Looking north into the Wipptal near Sterzing
|location||North Tyrol , South Tyrol|
|Waters||Sill ; Eisack|
|Mountains||Stubai Alps , Sarntal Alps , Tux Alps , Zillertal Alps|
|length||approx. 70 km|
The Wipptal is a north-south running valley in the central Eastern Alps in the Austrian North Tyrol and Italian South Tyrol . It does not form a hydrogeographical unit: the northern half is drained from the Sill and further over the river system of the Danube to the Black Sea , the southern half from the Eisack and further over the river system of the Adige to the Adriatic Sea . The Wipptal is divided into its two halves by the Brenner Pass . The northern end of the Wipptal forms the confluence with the Inntal near the Tyrolean capital Innsbruck ; as the southern border to the Eisack valley , either the bottleneck of the Sachsenklemme or, a little further south, the rising into the Brixner valley basin after the Franzensfeste .
The Wipptal runs from Innsbruck along the Sill towards the south, crosses the main Alpine ridge at the Brenner ( ) and leads in South Tyrol along the Eisack via Sterzing to the Sachsenklemme or Franzensfeste . In the north it flows into the Lower Inn Valley , in the south it continues as the Eisack Valley . The Wipptal separates the Stubai and Sarntal Alps in the west from the Tux and Zillertal Alps in the east.
The larger, populated side valleys are (from north to south) the Stubai Valley , the Gschnitztal , the Obernbergtal , Pflersch and Ridnaun to the west and the Navistal , the Schmirntal , the Valser Tal and Pfitsch to the east.
The first inhabitants of the Wipptal valley known by name were the Breonen and Genaunen tribes . They populated the low mountain range terraces and alluvial cones . For a long time, the Wipptal was a cultural, geographical and political entity within the diocese of Brixen and the county of Tyrol . The current border between Italy and Austria across the Brenner Pass was not created until the First World War when the Treaty of Saint-Germain came into force in 1920.
The name of the valley goes back to the Roman settlement Vibidenum , in the vicinity of which today's town of Sterzing was established as a Bavarian new foundation in the early Middle Ages . To 937-957 the valley in a is tradition note of the Bishopric of Freising for the first time as "vallis Vuibitina" mentioned. In the summer of 1166 the area was named " Wibetwald " in the fiefdom and income register of the Bavarian Counts of Neuburg-Falkenstein , the so-called Codex Falkensteinensis . Further mentions are Wibital around 1170 and Wiptal or Wibtal around 1200 . These mentions refer to the area around Sterzing, the term has only been used for the part north of the Brenner since the 15th century, and the Wipptal district included the districts of Sterzing and Steinach in the 16th century. The section from Innsbruck to the Brenner Pass was referred to as the lower Wipptal, the section from the Brenner to the south as the upper Wipptal.
Today, the South Tyrolean section is sometimes called the Upper Eisack Valley ( Alta Valle Isarco in Italian ). The name Silltal is occasionally used for the section north of the Brenner, which was coined in the 19th century by writers and scholars such as Johann Jakob Staffler . The name Brennertal can also be found here and there .
Due to the low altitude of the Brenner Pass, the Wipptal has long been one of the most important north-south traffic axes through the Alps. The Via Raetia already connected the province of Raetia with northern Italy in Roman times . Today the Brennerstraße and Brennerstaatsstraße , the Brennerbahn , which opened in 1867, and the Brenner motorway with its most striking structure, the Europabrücke, run here . The Brenner motorway (A13 north of the Brenner, A22 south of it) is the most important and busiest north-south crossing in the Alps and is on the Munich - Verona route . The residents of the Wipptal have been complaining about the traffic load, especially from the street, for years. The Brenner Base Tunnel , which is currently under construction - a railway line for passenger and freight traffic - is intended to relieve pressure locally.
The Wipptal has an inner-alpine valley climate that is slightly more precipitous than in the Ötztal Alps and drier south of the Brenner than north of it. Fog occurs less often than in the Inn valley, the periodic foehn is characteristic of the valley .
The mean annual precipitation is 925.3 mm in Steinach-Plon ( ) and 773.3 mm in Sterzing ( ). The mean daytime temperature in January is −2.8 ° C in Steinach and −2.1 ° C in Sterzing, in July 14.6 ° C in Steinach and 17.7 ° C in Sterzing.
The following communities are located in the Wipptal from north to south:
- Matrei am Brenner
- Steinach am Brenner
- Gries on the burner
- Free field
In side valleys are:
The communities in South Tyrol, together with the communities of some side valleys, form the Wipptal district community . The North Tyrolean municipalities of the Wipptal and its side valleys (with the exception of Patsch and the Stubai Valley) form the Wipptal Planning Association .
- Engelbert Auckenthaler: History of the farms and families of the uppermost Eisack valley (Brenner, Gossensaß, Pflersch). With special consideration of the 16th century (Schlern-Schriften 96). Wagner, Innsbruck 1953.
- Hermann Holzmann: Wipptaler Heimatsagen [= Austrian folk culture. Research on Folklore, Volume 2]. Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag 1948.
- Harald Kofler: Place and settlement names in the Wipptal . Weger, Brixen 2019, ISBN 978-88-6563-246-8 .
- Beatrix and Egon Pinzer: Wipptal - Stubaital and side valleys. Thaur / Tirol: Wort-und-Welt-Verlag 1991.
- Josef Rampold : Eisacktal: Landscape between firn and vines (= South Tyrolean regional studies . Volume 5). 5th edition. Athesia, Bozen 1996, ISBN 88-7014-166-7 .
- Helmut Stampfer (Ed.): Farms in South Tyrol. Volume 9: Upper Eisack Valley. From Mauls to Brenner . Athesia, Bozen 2015, ISBN 978-88-6839-035-8 .
- Gerhard Stürzlinger: Through the wild Wipptal. Hiking between Innsbruck and Mauls . Zurich: Rotpunktverlag 2001, ISBN 3-85869-197-6 .
- Oswald Trapp (Ed.): Tiroler Burgenbuch. III. Band: Wipptal . Athesia publishing house, Bolzano 1982.
- Entry on Wipptal in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- State of Tyrol: Planning Association 22 - Wipptal
- Martin Bitschnau , Hannes Obermair : Tiroler Urkundenbuch, II. Department: The documents on the history of the Inn, Eisack and Pustertal valleys. Volume 1: By the year 1140 . Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2009, ISBN 978-3-7030-0469-8 , p. 110, no.144 .
- Martin Bitschnau, Hannes Obermair: Tiroler Urkundenbuch, II. Department: The documents on the history of the Inn, Eisack and Pustertal valleys. Volume 2: 1140-1200 . Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2012, ISBN 978-3-7030-0485-8 , p. 186-189, no. 627 .
- Otto Stolz : History of the waters of Tyrol. Sciliar writings, Volume 32, Innsbruck 1936 ( digitized version )
- Eva Favry, Barbara Bory, Zeljka Musovic, Wolfgang Pfefferkorn, Helmut Tauber: Appendix 5.1 to the AP2 report, tasks 2.5, 2.6: Regional report Wipptal, Austria. Regional Consulting, Vienna 2003 ( PDF; 3.7 MB ( Memento from September 27, 2016 in the Internet Archive ))
- Central for Meteorology and Geodynamics: Climate data from Austria 1971–2000
- Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol: monthly and annual rainfall in Sterzing (PDF; 127 kB)