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The Raetians were a people or a group of peoples of antiquity in the area of ​​the central Alps , according to older ideas roughly between Lake Maggiore , Como , Verona , the Lower Inn Valley and Lake Constance .

The German name goes back to the 2nd century BC. Ῥαιτοί (Rhaitoí) or Raeti , which appeared in ancient Greek and Roman sources . In part it says that the Rhaetians were expelled into the Alps by the Celtic invasion of the Po Valley (around 400 BC) and were "feral" Etruscans there. Today this is considered implausible; however, a linguistic relationship between certain Alpine inhabitants of antiquity and the Etruscans has recently been confirmed.

Map 14 n. Chr. With "Raetic" people on both sides of the boundary between the province Raetia and the upper Italian Regiones ( Vennonetes in the Gallia transpadana and camunni in Regio Venetia et Histria )
Northern Italy from Shepherd's "Historical Atlas", which differentiates between the regions of Transpadana and Venetia et Histria established under Augustus

The Raetians were in the 1st century BC. Incorporated into the Roman Empire and Romanized in the course of Roman rule . The Roman province of Raetia was named after them, although originally not all of its inhabitants were called Raeti or Rhaitoí and although southern Alpine (according to one or the other author) "Rhaetian" tribes not this province, but the area of ​​the older province of Gallia cisalpina , were assigned to the regions of the Roman heartland of Italy under Augustus and were given Roman citizenship .

The term Raeter was subject to differing ideas, so that sometimes the expression "Raeter in the sense of ..." would be appropriate. From an archaeological and linguistic point of view, they are identified today with the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture or with residents of Tyrol , Trentino , western Veneto and part of the Lower Engadine .

Raeter or Raeter?

The occasional spelling Rhaetian and Rhaetian , as it is officially used by the Rhaetian Railway (RhB) , goes back to the 2nd century BC. Chr. Common Greek name Ῥαιτοί (Rhaitoí) , takes over the usual transcription of the Greek word stem - cf. Alcohol asper . In Roman scripts, Raeti u. Ä., In a later period, however, the spelling Rhaeti u. in Roman manuscripts. Another example of this notation is the article Rhätia in Pierer's Universal-Lexikon from 1857.

Concept history

The following statements summarize details of the article presented later:

  1. The ancient sources often do not agree and do not reveal exactly where "Raetians" ( Raeti or Rhatoí ) settled and to what extent linguistic or cultural similarities between the individual tribes mentioned justified a common classification as "Raetians".
  2. Since the 2nd century, Raeti simply meant "residents of the province of Raetia ", regardless of the origin of such residents.
  3. In the Alps north of Lake Maggiore and western Veneto , a few hundred inscriptions have been found, the majority of which correspond to the letters of the Etruscan alphabets . Due to the ancient information, especially the notion of a relationship between the Rhaetians and the Etruscans in the context of the echoes of these inscriptions to the Etruscan language , their authors and the inhabitants of the corresponding areas became many in the 19th century and well into the 20th century regarded as (“wild”) “Etruscans” (“the Alps”).
  4. In the 20th century, significant archaeological cultural differences were found between the individual areas. Furthermore, more precise analyzes of the inscriptions recently showed very clear linguistic differences, so that current research only covers the culture and language of the (late Iron Age ) inhabitants of Tyrol , Trentino and the Lower Engadine and, in a somewhat broader sense, of inhabitants of the Vicentine Alps area than considered advisable . Only in this area has a close relationship been established between the Rhaetian language and the Etruscan language , whose relationship to the Indo-European language family is questionable. These research findings stand in contrast to earlier ideas, according to which the "Raetians" should also have lived in Ticino , the Alpine Rhine Valley and the Bergamasque Alps .

Ancient sources

Early scattered clues

The oldest messages about the "Raetians" are as follows:

  • Cato the Elder (234–149 BC) praises the Rhaetian wine (or the Rhaetian grape; handed down through a sentence by Maurus Servius Honoratius - late 4th century; Virgil , II, 95) in his libri ad M. filium .
  • According to Strabon's geography (7 BC with later additions), Polybios (approx. 200–120 BC) mentions one of the four Alpine crossings through the "Rhaetian area" ( διά Ῥαιτῶν ).

Other authors agree that the delicious Rhaetian wine grew in the Verona area (in Valpolicella !). Strabo also lets the Raetians settle near Como . The Celtic oppidum Como was born in 196 BC. Conquered by the Romans (renewal of rule over the Po Valley) and 89 BC. Chr. After thorough destruction by Räter rebuilt by the Romans colonized ( Gnaeus Pompey Strabo ). It was during this period that the Romans first came into contact with the Councilors - on the Como - Verona line .

Under Caesar , the Roman Empire was expanded northwest of the Alps, the governor L. Munatius Plancus defeated there in 44 BC. Chr. Raeter in the area of Lake Constance . Räters in the area of Lake Constance, especially in the Alpine Rhine Valley , but perhaps also north of Lake Constance, are also given by later historians and geographers.

Alleged Etruscan origin

Pompey Trogus (contemporary of Augustus and Livius , handed down by Junianus Iustinus ) and after him Pliny the Elder ( Naturalis Historia , completed in AD 77), proclaim that the Rhaetians were descendants of the Celts from the Po Valley under a certain Raetus (“duce Raeto “) fled Etruscans (cf. legend of origin , etiological story ). Similarly, Livy († around 17 AD) describes the Etruscan settlement of the Po Valley and closes

"The Alpine peoples, too, undisputedly have the same origin, especially the Rhaetians, to whom the area itself communicated its savagery and left nothing more to them than the sound of language, and not even that unadulterated."

Livy also claims that the Rhaetians descend from the Etruscans, but leaves details open. Instead, he is the only one to comment on the language of the Raetians. Livy is believed to have been born and died in Padua , where Rhaetian inscriptions have been found. Possibly he was able to compare the sound of the Rhaetian and the Etruscan himself, or such statements were part of the well-informed stories of older generations in his home environment.

Roman conquest of the Middle Alps

In connection with the conquest of the Alps under Augustus (sole ruler in the Roman Empire from 27 BC to † 14 AD), individual tribes are known that inhabited the Alps at the end of the first century BC and are included in the sources . However, the latter are unclear and contradictory with regard to the councilors.

First of all, a part of the alpine Adige Valley is apparently conquered, including Trento . 16 BC BC Publius Silius Nerva defeats Kamunner ( Valcamonica ) and Vennioi , who some authors consider to be Raetians (more on this below ). 15 BC Drusus , stepson of Augustus , undertakes a celebrated advance in the Adige Valley. Due to further raids by the Raetians in neighboring areas, he and his brother Tiberius undertook a campaign in the same year in which the rest of the Adige Valley, the Eisack Valley , the (alpine) Inn Valley , the Alpine Rhine Valley , some areas in the area of Lake Constance and probably various areas in the north Alpine foothills to be conquered. Apparently the bases Cambodunum (Kempten) and Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg) are founded in the same year .

The 16/15 BC Alpine peoples subjected to BC are listed in the Tropaeum Alpium and in its better preserved copy by Pliny after a discussion of individual peoples and places. The Alpine campaign of 15 BC Is depicted in Cassius Dio and lyrically in Chants 4 and 14 of the fourth book of the Carmina of Horace . Localization attempts draw from this, further from the geographical works of Strabo and Claudius Ptolemy as well as from individual local Latin inscriptions such as the Tabula Clesiana ( CIL 05, 05050 ) in the Val di Non ; Finally, the order of the entries at the Tropaeum Alpium is also tried.

Neighboring peoples

Ancient Greek and Roman sources (taking into account the Alpine campaign of 15 BC) allow the Rhaetians to be localized to a certain extent by specifying neighboring peoples. It is noticeable that the neighboring peoples are consistently identified as Celts . Neighboring peoples also appear as victims of the "proverbial" raids.

Because of the aforementioned southern demarcation to Como and Verona , it only depends on neighbors in the west, east and north. To the west, the Helvetii settling in the plain are named as neighbors. In the east there is in the 1st century BC The Celtic Kingdom of Noricum , with which Rome is contractually and amicably connected. The Boier are also mentioned as neighbors in the northern foothills of the Alps .

Especially in connection with the Alpine campaign of 15 BC BC the until then apparently unknown ethnic group of the Vindeliker into the field of view of history. They too are said to have been Celts. Like the Raetians, they are said to have been very thirsty and lived in the Alps in the vicinity of the Kingdom of Noricum and on Lake Constance . Strabon names Vindelik tribes who lived near Bregenz ( Brigantier ) and in the Allgäu ; further names (perhaps, cf. Vindeliker ) the Tropaeum Alpium ( Pliny ). Ultimately, Horace 's battle songs and the geography of Claudius Ptolemy suggest that Raetians might still settle north of the Alps and Lake Constance (in the Vindelik neighborhood) as far as the Danube . According to Ptolemy, there separated the Iller Raetians (west) and Vindeliker from one another.

Comparison of ancient information and current knowledge

The "Raeter Area"

The following table summarizes figures from Gleirscher (1991) and Metzger / Gleirscher 1992 . The rows in the table stand for six regions of the central Alps (designated in the left column), which have been archaeologically and culturally differentiated in the last 13 centuries BC. On the right, some tribes are listed that have appeared in the sources since the Alpine campaign and that are at least often assigned to the respective region. In some cases, cells in the left column list individual valleys , to which individual tribes can be assigned according to their order in the right column (some names of Alpine valleys come from the names of the inhabitants of that time, the similarity of the names is quite obvious).

As far as tribes are concerned that are named by the Romans or Greeks as Rhaetians , the cultural groups listed in the middle column ("from 400 BC") are relevant.

region Cultural group up to 600 BC Chr. Cultural group from 400 BC Chr. Alphabet of Inhabitants in the
1st century BC Chr.
Alpine catchment area of Lake Maggiore , Bergell (?) Alpine Golasecca culture Lepontier Lugano Lepontier , Bergaleer (?)
Catchment area of ​​the Alpine Rhine , Vorarlberg Alpine Rhine Valley Group Alpine Rhine Valley Group Lugano Kalukonen , Suaneten; Vennones or similar
From the Sarca valley and the upper Lake Garda over Val Trompia , the Valcamonica and the Valtellina to the Upper Engadine Valcamonica group Valcamonica group Sondrio , "Western Council" Vennones ? Stoner, Benacenses, Trumpiliner , Kamunner
North Tyrolean Inn Valley Inntal group Fritzens-Sanzeno -Culture Bolzano - Sanzeno Breonen , Accurate (?)
South Tyrol and Trentino north of Rovereto ( Eisacktal , Etschtal around Trient , Nonstal , Vinschgau ), partly Lower Engadine ; Pustertal , East Tyrol Laugen-Melaun culture Fritzens-Sanzeno culture Bolzano - Sanzeno Isarken, Tridentiner, Anaunen, Venosten ; Saevaten , Laianken
Adige Valley near Lake Garda north of Chiusa di Verona and Vicentine Alps ( Valpolicella ), Valsugana , from there to the Piave near Feltre Angarano-Garda Group Magrè group Magrè Arusnaten, Feltriner (cf. Feltre ), Beruenses

The second column (from left) deals with archaeological cultures in the Middle Alps, which can be seen here in the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age ( Hallstatt Age ). One might wonder whether after around 1300 BC A Rhaetian people immigrated. In fact, from 1300 B.C. The western and northern regions were affected by immigration from the west and north, which led to similarities with the (Celtic) cultures ( urn field culture ) of the respective Alpine foothills. The southwestern "Alpine Golasecca culture" is related to the Golasecca culture of the southern foreland. Similarly, the southeastern cultures take on the influences of the Venetian Este culture.

Further immigration is hardly recognizable. The next archaeologically striking change in the central Alps is that the economic prosperity based on copper ore mining from 1000 BC onwards. Ends with the increasing use of iron in the surrounding area. The increasing use of iron also in the Raetian region itself from the 8th century BC. BC does not lead to a cultural break, perhaps the unexplained transition to hilltop settlements, which also affects other Alpine regions, is striking.

From the 6th century onwards, however, the Alpine region considered here was influenced by the flourishing of the Etruscan culture in the Po Valley, and the Greek colonies also have an effect through their transalpine trade with Central Europe. Another upheaval is the penetration of the Celts into the Po Valley around 400 BC. BC, where these destroy the Etruscan cities and the southwestern Golasecca culture; 387 BC BC Gauls ( Senones under Brennus ?) Conquer almost all of Rome. These two upheavals lead to the cultures found north of Como and Verona by the Romans.

According to ancient sources, where did Raetians live?

The "Raetian area" of the table has been chosen so that actually all named individual peoples or individual peoples in all of the sub-areas listed appear as Raetians in some ancient source (at least when viewed friendly). However, other sources also contradict or contradict themselves. In Geography  IV, 6, 6 , Strabo apparently states that Raetians only settle on the north side of the Alps. In IV, 6, 8 he takes quite different views (see below).

The Roman province of Raetia (yellow) on a historical map. Some of the tribes named in the text are drawn in and to the south of it.
  1. Lepontier (Ticino etc.): Raeter according to Strabo IV, 6, 8; no Raetians according to Strabo IV, 6, 6; according to Pliny (III, 133–135 or Cato ) Tauriskians or at least Celts (the latter comes closer to the current state of research), thus also not Raetians.
  2. Alpine Rhine Valley : “Basically” Strabon (IV, 6, 8)settlesin the headwaters of the Rhine Raeter, but perhaps different peoples than those mentioned here. Pliny classifies Sarunetes ( Suanetes according to Tropaeum Alpium ?) And Vennonienses (Vennones?) As Raetians. With Strabo, however, the Vennones are not Raetians (IV, 6, 6) or even Vindeliker (IV, 6, 8).
  3. Valcamonica group :
    • ("Pro:") Strabons (IV, 6, 8) Explanation that the alpine settlement area of ​​the Raetians extends as far as the vicinity of Como or Verona , actually includes the area of ​​the Valcamonica group. Specifically, he describes the Kamunni ( Camunni ) of Valcamonica themselves as Raetians.
    • (“Contra:”) This, too, is in a certain contrast to the aforementioned peculiar point IV, 6, 6, where Raetians only settle northwards and the Stoners ( Sarcatal ) are placed next to them like an independent people. Pliny (III, 133 f.) Counts the Kamunners, Trumpiliners ( Val Trompia ) and the Stoners among the " Euganeans " - while he also mentions Raetians , s. u. In a similar way, Cassius Dio first briefly reports a campaign against the Kamunners (16 BC), without mentioning the Raetians , which he only later mentioned in connection with the campaign of 15 BC. Presents - this in great detail.
  4. North Tyrolean Inn Valley : The Breonen ( Breuni, Breunen) may have lived in the Inn and Wipptal valleys .
    • ("Contra:") Drusus met the Breonen and Genaunen in the (second) Alpine campaign in 15 BC. Chr., Horace - Carmina, IV, 14 (8-13) - according to where they are apparently Vindeliker , this is supported by the fact that Horace in IV, 4 (17 f.) Only speaks of Drusus wars against Vindeliker . According to Strabon (IV, 6, 8) the Breonen and Genaunen were Illyrians .
    • (“Pro:”) The only argument in favor of their classification as Raetians is that the campaign was triggered by “Raid incursions” and should counteract them, as Cassius Dio states in his description of the campaign - which is only about Raiders and does not mention any Vindeliker .
    • ("Contra:") The same cause, however, had the battles of Tiberius against Vindeliker in the same campaign, the latter was apparently found "surprisingly" in the campaign against the "Raetians" (at least according to Horace ).
  5. Area of ​​the earlier Laugen-Melaun culture (South and East Tyrol, Trentino):
  6. Magrè area - Vicentine Alps and surroundings: Strabon's statement that the Rhaetian settlement area extends as far as the vicinity of Verona , makes at least the Valpolicella (Lessini hills, Arusnaten) appear to be inhabited by Räts. According to Cassius Dio, Raetians lived inthe “area of ​​the Tridentine Alps, which border Italy,” at least the Adige Valley near Lake Garda and the Valsugana . Pliny calls Feltre (Feltrini) Rhaetian, Verona Rhaetian and " Euganean " (throughout "pro").

Raeter in Tyrol or in Graubünden? tradition

Regarding the previous information about Raetians in North, South or East Tyrol, it is noticeable that Richard Heuberger always denies that, according to ancient sources, Raetians lived in Tyrol . This is also in connection with the opinion, not only represented by him, that the division of the Roman province of Raetia in late antiquity into Raetia prima and Raetia secunda took particular account of the part in which Raetians originally settled and where Vindeliker originally settled - and this border was in Essentially coincided with today's border between Switzerland ( Graubünden ) and Tyrol. However, the sources are very thin. The boundary between Raetia prima and Raetia secunda is poorly secured by sources and is rather given on the basis of plausibility considerations.

To a certain extent, Heuberger's view agrees that a tradition of consciousness of ancestry from the Raetians only exists in Graubünden today . However, this tradition is not necessarily based on ancient sources or historical facts. Rather, such a tradition was evidently cultivated in the area of ​​the Raetia prima and then by Churrätien (Graubünden, Switzerland), whereby in the early Middle Ages the expression Raeti was used for residents of this area - without taking into account any ethnic group of the Raetians of the 1st century BC. Chr.

Inscriptions in the "Rätergebiet" and the language (s) of the "Räter"

Venetian, Eastern and Western script

Several hundred inscriptions were found in the “Raetian region” (and also in the nearer flat area) in what Theodor Mommsen called “North Etruscan alphabets”. This designation is probably related to Mommsen's incorrect view from today's perspective that the language of the Raetians - who he localized in Graubünden and Tyrol - was Etruscan (or an "Etruscan dialect"). The letters are similar to those of the Etruscan and Venetian alphabets , which in turn are derived from the Western Greek script . The inscriptions can be found mainly on rocks and votive offerings at sanctuaries (e.g. Schneidjoch / Rofan Mountains between Blaubergen and Achensee ) and burnt sacrifice sites , also on grave steles . Accordingly, they are very short, similar to the Etruscan inscriptions , so they can explain little about the language in which they are written. Most recognizable is the formation of personal names ( patronyms ). In this respect all the inscriptions show similarities to Etruscan; However, the linguist Ernst Risch pointed out that such features can be transferred across the boundaries of language families if they are geographically close.

There are four types of "North Etruscan alphabets" in the " Raetian area ":

  • The alphabet of Lugano occurs in lepontischen area and at a location in Alpenrheintal on. The language of the inscriptions, however, turns out to be related to Celtic (thus Indo-European ). There are now inscriptions from the 6th century BC. BC, which prove that a Lepontic language , which was related to Celtic, already existed before the Celtic invasion of the Po Valley around 400 BC. Was in use in the Lepontine Alps.
  • The alphabet from Sondrio (largest town in the Valtellina ) is typical of the inscriptions in the area of ​​the Valcamonica group. The language is not related to Celtic, but the script has not been considered "Rhaetian" since the 1970s because of the significant differences to the alphabets of Bozen-Sanzeno and Magrè (Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, Alberto Mancini). Ernst Risch now only speaks of "Western Council" inscriptions which, according to alphabet and language, as well as the associated rock paintings in Valcamonica, make "a completely different impression than the Raetian"; the language could be Indo-European.
  • Only the alphabets from Bozen - Sanzeno ( Fritzens-Sanzeno culture ) and from Magrè are still considered Rhaetian today . A collaboration between Helmut Rix and Stefan Schumacher , published in papers since 1998, has shown that they represent a common, non-Indo-European language that is closely related to Etruscan , but not itself Etruscan. This comes close to the formulation of Livy (see above), according to which the alleged Etruscan descent of the Rhaetians should still have been recognizable by the "sound" of their language despite a difference. The Rhaetian language is now used to refer to the Bozen-Sanzeno and Magrè alphabets.

Inscriptions in the Magrè alphabet have also been found in the western Venetian plain near Padua . This corresponds to the statement by Pliny , according to which Verona and perhaps a city of Berua / Beria near Vicenza were also Councilors . For the comparison of the inscriptions underlying languages with the Etruscan is already of interest that the latter no voiced plosives b, d, g and no o has (only four vowels , you also see the comparison of Etruscan with the Lemnian language). Letters for b, d, g are now also missing in the alphabets of the "Raetian region" (but also in the Venetian). In this respect, all languages ​​of the central Alpine region could have sounded just as “hard”, “dull”, “rough” to Romans like Livy as the Etruscan (Mommsen). However, only the alphabets of Bozen-Sanzeno and Magrè have in common with Etruscan the lack of an o . The last two, on the other hand, each contain a character without an Etruscan or Venetian model for sounds apparently not used by southern neighbors.

Looking at the inscriptions , the "Raetians" have a view that differs from ancient information. The latter are now considered to be too "superficial". They exaggerate, so to speak, similarities between the language and Etruscan. In the case of the Lepontic language , the closer relationship to Celtic was misunderstood.

Conclusion, further language affinity

On a linguistic and archaeological basis, the Raetians are identified today with the late Iron Age inhabitants of Tyrol , Trentino and western Veneto , archaeologically with the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture and the Magrè group. The latter is in turn justified by the linguistic result. There is a clear correspondence between ancient information and today's knowledge about "Raeter" only for the vicinity of the Vicentine Alps .

The relationship between the Rhaetian and the Etruscan languages ​​led to the postulation of a non-Indo-European family of " Tyrsenic languages " to which, in addition to these two languages, the Lemnian language is said to have also belonged. The "urtyrsenic" (Rix) source language, from which these three languages ​​found in inscriptions seem to have developed, could be around 1000 BC. Have existed.

Origin of the Raetians and their name

That the Raeti of Etruscans , under a leader Raetus should have stemmed (s. O .: Pliny, Trogus), declared as etiologic forecast not seriously her name and as origin Forecast hardly their origin.

With regard to the origin of the Etruscans , the (earlier only assumed) linguistic relationship supported the opposite speculation that they originally spread south from the Po Valley, that the Etruscans were perhaps even more "civilized Raetians" than that the latter were "feral Etruscans" .

Again in connection with the Etruscans, Raeti appears as the Etruscan self-designation ( endonym ) Rasenna , although Rhaitoí / Raeti is regarded as an exonym in contrast to the Etruscan case . A better impression is made by the idea that the Raetians formed a cult community that was attached to the Venetian fertility goddess Reitia ( Oswald Menghin ) , who was worshiped in Este .


As far as the Raetians can be identified with the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture , reference is to be made to the information on this. In addition, the Raetians in the narrower sense have cultural similarities with "supposed" Rats and other neighboring Alpine peoples such as Norikers and Vindelikers . Archaeological evidence shows that their diet was mainly based on agriculture . Remnants of bones only rarely come from red deer and wild boar (from hunting ), mostly from domestic cattle, sheep, goats, domestic pigs, and also from dogs and horses ( domestic animals ). According to Strabo, the alpine residents u. a. with raisins, resin, pine wood , wax, honey, cheese.

Roman auxiliary units

During the Roman Empire , the following auxiliary units were recruited from the Raetians :

See also

Derived terms Ethnic groups, ethnic families languages Archaeological expression


  • Paul Gleirscher : The Raetians. Rätisches Museum, Chur 1991. [Brochure on the traveling exhibition].
  • Ingrid R. Metzger, Paul Gleirscher (eds.): Die Räter / I Reti. An overview of the research status of the "Raetians" on the occasion of the traveling exhibition of the same name developed by the Rätisches Museum Chur. Athesia, Bozen 1992. (ARGE ALP - series of publications of the working group Alpine countries. New series Volume 4. Published by Commission III (Culture)) ISBN 88-7014-646-4 [Italian contributions only in summary; 764 pages]. - In particular:
    • Regula Frei-Stolba : The Raetians in the ancient sources. Pp. 657-671.
    • Ernst Risch : The Raetians as a language problem. Pp. 673-690.
    • Ludwig Pauli: In search of a people. Old and new on the councilor question. Pp. 725-740.
  • Stefan Schumacher: The Rhaetian inscriptions. History and current state of research. 2nd edition. Innsbruck contributions to cultural studies Vol. 79. Special issue. Institute for Linguistics of the University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck 2004, ISBN 3-85124-155-X [Text and page numbers - before p. 293 - taken over unchanged from the first edition from 1992, s. Preface].
  • Richard Heuberger : The Raetians. In: Journal of the German Alpine Club. Bruckmann, Munich 1939, digital version (PDF; 5.9 MB) [ancient sources].
  • Ferdinand Haug : Raeti . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IA, 1, Stuttgart 1914, Col. 42–46 (with reference to numerous ancient sources).
  • Gerhard H. Waldburg: Raeti, Raetia. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 10, Metzler, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-476-01480-0 , Sp. 749-754.

Further literature: Rhaetian language .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. So the "Bergaleer" of the Bergell , the Vennoneten of the Veltlin and the Camunni of the Valcamonica , cf. Table and Where, according to ancient sources, did Raetians live?
  2. ^ Regula Frei-Stolba : Gallia Cisalpina. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  3. a b Heuberger, Räter , p. 186.
  4. ↑ Col. 42 of: Haug: Raeti. In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IX, 1, Stuttgart 1914, Col. 42-46. (Compare Rhenus , Rhodanus .)
  5. ^ Heinrich August Pierer (Ed.): Universal Lexicon of the Present and Past. (= Universal Lexicon of the Present and the Past. Volume 14). Publishing house by HA Pierer, Altenburg 1862, p. 98. ( Pierer's Universal-Lexikon bei .)
  6. Heuberger, Räter , p. 187.
  7. ^ Strabo, Geography , IV, 6, 12.
  8. Frei-Stolba, The Raetians in the ancient sources , p. 658. The beginning of Strabo, IV, 6, 9, is evidently from 18 AD.
  9. ↑ Col. 42 of: Haug: Raeti. In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IX, 1, Stuttgart 1914, Col. 42-46 ..
  10. a b Frei-Stolba, The Raetians in the ancient sources , p. 659.
  11. a b Strabon, Geographie , IV, 6, 8.
  12. ^ Strabo, Geography , V, 1, 6.
  13. Cicero, In M. Antonium oratio Philippica 3, 38; Acts of triumph; CIL 06, 01316 and CIL 10, 06087 .
  14. ^ Heuberger: Räter , p. 188.
  15. ^ Trogus in Iunianus, XX, 5.
  16. ^ Frei-Stolba, The Raetians in the ancient sources , p. 658.
  17. ^ Pliny, Naturalis Historia , III, 133.
  18. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita , V, 33 .
  19. ^ Titus Livius : Roman history in the Gutenberg-DE project .
  20. Theodor Mommsen insinuates something of the kind on p. 121 of his Roman History - First Volume, First Book, Ninth Chapter. The Etruscans. Berlin 1923.
  21. Schumacher (2004) , p. 316, also speculates and adds something similar for Pliny with regard to Comum .
  22. ^ A b Cassius Dio , Roman History , LIV, 20, 1.
  23. ^ Frei-Stolba, The Raetians in the ancient sources , p. 663.
  24. a b c d e Cassius Dio, Roman History , LIV, 22.
  25. Horace, Carmina , IV, 4 .
  26. Horace, Carmina , IV, 14 .
  27. Neighborhood of both the Raetians and the Vindeliker to Noricum : Plinius, Naturalis Historia , III, 133 .
  28. Strabon, Geographie , IV, 6, 8 Brigantier , Estionen with Cambodunum , Likatier with Damasia .
  29. Horace, Carmina IV, 14 , 13 ff.
  30. So Heuberger: Räter , p. 188. Heuberger continues to refer to the "Lower Bavarian" Rukantier and Kotuantier, which Strabon, IV, 6, 8, counts to the Rätern, but which on the Tropaeum Alpium as Rucinates and Cosuanetes among the Vindelikers appear (Pliny, Naturalis Historia , III, 137 ) - which on the other hand is not entirely certain, cf. Vindeliker .
  31. Literally the Lech , but Heuberger, Rätien , p. 305, considers this to be an oversight, as Augusta Vindelicorum is west of the Lech.
  32. ^ Map of Switzerland in the late 1st century BC Chr .; Frei-Stolba, The Raetians in the ancient sources , p. 661: Fig. 1; Heuberger, Räter , p. 187 f .: fn. 3.
  33. a b North of Brescia , see map.
  34. a b See map in Italian-language Wikipedia.
  35. a b Risch, The Raetians as a linguistic problem , p. 684.
  36. Overview of localization on p. 8–11 by: Peter Anreiter: Breonen, Genaunen and Fokunaten. Archaeolingua Alapítavány, Budapest 1997, ISBN 963-8046-18-X (Archaeolingua, ed. Erzsébet Jerem and Wolfgang Meid, Series Minor 9th Joint Edition with Innsbruck Contributions to Cultural Studies).
  37. Pustertal and East Tyrol only Laugen-Melaun A and Fritzens-Sanzeno, in between oriented eastward.
  38. a b Beruenses near Feltre attested, there could also be residents of Berua / Beria , attested south of Vicenza ( Monti Berici ) (Frei-Stolba, Die Räter in der antiken Quellen , p. 659 and note 14).
  39. On the developments presented here by Gleirscher, Räter , and Pauli, In Search of a People .
  40. Strabo Geography: Book IV Chapter 6 . Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  41. Heuberger, Räter , p. 187 below.
  42. Rather a mythical "primitive people", enumerated by Cato , reproduced by Pliny with a certain skepticism.
  43. Tabula Clesiana , CIL 05, 05050 .
  44. E.g. Heuberger, Räter , p. 188.
  45. ^ Theodor Mommsen: The North Etruscan alphabets on inscriptions and coins. In: Communications from the Antiquarian Society in Zurich. Volume 7, 1853, pp. 199-260.
  46. p. 120 f. by: Theodor Mommsen: Roman history. First volume, first book, ninth chapter. The Etruscans. Berlin, 1923.
  47. Gleirscher (1991) , p. 10: Fig. 3.
  48. Risch, The Raetians as a linguistic problem , p. 680.
  49. See presentation of the research history in Schumacher (2004) , pp. 73 ff.
  50. See literature in Rhaetian language .
  51. Risch, Die Räter als Sprachliches Problem , p. 677: Fig. 1 compares the relevant alphabets and letters of the Alpine and Mediterranean regions.
  52. P. 121 with reference to P. 118 by Theodor Mommsen: Römische Geschichte. First volume, first book, ninth chapter. The Etruscans. Berlin 1923.
  53. Schumacher (2004) , p. 79 f.
  54. Schumacher 2004 , p. 317 f.
  55. p. 59 f. by: Helmut Rix : Rhaetian and Etruscan. In: Innsbruck contributions to linguistics. Vol. 68: Lectures and Smaller Papers. Institute for Linguistics at the University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck 1998, ISBN 3-85124-670-5 .
  56. Z. BS 121 from: Theodor Mommsen: Römische Geschichte. First volume, first book, ninth chapter. The Etruscans. Berlin 1923.
  57. Z. BS 120 ("lawn") from: Theodor Mommsen: Römische Geschichte. First volume, first book, ninth chapter. The Etruscans. Berlin 1923.
  58. On the other hand, "very unlikely" according to Col. 42 of: Haug: Raeti. In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IX, 1, Stuttgart 1914, Col. 42-46 ..
  59. Gleirscher (1991) , p. 60.
  60. Schumacher (2004) , p. 97 f., And Pauli: In search of a people , p. 734.
  61. Alfredo Riedel: On the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age fauna in the Raetian area. In: Metzger, Gleirscher: Die Räter , Bozen 1992 , pp. 701–708.
  62. ^ Strabo, Geography , IV, 6, 9.