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Noricums map (green) in antiquity
Celtic tribes in Noricum around the birth of Christ
Location of the Roman province of Noricum in the Roman Empire at the time of its greatest expansion under Emperor Trajan in the years 115–117.

Noricum was a Celtic kingdom under the leadership of the Noriker tribe on a large part of the area of ​​today's Austria and adjacent areas of Bavaria (east of the Inn ) and Slovenia , which later became a province of the Roman Empire under the name Provincia Noricum . The province of Noricum bordered Italy to the south, Pannonia to the east and Raetia to the west .


Early days

The Hallstatt period population was around 450 BC. Assimilated through immigration of Celtic population elements from the Celtic core area (southwest Germany and eastern France). To what extent the people of the older Iron Age (Hallstatt Period), named after the famous Upper Austrian burial ground and salt mining of Hallstatt , were already Celts , is still controversial. Until around 1960, many linguists referred to a pre-Celtic language class spread over large areas of continental Europe as "Illyrian". Subsequently, prehistorians often mistakenly referred to the Hallstatt culture and the pre-Celtic Noric population as Illyrian. Both of these are no longer state of the art today. An ethnic interpretation of ancient Iron Age archaeological cultures is only possible if there are historical folk names that can be clearly localized. According to Otto Helmut Urban , the language class formerly known as “Illyrian” is now mostly referred to by linguists as “old European”.

Regnum Noricum

Around 200 BC BC thirteen tribes joined together under the leadership of the Noriker to form the kingdom of Noricum. Thus, the Regnum Noricum is the first known political entity in the area of ​​today's Austria . Of the 13 tribes of Noricums, eight are known by name from the excavations on the Magdalensberg : Alaunen , Ambidraven , Ambilinen , Ambisonten , Laianker , Noriker, Saevaten and Uperaken .

After 200 BC The Celts Noricums were named by the Romans after the most important tribe as Taurisker or Noriker ( Caesar ). The population increased rapidly as a result of improved cultivation methods and technological advances (iron ploughshare). The land shortage became 186 BC. Chr. So oppressive that 12,000 Taurisker and Boier moved to Italy on the Adriatic . Rome was able to prevent the founding of a city in Friuli , but not that the Celts settled in the Po Valley and on the coast of today's Veneto.

Five years later, the Romans founded Aquileia out of a military colony. The city was to acquire great importance for the Alpine transit trade. Lured by trade opportunities and gold wealth ("Noric gold"), the Romans established friendly ties with the Tauris cores of Noricum. This also gave them access to the iron deposits of the Regnum Noricum.

Around 170 BC As Titus Livius reports, BC negotiated a Roman embassy with the tribal alliance. Since then, King Cincibilus has been on friendly terms with the Romans through a "hospitium publicum" (state hospitality). As a result, good trade relations developed and Rome's influence increased. The center of the Regnum Noricum was probably the settlement on the Magdalensberg (later Virunum ); an early Roman inscription found there gives the names of the eight Noric tribes known to us. In the 2nd century BC Fortified central places ( oppida ) arose . Noric coins based on Greek models were minted. In the 1st century BC The Regnum Noricum reached its greatest extent to the east and north. The economic basis was iron ( Noric iron ), mining (rock salt), industry, agricultural products, ceramics ( Noric goods ) and trade.

Around 120–115 BC BC the Germanic tribes of the Cimbri , Ambrones and Teutons invaded Noricum , who had previously been repulsed by the Boians in the Bohemian Basin, the Skordis in the Balkans and finally by the Tauris. In 113 BC A Roman army suffered a crushing defeat at Noreia, whereupon the invaders left Noricum and moved west. Due to the pressure of the Teutons, especially the Suebi , the Boier in the north and northeast came into the vicinity of Noricum (in the area of ​​the later Regnum Vannianum  - Marchfeld , Weinviertel , Vienna Basin ), Pressburg being their most important oppidum . Around 58 BC The Boier tried to conquer Noricum, but suffered a crushing defeat. In a pact with the Tauris , they then threatened Noricum for years until their empire was destroyed by the Dacians .

In 49 BC The Noric king Voccio sent auxiliary troops to Julius Caesar for his war against Pompey. As a result of the Boier's defeat against the Dacians , the Danube region was annexed or made dependent; Noricum's power now extended to the Vienna Basin and western Hungary . Thus the Norikers succeeded in the last supra-regional power formation of the mainland Celts. The two kings of the Kingdom of Noricum known by name are Cincibilus , who lived in 170 BC. BC signed a friendship treaty with the Romans, and the Noric king Voccio , who married his sister to the Germanic prince Ariovistus . The latter is mentioned in the Gallic War because he made 300 riders available to Caesar on the Rubicon .

Noricum Province

The Roman provinces at the time of Trajan (117 AD)

The connection to "the Roman Empire took place step by step and without major warlike entanglements, also the population structure and the cultural development of this vassal kingdom, which became a province in Claudian times, shows a clear Celtic-Roman continuity for a long time." In connection with the Augustan Alpine campaigns , 16 BC BC, "the proconsul of Illyria , Publius Silius Nerva , initially pacified the border areas to Noricum and Pannonia and caused the former to be closer to Rome." At first, Noricum retained limited autonomy as a tributary principality, but under Emperor Claudius (41-54 AD) it finally became a Roman province . In future, Virunum , located on the Zollfeld in Carinthia, served as the capital and seat of the governor .

As a province, Noricum comprised the present-day Austrian federal states of Carinthia , Salzburg , Upper Austria , Lower Austria and Styria as well as the southeast of Bavaria with the Chiemgau . It also included parts of Tyrol . To the south was the Italian heartland, in the north the Celtic kingdom, in contrast to the later Roman province, extended beyond the Danube. It was only under the rule of Rome that the Danube formed the border between the empire and the province as Limes Noricus .

However, the boundaries were constantly being changed up to the elevation to provincial status. While the settlements Colonia Emona ( Laibach ), Poetovio (Eng. Pettau), Colonia Claudia Savaria ( Steinamanger ) and Scarbantia ( Ödenburg ) along the road from Aquileia to Carnuntum (the old Amber Road ) were probably always Noric, they became around 8 AD. With the establishment of the province of Pannonia this annexed. Carnuntum itself still belonged to Noricum in 6 AD, but was also added to the province of Pannonia together with the Vienna Basin.

In the 2nd century, Noricum suffered from the ravages of the Marcomannic Wars . Under Emperor Marc Aurel , the 2nd Italian Legion was stationed at the mouth of the Enns. Its commander was also provincial governor with his seat in Lauriacum or Ovilava , the financial administration kept its seat in Virunum .

Late period

During the administrative reform made under Emperor Diocletian , Noricum was added to the Diocese of Illyria . The province itself was divided into

The imperial reform Diocletian brought significant changes for military and administrative organization of the province. After the turmoil of the military empire, Diocletian reinforced the border units again. Among other things, the legion riders posted by Emperor Gallienus for his mobile field army were sent back to their main units.

An additional legion was set up for Noricum , the Legio I Noricorum , which was stationed in Adiuvense (Ybbs / Danube or Wallsee) and Favianis (Mautern / Danube) after evaluating brick stamps . The Noric house legion, the Legio II Italica , was divided between Lauriacum (Enns), Lentia (Linz) and Ioviaco ( Schlögen ). The civil administration of the Noric provinces was now in the hands of praesides , who had their official seat in Ovilava (Wels) and Virunum , later in Teurnia / Tiburnia (St. Peter in Holz). In the not so exposed interior of the empire and protected by the main Alpine ridge, Noricum mediterraneum does not seem to have had any standing troops apart from the vigiles (guards) in the larger cities and at road posts.

The Noric army was not divided, however. The high command initially held a praeses provinciae Norici ripensis , which resided in Lauriacum . The separate naming of the two border armies of Pannonia I and Noricums in the Notitia Dignitatum also speaks for the long independence of the Noric army under its own commanders. Under Constantine I a new, cross-border ducat was set up and the Noric and Upper Pannonian Limitanei were subordinated to a Dux Pannoniae Primae et Norici Ripensis . His official seat was the capital of Pannonia I, Carnuntum. Since Constantine I and especially under Valentinian I, extensive reconstructions and new buildings have taken place at all forts , which above all modernized the fortification system (e.g. the addition of protruding fan or horseshoe towers, heightening and strengthening of the fort walls) and thus the new strategies and attack methods the opponent should consider. How urgently the forts on the Limes were in need of renovation is suggested by the mention of Carnuntum in the writings of Ammianus Marcellinus, who now described the once flourishing city as a neglected and dirty nest, although even Valentinian I set up his headquarters here at times and the city always was of great strategic importance. A more defensive defense strategy became particularly necessary in Pannonia after the province of Dacia was abandoned under Aurelian .

Above all, stamped bricks of Ursicinus dux and Ursicinus magister , but also two building inscriptions from the Carnuntum legionary camp and the burgus of Ybbs attest to the entire Lower Austrian Limes and beyond. According to the Notitia Dignitatum , a state shield factory (fabrica Lauriacensis scutaria) was set up in Lauriacum , probably under Diocletian, to supply the army. The Legio II Italica operated brickworks near Wilhering and in Erla near St. Pantaleon. Cities in the hinterland of the Noric Limes were now surrounded by defensive walls, such as Aelium Cetium , today Sankt Pölten and Scarbantia , today Ödenburg / Hungary. The border lines were also covered with a network of watchtowers and signal towers (see e.g. Bacharnsdorf / Lower Austria) and at particularly endangered sections with opposing fortifications (i.e. on the opposite bank of the Danube). In some cases, however, these praesidia castra were only concerned with the renewal of existing fortifications ( Oberleiser Berg and Stillfried in Lower Austria). Small forts - so-called quadriburgi or centenaria - were established between the established forts . B. in Oberranna , Upper Austria and watchtowers ( Wilhering , Upper Austria, Au-Rotte Hof near St. Pantaleon, Lower Austria, Bacharnsdorf , Lower Austria, Rossatz, Lower Austria , Hollenburg, Lower Austria ). According to a building inscription , the Burgus near Ybbs / Danube was built in 370 by milites auxiliares Lauriacenses (auxiliary troops from Lauriacum ) under the command of Leontius. Further names of officers or brick producers (Ursicinus, Maxentius, Bonosus) were also found on Ybbs brick stamps. Since the border units were already considerably thinned out at that time, they could now be accommodated in small fortresses (remaining fortifications ) in a corner of the camp area, such as in Cannabiaca / Zeiselmauer / Lower Austria and Wallsee / Upper Austria. Merited soldiers were also officially allowed to settle their families within the camps; a little later everyone was allowed to do so. These defensive structures, which were built with great effort during the time of Valentinian I, only had a short lifespan and for the most part had to be abandoned in the early 5th century. Only larger burgi and small fortresses survived the beginning of the 5th century (Cannabiaca); around 420-430, however, they too lost their military function. Since the Limitanei also acted as farmers in addition to their security tasks due to tax relief, the forts changed over the course of time more and more into fortified small towns and fortified villages. In the Vita Sancti Severini of Eugippius these are referred to as oppida .

The collapse of Roman rule

The collapse of Roman rule in Noricum is a case study of what happened to those provinces where the military power of Rome dwindled because the financial resources could no longer be raised. The general living conditions on the Danube border had remained bearable until the end of the 4th century; The continuous reduction in the number of border units due to constantly flaring up internal Roman disputes or defensive battles against the barbarians brought the civilian population under increasing economic pressure. In the years around 430/431 a rebellion broke out in Noricum because of the high tax burden, which was bloodily suppressed by the Western Roman regent and army master, Aëtius . The subsequent loss of the rich North African provinces to the Vandals under Geiserich in 439 forced Aëtius to cut the budget for the army and withdraw more units from the borders to protect Italy.

The Eastern Roman historian Priskos reported around the middle of the 5th century (448/449) a. a. of the arrival of Noric dignitaries at the court of Attila , king of the Huns , who had come here as members of an embassy from Aëtius. One of them, Promotus, is referred to as the "head of the land of the Noriker", the other, Romanus, as the "leader of the host". If Priskos is interpreted correctly, then Promotus must have been a praeses Norici (whether from inland or bank Norici is unknown) and Romanus must have been the commander of the border troops on the Danube Limes . An ufernorischer Praeses is not mentioned by Priskos. Since it can be assumed that Aëtius had ordered all high Noric officials to Attila, the office of the Ufer Noric praeses was either vacant or already dissolved at that time . Also in the Lower Pannonian province of Valeria , the local Dux had taken over the civil administration, which in turn could be an indication that Romanus was used as commander in Ufernorikum. Priskos clearly mentions Romanus in his enumeration after Promotus, which speaks in favor of adhering to the traditional hierarchy. Romanus could therefore not have been a Comes (vir spectabilis) . The naming of Romanus' name after that of the Noric Praeses disqualifies him according to the ranking of the Notitia Dignitatum but also as Dux, since the civil governors at the imperial court were considered viri perfectissimi and were therefore subordinate to the Dux (vir spectabilis) . Romanus was thus possibly the administrative successor of Dux Pannoniae I et Norici Ripensis , whose status was downgraded and already severely restricted in his territory , who, it seems, only had the say in Ufernoricum, since Aëtius ceded the largely depopulated Upper Pannonia to the Huns in 433 would have.

An outstanding figure of the late Roman period in this region was Severin von Noricum (around 410 - January 8, 482), hermit, abbot of Favianis and possibly also a high Roman administrative clerk. Severin became known for his diplomatic and balancing negotiations, especially with the Germanic tribe of the Rugians, who settled north of the Danube around Krems . The end of Roman rule in Noricum is reported in great detail in the (Vita Sancti Severini) of Eugippius . In the paragraph on the dissolution of the border troops it says:

At the time when the Roman Empire still existed, the soldiers in many cities were paid for guarding the Limes from public funds (publicis stipendiis alebantur) . When this regulation ceased, the military units disintegrated with the Limes. "

This fatal development probably began in the late 460s, as a result of the unsuccessful military operations to recapture the provinces in North Africa that were vital to the western empire. First Emperor Majorian failed after the Western Roman fleet had already been completely wiped out by Geiseric's ships at its assembly point at Carthago Nova ( Cartagena ) (perhaps through betrayal) . Some time later, an Eastern Roman invasion fleet under their admiral Basiliskos was destroyed near Carthage . After these catastrophic failures, the reconquest of North Africa was a long way off, as the military and financial possibilities of the Eastern Roman Empire were exhausted. As Ravenna's coffers remained empty, the administration, army organization and discipline in the West quickly deteriorated. Only a few scattered soldiers (probably mostly Germanic foederati ), who received no pay and supplies from Italy, performed their guard duty in the Noric and Rhaetian forts (in Lauriacum and Batavis until the middle of the 5th century). Up until that time, some other regular units were sure to hold the position. However, their number could no longer be roughly compared with the army specified in the Notitia Dignitatum.

In the Favianis fort there was still a small garrison (paucissimi milites) under the command of a tribune , Mamertinus, at the time of Severin (for his person see below) - who founded his parent monastery there ; this was later ordained a bishop . Since the Vita was primarily about emphasizing the work of the saint for the troubled provincial population as positively as possible, according to Peter Heather , the mention of the then certainly larger Roman armed force in Noricum would have only diminished Severin's achievements. Nevertheless, there are some clear indications that the Danube Army did not lose its substance dramatically until after the end of the Huns threat . Archaeological investigations in Noric forts brought u. a. revealed that shortly after 400, coin circulation ceased almost everywhere, with the exception of Lauriacum . From this point on , Ravenna was probably no longer able to pay its border guards. The villae rusticae discovered in Noricum so far , which were either abandoned or destroyed during this period , also speak for the precarious security situation that followed. The Romanesque population fled to heavily fortified hilltop settlements, most of which had a church or basilica as their center. Some of these places of refuge were directly on the Danube, but most of them were in Binnennoricum, in what is now East Tyrol (Lavant-Kirchbichl) and Carinthia . There is also a mention of this in Severin's vita:

On divine instigation, the servant of God's foresighted spirit prepared them (the rural dwellers around Lauriacum) to secure all their poor possessions within the walls (of the legionary camp) , so that the enemies on their terrible foray would find nothing that man needs to live and immediately give up their inhumanly cruel enterprise because of hunger. "

After that, the provincial residents who remained here had to take care of their own safety, they withdrew behind the walls of the legionary camps and forts and put up guards. Such vigiles are mentioned for Comagenis , Favianis , Lauriacum and Batavis . Since most of the soldiers had families and farmed here, probably not all of them left, but instead stayed in their former stations. The garrisons therefore certainly did not disappear from one day to the next, but gradually became weaker and weaker and eventually turned into vigilante groups. Another (and well-tried) option was to recruit Teutons, as the people of Comagenis did. But this again led to new problems. Such mercenaries often ruthlessly exploit their power. They soon made exaggerated demands on the citizens and could ultimately, according to Vita, only be driven out of the city again with divine assistance, mediated by Severin. Another passage from the Severinsvita tells of an ambush by the Favianis garrison against a group of looters on a river bank who were gutted and then appropriated everything useful. Their tribune Mamertinus hesitated at first to face them, as he had few battle-hardened soldiers and hardly any weapons available. But Severin gave them his blessing and expressly encouraged them to act. This story throws a striking light on the considerable difficulties that had arisen for the residents of the Danube border as a result of the disappearance of the state administrative and military organization. Apparently, in order to be able to defend oneself at all, one first had to get the equipment from the enemy. The Vita further shows that the efforts of the provincial residents for their safety were also successful on other occasions. Scouting troops (exploratores) of the Romanes reported several times imminent attacks on Lauriacum , Batavis and Quintanis , so that defensive measures could be taken in good time.

After the complete dissolution of the Roman frontier army, Noricum and Upper Pannonia could no longer exist as territorial units. But for the regional powers struggling for supremacy, the Provençals were too valuable a labor and craftsman resource to simply leave them to their own devices. It was also impossible for the residents of the hill settlements in the inland Norse to maintain their independence in the long term. With the abandonment of the Ufernorikum under Odoacer and the associated evacuation of most of the provincials under the leadership of his brother Hunwulf and Comes Pierus to Italy in 488, the last remnants of Roman rule on the central Danube disappeared. The inland Norse province was also increasingly threatened by migrant tribes, its metropolis Virunum had to be abandoned and its population fled to the heavily fortified Teurnia. In 407, Alaric's Visigoth Army occupied the province and claimed it as a settlement area for his followers, as "it would be largely devastated and would only bring in little tax income." When this was rejected, Alaric invaded Italy, marched on Rome and stormed the city. The provincial capital of Noricum Mediterraneum was now Tiburnia . The exact time of the relocation is unknown; but it must have taken place before the Ostrogothic siege of Tiburnia in 467.

King Odoacer ordered the withdrawal of the Celto-Roman population from Noricum Ripense in 488. Contrary to earlier views, this order was only partially obeyed. Name continuity in toponyms as well as an abundance of archaeological finds demonstrate a broad cultural continuity beyond the official collapse of the Roman administration in the Noric regions and connect the Roman period through late antiquity with the early Middle Ages . After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, parts of the Roman, later Ostrogothic administration in Inner Noricum remained for a while until the former province was finally settled by new population groups, Avars , Slavs and Baiuwaren .


Road network

Noricum was covered with a dense network of highways by the Romans in the following centuries. Numerous milestones and other archaeological finds bear witness to this. The best-researched Roman road station Noricums is Immurium (Moosham, State of Salzburg), at the southern foot of the Radstädter Tauern Pass . Another important connection led from Rome via Aquileia, Emona, Celeia, Poetovio to Carnuntum. Numerous side streets branched off into the Noric Alps. At Aquileia one road went to Aguntum , another led via Virunum to Ovilava ( Wels ). The Loiblpass was also already in existence thanks to a mule track over Emona. From Celeia one reached the Hüttenberger ore area and from Virunum via the Roman road Virunum - Iuvavum to Iuvavum . The Murtal with Flavia Solva (near Leibnitz) was opened up from Poetovio. The second most important connection led along the Danube Limes from the Pannonian Vindobona (Vienna) via Cetium (St. Pölten), Lauriacum (Lorch- Enns ) to Boiodurum ( Passau ). At Lauriacum branch branches branched off to Ovilava, which led to Iuvavum (Salzburg).

Cities, forts and rivers

The location of the capital of Regnum Noricum, Noreia , is still unknown. In Roman times, Virunum advanced to become a provincial metropolis, which remained the administrative center of Inner Noricum after the division. Later the finance and postal administration also resided here. Teurnia took over this function from the 2nd half of the 5th century AD .

Ufer-Noricum was administered from Ovilavis . Lauriacum, Poetovio, Celeia, Aguntum, Teurnia and probably also Virunum advanced to become bishoprics in late antiquity.

Noricum Ripense was flown by:

Narus ( Salzach ) and Anisus ( Enns ), the border in the west to Raetia was formed by the Aenus ( Inn ), the northern border to Barbaricum by the Danuvius ( Danube ), the border in the east to Pannonia by the Arrabo (Raab). The name Danuvius for the upper reaches of the Danube has been used since the middle of the 1st century AD.

The most important cities and forts on the Noric Limes were:

Ovilavis (Wels / Upper Austria), Cetium (St.Pölten), Boiodurum ( Passau ), Lauriacum (Enns / Upper Austria), Lentia (Linz), Ioviaco ( Schlögen ), Favianis (Mautern), Zwentendorf , Comagenis ( Tulln ) and Cannabiaca ( Zeiselmauer ), the last Norican fort before the border with Pannonia.

Noricum Mediterraneum was flowed through by:

Dravus ( Drava ).

The most important cities were:

Iuvavum ( Salzburg ), Cucullae ( Kuchl ), Tiburnia or Teurnia (administrative headquarters) ( St. Peter in Holz near Spittal an der Drau), Aguntum ( Dölsach / Lienz ), Virunum ( Zollfeld ), Poetovio ( Ptuj / Pettau, Slovenia), Celeia ( Celje / Cilli, Slovenia) and Flavia Solva ( Wagna ).

Noric settlements connected with post stations:

Noreia ( Wildbad Einöd ; not identical with the Upper Styrian town called Noreia since 1930 and the site of the Battle of Noreia ), Gabromagus ( Windischgarsten ), Graviacae ( Flattnitz ), Lotodos (?), Ad Anisum ( Radstadt ), Ad Medias (in Slovenia ), Ad Pontem ( Lind ), Ad Vicesimum (?), Ad Vineas (?), Atrans ( Trojani / Trojane , Slovenia), Beliandrum ( Feldkirchen in Kärnten ), Candalicae ( Friesach ), Colatio (Stari trg near Slovenj Gradec / Altenmarkt near Windischgraz), Ernolatia (?), Inalpe ( Radstädter Tauernpass ), In Murio (also Immurium ; Moosham), Ioviacum ( Schlögen / Donau), Iuenna ( Globasnitz ), Laciacis (near Mösendorf ), Littamum ( Innichen / I), Matuc ? alum (?), Monatae ( Sankt Georgen ob Judenburg ), Poedicum ( Bruck an der Mur ), Santicum ( Villach ), Sebatum ( Sankt Lorenzen im Pustertal / I), Tarnantone ( Neumarkt am Wallersee ), Tarnasciae (?), Tartusanae ( St. Johann am Tauern ), Tergolape (near Schwanenstadt ), Tutatio ( Micheldorf ), Upellae (?), Vetonianae (? ) and vocario (?).

Other settlements and forts are known:

Small fort Oberranna, Ad Iuvense ( Ybbs ?), Ad Mauros ( Eferding ), Arelape ( Pöchlarn ), Augustianae ( Traismauer ), Bedaium ( Seebruck / D), Boiodurum ( Passau ), Cannabiaca ( Zeiselmauer ), Favianae ( Mautern an der Donau ) , Gurina ( Dellach im Gailtal ), Lentia ( Linz ), Locus Felix ( Wallsee ), Meclaria (?), Namare ( Melk / Danube), Piro torto / Asturis (?) ( Zwentendorf ), Stiriatae ( Liezen ), Surontium ( shoots ) and Viscella ( Oberzeiring ).



  1. The Illyrians - a bellicose mountain people? ( Memento of the original from January 15, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on science @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. [1] English website regarding the history of the Roman Empire with detailed mention of Noricum and Voccio
  3. Marcus Junkelmann : The Legions of Augustus. The Roman soldier in an archaeological experiment , ( Cultural History of the Ancient World . Vol. 33). Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1986, pp. 63 and 70. ISBN 3-8053-0886-8 .
  4. Notitia Dignitatum occ. 34, 13.
  5. Ammianus Marcellinus 30, 5: cumque exinde (sc Valentinianus), Carnuntum Illyriorum oppidum introisset, desertum quidem nunc et squalens, sed ductori exercitus perquam opportunum .
  6. ^ Notitia Dignitatum occ IX: Insignia magistri officiorum.
  7. Hannsjörg Ubl, 1980/2, p. 597.
  8. CIL 3, 5670 a = Hermann Dessau , Inscriptiones Latinae selectae 774.
  9. Peter Heather: The Fall of the Western Roman Empire . Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-499-62665-4 , p. 476.
  10. Priskos Fragment 8; Pp. 84 and 89 = 11, 2 pp. 262 and 276 (edition by Roger C. Blockley ); John Martindale et al .: Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire 2, 926 (Promothus 1), 946-947 (Romanus 2) and 949-950 (Romulus 2 and 4).
  11. On office holders see Ammianus Marcellinus 31, 16, 1-2; generally see Arnold Hugh Martin Jones : The Later Roman Empire, 284-602. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey . Oxford University Press, Oxford 1964, Vol. 1, pp. 142-143.
  12. ^ Vita Severini 4, 2-4; Arnold Hugh Martin Jones: The Later Roman Empire, 284-602. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey . Oxford University Press, Oxford 1964, Vol. 2, p. 924.
  13. Peter Heather: The Fall of the Western Roman Empire . Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-499-62665-4 , p. 471.
  14. Peter Heather: The Fall of the Western Roman Empire . Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-499-62665-4 , p. 473.
  15. Heiko Steuer , Volker Bierbrauer (ed.): Hill settlements between antiquity and the Middle Ages from the Ardennes to the Adriatic. With the assistance of Michael Hoeper. de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-020235-9 , ( Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde supplementary volumes 58).


  • Géza Alföldy : Patrimonium Regni Norici - A contribution to the territorial history of the Roman province of Noricum . In: Bonner Jahrbücher . Volume 170, 1970, pp. 163-177.
  • Géza Alföldy: Noricum . London 1974.
  • Géza Alföldy: The regional structure in the Roman province of Noricum . In: G. Gottlieb (Ed.): Spatial planning in the Roman Empire . 1989, pp. 37-55.
  • Thomas Fischer: Noricum ( Orbis Provinciarum ). Mainz 2002.
  • Verena Gassner, Sonja Jilek, Sabine Ladstätter : On the edge of the empire. The Romans in Austria . Vienna 2002.
  • Peter Pleyel: Roman Austria . 1994.
  • Peter Scherrer , Marijeta Šašel Kos (ed.): The Autonomous Towns of Noricum and Pannonoia = The autonomous cities of Noricum and Pannonia. Noricum (= Situla. Volume 40). Ljubljana 2002.
  • Hannsjörg UblNoricum. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 21, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2002, ISBN 3-11-017272-0 , pp. 324-340.
Pre and early Roman Noricum
  • Gerhard Dobesch : The Celts in Austria according to the oldest reports of antiquity - The Noric Kingdom and its relations with Rome in the 2nd century BC. Chr. Vienna a. a., 1980.
  • Gerhard Dobesch , The occupation of the Regnum Noricum by Rome . In: Studies on the military borders of Rome, Volume 3. 1986, pp. 308-315.
  • Robert Göbl : The coinage of the Noric princes . In: J. Grabmayer (ed.): The culture of the Celts . 1989, pp. 54-66.
Military and Administrative History
  • Herbert Graßl : Noricum in the civil war of 196–197 AD. In: Römisches Österreich. Volume 2, 1974, pp. 7-10.
  • Manfred Hainzmann: Questions of the military and civil administration (Ufer-) Norikums . In: Spezima Nova Universitatis Quinqueecclesiensis. Volume 11, 1995, pp. 59-70.
  • Norbert Hanel, Cathy Schucany (ed.): Colonia-municipium-vicus - structure and development of urban settlements in Noricum, Raetia and Upper Germany . 1999.
Social and economic history
  • S. Dusanic: Aspects of Roman Mining in Noricum, Pannonia, Dalmatia and Moesia Superior . In: Rise and Fall of the Roman World. Volume II, 6, 1977 pp. 52-94.
  • Jochen Garbsch : The Noric-Pannonian costume . In: Rise and Decline of the Roman World , Volume II, 12.3, 1985, pp. 546-577.
  • Kurt Genser : The rural settlement and agriculture in Noricum during the imperial period (up to and including the 5th century) . In: H. Bender and H. Wolff (eds.): Rural settlement and agriculture in the Rhine-Danube provinces of the Roman Empire . 1994, pp. 331-376.
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Noricum in late antiquity
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  • Helmut Castritius : The border defense in Raetien and Noricum in the 5th century AD - A contribution to the end of antiquity . In: H. Wolfram, A. Schwarz (Hrsg.): Die Bayern und seine Nachbarn, Volume 1. 1985, pp. 17–28.

Web links

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