenau and Mainau as a place of recreation for French concentration camp prisoners 1945. In: Allmende . 38/39. 1993. pp. 203-215.
  51. Ramona Löffler: The count spoke little about this time. In: Südkurier of August 29, 2015, p. 29.
  52. Jörg-Peter Rau: Mainau also illuminates its darker sides. In: Südkurier of December 23, 2011.
  53. ^ Arnulf Moser: The French Liberation Committee on Mainau Island and the End of the Franco-German Collaboration. Verlag Jan Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1980, ISBN 3-7995-6825-5 .
  54. ^ Arnulf Moser: The other Mainau 1945. Paradise for liberated concentration camp prisoners. Universitätsverlag Konstanz, 1995. ISBN 3-87940-519-0 .
  55. The Lord of Mainau. Count Lennart Bernadotte turns 95 . TV report by Südwestrundfunk .
  56. ^ Klaus Hoffmann: Guilt and Responsibility. Otto Hahn, conflicts of a scientist. Springer Verlag, 1993, ISBN 3-540-56766-6 .
  57. a b c Frank van Bebber: The guardian of a life's work. In: Südkurier of August 8, 2007.
  58. a b The company Mainau. ( Memento from September 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  59. a b c Countess Sonja Bernadotte: Life and work for the Mainau. A portrait of the countess, written by Florian Heitzmann, press spokesman for Mainau GmbH. In: Südkurier of October 23, 2008.
  60. Lennart Bernadotte Foundation ( Memento of February 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), Freiburg Regional Council, as of June 3, 2008.
  61. Balance factor sun . In: Südkurier of October 2, 2007.
  62. Frank van Bebber: Against the staid garden show. In: Südkurier of December 30, 2006
  63. ^ Frank van Bebber: Sturm: Mainau closes for visitors. In: Südkurier from January 18, 2007.
  64. a b Mainau presents the best result since 1992. In: Allgemeine Hotel- und Gastronomie-Zeitung. Edition 2002/40 of October 5, 2002.
  65. a b c d Mainau island in the consolidation phase. In: General hotel and gastronomy newspaper. Edition 2001/42 of October 20, 2001.
  66. Mainau announces moderate job cuts. The flower paradise in Lake Constance sends 13 employees the resignation. In: General hotel and gastronomy newspaper. Edition 2005/7 from February 16, 2005.
  67. ↑ Reduced job cuts on the Mainau. In: General hotel and gastronomy newspaper. Edition 2005/8, p. 34 of February 26, 2005.
  68. Layoffs on the Mainau. In: General hotel and gastronomy newspaper. Edition 2005/1, p. 15 of January 8, 2005.
  69. Expenditures and staff are cut on the island of Mainau. In: General hotel and gastronomy newspaper. Edition 2004/51 from December 16, 2004.
  70. "Development is necessary". In: General hotel and gastronomy newspaper. Edition 2006/12, p. 26 of March 25, 2006.
  71. ^ Frank van Bebber: One million euros for Mainau inventory. In: Südkurier of October 2, 2004.
  72. a b c Return to Mainau. In: Südkurier of September 22, 2004.
  73. Frank van Bebber: Countess portrait and two guinea pigs. In: Südkurier from September 15, 2004
  74. ^ Catalog for Mainau auction. In: Südkurier of September 14, 2004
  75. ^ Continue the struggle for the Mainau auction. In: Südkurier from September 20, 2004
  76. Frank van Bebber: Mainau has to hope for express approval. In: Südkurier of September 21, 2004.
  77. Frank van Bebber: Mainau cleared up memory. In: Südkurier from September 1, 2004.
  78. ^ Frank van Bebber: Auction partially stopped. In: Südkurier of September 22, 2004.
  79. Auction without permission. In: Südkurier of September 18, 2004.
  80. Martin-W. Buchenau, Britta Gauly: Butterfly in a glass house. In: Handelsblatt from August 19, 2008.
  81. ^ Frank van Bebber: botany for managers. In: Südkurier of September 11, 2007.
  82. Frank van Bebber: A classroom in the country. In: Südkurier of August 16, 2007.
  83. The Island Society. In: Postbank (ed.): Perspectives . Edition 2/2007. Pp. 40-43.
  84. Mainau expects more visitors this year. Good weather in spring has an impact. In: Südkurier from October 1, 2007.
  85. ^ Frank van Bebber: EU Prize for Mainau. In: Südkurier of November 16, 2006
  86. Balance between the flower island and family. In: Südkurier of December 31, 2007.
  87. ^ Frank van Bebber: Entry due. In: Südkurier of April 10, 2007.
  88. 1,250 square meter room can hold 200 people, if there should also be space to dance; 240 people if they forego dancing.
  89. ↑ Long- running palm house. In: Südkurier of February 14, 2008.
  90. Mainau advertises the glass house right next to the baroque palace as a room for banquets and celebrations; it uses it for exhibitions and special events. Companies that want to rent the Palm House for celebrations in an exotic setting pay 4,000 euros.
  91. Claudia Rindt: Green alert on the island. In: Südkurier from March 1, 2008.
  92. Palm House is allowed to stay . In: Südkurier of February 29, 2008
  93. Collection for Mainau Island. In: Südkurier of February 16, 2008.
  94. 100 years of Lennart Bernadotte. Flower island Mainau starts the season. In: Schwäbische Zeitung from March 20, 2009.
  95. Nikolaj Schutzbach (nea): The Mainau is blooming again. In: Südkurier of March 25, 2011.
  96. [1]
  97. ^ Dagmar Gold: Stefan Szczesny. A dream of earthly paradise , accessed on December 27, 2018 (PDF).
  98. Frank van Bebber: A work of art made from 70,000 crocuses. In: Südkurier of November 16, 2006.
  99. A calm encounter. In: Südkurier of April 12, 2007.
  100. Mainau-Zeppelin: The last act. In: Südkurier from April 25, 2007.
  101. The first works have already faded. In: Südkurier from June 14, 2007.
  102. Dream wedding on the flower island. In: Südkurier of July 16, 2007.
  103. Mainau Countess is getting married on Saturday. In: Südkurier from July 1, 2007.
  104. Sea full of dahlias. In: Südkurier of September 9, 2015.