|coat of arms||Austria map|
|Political District :||Lienz|
|License plate :||LZ|
|Residents :||11,905 (January 1, 2020)|
|Postal code :||9900|
|Area code :||04852|
|Community code :||7 07 16|
|Address of the
|Mayoress :||Elisabeth Blanik ( SPÖ )|
Municipal Council : (2016)
|Location of Lienz in the Lienz district|
View of Lienz, background Kreuzeck group
|Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria|
Lienz [ ˈli: ɛnt͜s ] is a city in Tyrol and the administrative seat of the Lienz district of the same name (East Tyrol). The urban area is 16 km². With 11,905 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020) Lienz is the seventh largest city in Tyrol and the economic, cultural and social center of East Tyrol. It lies at the confluence of the Isel and the Drava .
During the Roman times, the neighboring Aguntum was the center of the region. Lienz took center stage during the Middle Ages when it became the headquarters of the Counts of Gorizia . After the counts of Gorizia died out, Lienz fell to Maximilian I in 1500 , who united the area around Lienz with Tyrol. However, the owners of the Lienz estate were subsequently owned by the Wolkenstein-Rodenegg family and the Haller Damenstift . Lienz experienced its greatest population growth and a massive expansion of the local infrastructure at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century after the expansion of the Pustertal Railway . During the Second World War, the population increased due to the settlement of South Tyroleans, and in 1939 the neighboring community of Patriasdorf was merged with Lienz.
Durable goods production, trade and tourism are the main industries. In addition, numerous employees find work in the health, education and administration sectors. Agriculture, on the other hand, is declining sharply due to the high settlement pressure.
Lienz is located in eastern East Tyrol at the intersection of the Drau , Puster and Isel valleys ; the Isel flows into the Drau in Lienz . The municipality covers large parts of the Lienz basin and extends over an area of 15.94 km². The city center of Lienz is at an altitude of 673 meters, the highest point in the community is in the area of the Hochsteinhütte ( ).
Lienz consists of the two cadastral communities Patriasdorf and Lienz. Patriasdorf includes the largely uninhabited southwestern part of the community with the Schlossberg and the Hochsteinbahn as well as the northwestern settlement of the same name. The rest of the municipality with the majority of the population, however, belongs to the cadastral municipality of Lienz, the incorporation of the formerly independent municipality of Patriasdorf took place in 1939. The subdivision into two cadastral communities remained, however.
In addition to the subdivision into cadastral communities, Lienz also distinguishes between various districts. In addition to Patriasdorf and the old town of Lienz, these are the cattle market north of the old town and the Grafenanger in the north. The peace settlement, the Eichholz settlement and the parish settlement exist in the south of Lienz. The Peggetz in the east is an area in which mainly industry and commerce are located.
In 2001, 692 hectares (ha) (43.4%) were covered by forest areas in the area of the western municipal area at Schlossberg and in the area of the Hochsteinbahn. 499 hectares (31.3%) of the municipal area were used for agricultural purposes and other green spaces. The built-up area with the housing estates and the commercial and industrial areas comprised 216 ha (13.6%) of the municipal area, plus 157 ha of wasteland (9.8%) and 30 ha of water and wetlands (1.9%).
Lienz lies on the border between the Central Alps and the Southern Limestone Alps , roughly marked by the Drau. In the area of Lienz, three mountain groups of the Central Alps, the Villgraten Mountains , the Schober Group and the Kreuzeck Group meet. The only significant elevations in the municipality of Lienz are to the west of Lienz in the area of the Hochstein ( ) and the Schlossberg (approx. ), both foothills of the Villgraten Mountains. In the north of the Lienz basin lies the Schober group, to the east the Kreuzeck group. The Lienz Dolomites , part of the Southern Limestone Alps, extend southeast of the Drau .
The Lienz basin was during the Ice Age by the advancing glaciers from the Isel, the Drautal and on the Iselsberg advancing Möllgletscher deepening and broadening of the largest basin of the federal state Tirol. The valley locations consist of relatively young, partly coarse, partly fine alluvial material that was brought in from the Drau and Isel. Alluvial cones that were created by recurring eruptions of the Mur are characteristic of the Lienz basin . They are particularly located in the north of Lienz, with the Schleinitzbach and Zauchenbach alluvial fan being the most powerful.
The confluence of the Isel into the Drau is characteristic of the location of Lienz , with five bridges over the Isel and three bridges over the Drau in the municipality of Lienz. Although the Isel near Lienz is richer in water than the Drau, the Drau retains its name as it comes from the main valley. Larger tributaries into the two rivers exist only in the north, with the Schleinitzbach flowing through Patriasdorf draining into the Isel. A little further to the east is the Grafenbach, which flows into the Drau just after the confluence of the Isel and Drau rivers. In addition, the Wartschenbach forms the border with the municipality of Nußdorf-Debant. In the area of the Schlossberg am Hochstein, however, only the relatively short Wolfesbach flows into the Isel from the south.
Relatively warm and humid summers and cold winters are predominant in Lienz, with Lienz being part of the inner-alpine area with influences from the Mediterranean climate. Between 1971 and 2000, an average annual rainfall of 915 millimeters was calculated for the Lienz weather station, with the heaviest rainfall falling in the summer months June to August with the peaks in July and the driest months of the year being the winter months January and February.
Between 1971 and 2000 an average annual temperature of 7.0 ° C was determined, with the highest average temperature being reached in July at 17.9 ° C. The lowest mean temperatures, however, were reached in January at −5.2 ° C. In the Lienz district, the Lienz basin thus occupies a prominent position, as only at this location can the cultural level up to the upper limit of viticulture be reached. Various types of fruit thrive well in sunny locations, and viticulture in the Lienz basin has also been documented until the 16th century.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Lienz
Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics ZAMG
Prehistory and early history
The oldest find to date that testifies to human settlement in the Lienz area is a serpentine flat ax from around 2000 BC, which was found on the Schlossberg. The oldest settlement discovered in the Lienz area is on the nearby Breitegg in the municipality of Nußdorf-Debant . Their existence is proven by archaeological finds between the late Neolithic and the early Iron Age . The population who settled here belonged to the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture of the Latène period , before the Celts penetrated into what is now East Tyrol around 400 BC and mixed with the existing population. For the Lienz area, the Celtic tribe of the Laianci was decisive. At the end of the 2nd century BC, the neighboring Celtic tribes formed a loose tribal union, the center of which was on the Carinthian Magdalensberg . At that time, the Roman Empire was already in close contact with the Celts, and around 50 AD the region finally fell to the Romans. The Romans finally incorporated the East Tyrol region into their province of Noricum .
Subsequently, the city of Aguntum (today the municipality of Dölsach ), only a few kilometers away from Lienz, became the dominant center of the region , whereby Aguntum was raised by Emperor Claudius to the “Municipium Claudium Aguntum”. After a heyday in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, migrating Germanic troops caused multiple destruction in the 3rd century. Although the city recovered from the devastation, from this time the population slowly withdrew to hilltop settlements. Subsequently, the nearby Lavant rose to a settlement center , Aguntum itself was badly damaged in 400/406 and finally completely destroyed in 610 in a great battle between the Bavarians and the Slavs .
Lienz in the early and high Middle Ages
The successor settlement for the destroyed Aguntum is believed to be in the area of the hill around today's parish church of St. Andrä , where excavations have uncovered an early Christian church. Located in eastern Carantania , the Lienz Basin was directly affected by the diocesan regulation decreed by Charlemagne in 811 , according to which the Drau should separate the episcopal churches from Aquileia and Salzburg . The area around St. Andrew's Church belonged to the Patriarch of Aquileia, the church was expanded in the course of the Slavic mission. Patriasdorf, the forerunner settlement of the later city of Lienz, may have arisen from the estate owned by Aquileia. Lienz Castle ( castrum Luenz ), in which the Gaugraf and later the Burgrave of Lienz had his seat, stood next to the Andreas Church in Patriasdorf . The manor houses of the landowners and the meeting place for the population of the Lienz Gau were also in the immediate vicinity.
Lienz was first mentioned as "locus Luenzina" in a traditional note in the period from 1022 to 1039 , with which Bishop Hartwig von Brixen gave the Brixen cathedral chapter 20 Slavic hooves , whereby the place name at that time also refers to the extensive area of the alluvial fan between Thurn and Oberlienz was applied. The name meaning is derived from the Celtic word Lonkina for 'arcuately curved area'. A connection with the Celts of the Laianci tribe living there is also conceivable.
In the 11th century the name Traditionsbücher the Bishopric of Brixen in Lienz area more than 20 landowners, including churches, counts and ministerials included. At that time they drove the clearing of the valley, whereby the Counts of the Lienz area, the Meinhardiners , were among the most important colonizers. In addition to their own subjects, the Meinhardiner probably also employed recruited settlers and, towards the end of the 12th century, also had the burgum (market settlement) built in the valley floor, where they were the sole landowners. It is believed that the Meinhardiner created a counterpoint to Patriasdorf, which was controlled by the Patriarch of Aquileia , whereby the size and location of the Burgum are to be equated with today's main square. The Lienz burgum was an elongated triangle that was surrounded by a wall, within which about 30 wooden houses huddled together. In addition, the burgum housed the count's castle and the seat of the burgrave.
Lienz in the late Middle Ages
If Lienz was initially a settlement of knights who were mainly knightly servants ( ministerials ), a document from 1237 mentions citizens of Lienz for the first time ("cives in Luonz"). In addition to the ministerials, the inhabitants of Lienz now also included traders and craftsmen, whereby the Meinhardiner, now appearing as Counts of Gorizia, promoted this development as they were able to collect considerable taxes from trade and handicrafts. As a result, Lienz grew into a medieval city, with its status as a city first documented in 1242 as “in civitate Luancen”.
The center of economic life in the city of Lienz was the regular weekly markets and the annual markets held six times a year. Since the sale of goods outside of the city was prohibited, the surrounding population had to buy all goods in Lienz. In addition to the market, Lienz also benefited from long-distance trade, which led from Styria and Carinthia via Lienz to Tyrol and Switzerland . In order to stimulate the movement of goods, the Counts of Görz expanded the road into the Pustertal and had large warehouses built. Subsequently, mainly ore , hides and loden from Carinthia as well as cloth, yarn, wax and horsehair from the south were traded via the Pustertal. Another trade route led from Friuli over the Plöckenpass and the Gailbergsattel to Lienz and on to Salzburg and southern Germany. The cattle trade to northern Italy was another important branch of trade.
In addition to trade, money also played an important role. There has been a mint in Lienz since 1200, which minted the Lienz Pfenning, Kreuzer, Gulden and other coins over a period of 300 years. An exchange and lending bank operated by Jews served long-distance trade; Isak von Lienz was around 1300 the most important donor of the Eastern Alps. In the third quarter of the 13th century, the Counts of Gorizia had Bruck Castle built, thereby relocating their power center from Patriasdorf to the Schlossberg. The flourishing economy soon made an expansion of the city necessary, with the city wall being moved west to today's Hans-von-Graben-Gasse between 1311 and around 1320 . To the west, the city wall was protected by the moat in front of it, and further west there was the outer moat that protected the suburbs. The suburbs were located along Schweizergasse and Meraner Gasse (now Messinggasse) and were also referred to as the “outer city” or “upper market”. They quickly rose to become the economic center of Lienz and contained numerous workshops, hostels and sales outlets. In addition to the western suburbs, to the north of the Isel, was the Rindermarkt district with the St. Michael church, which dates from the second half of the 13th century.
The rise of the bourgeoisie, which, as a sign of its prosperity, financed the St. John's Church, which no longer exists, led to increasing population growth, which was only interrupted in 1348 by the outbreak of the plague . While there is no information about the size of the population for this time, historians estimate the population in the 15th century on the basis of the sources at around 1500. In addition to the numerous traders, traders and civil servants lived in Lienz. There were also day laborers, miners and farmers. The clergy also made up a significant proportion of the population in Lienz, the Dominican monastery was founded in 1218, and the Gorizia donated a Carmelite monastery in 1348 . For years, until July 1392, Lienz was under the control of Duke Johann von Bayern , who had the inheritance of his wife Katharina von Görz administered here.
Changes of ownership and fires in the early modern period
After the great fire of the city in 1444, Lienz was again threatened by destruction at the end of the 15th century, this time by the nearby Ottoman army . The Counts of Görz therefore initiated the construction of a new city wall, which now also encompassed the suburbs with the Schweizergasse and Meraner Gasse and in the north reached just as far as the Isel. However, the Counts of Gorizia did not live to see the completion of this project. With the death of Count Leonhard on April 12, 1500, the line of the Gorizians became extinct, whereupon the property of the Gorizians fell to Maximilian I through an inheritance contract , who had also been Prince of Tyrol since 1490. In 1501, Maximilian I finally ordered the Lienz rulership to join the Puster Valley with Tyrol. For lack of money, however, he sold the Lienz estate to his councilor and court master Michael von Wolkenstein-Rodenegg in August 1501 . This came into the possession of the surrounding regional courts as well as the city of Lienz and Bruck Castle itself.
Since life in Schloss Bruck did not meet the needs of the people of Selva in the long run, they had the Liebburg residence built on the lower square between 1605 and 1608. As early as 1609, however, there was a major fire in the city, which destroyed 114 houses, 70 feed houses, the Liebburg, the Carmelite monastery, the citizens' hospital, the Johanneskirche and several farm buildings. 13 people also died. The town fire meant financial decline for the people of Selva. In 1642 Johann von Wolkensteiner-Rodenegg had to leave Bruck Castle with the rule of Lienz back to the sovereign. The rule was then pledged to the Haller Damenstift in 1653 .
Social and economic structure after 1500
For the population of Lienz the extinction of the Gorizia counts meant a social and economic change. Lienz lost its role as the center of the Görzer Grafschaft and moved to the edge of the state of Tyrol. As a result, the trade suffered severe losses and the market for luxury goods lost its importance due to the absence of the Görzer counts and the emigration of the ministerial nobility. In return, members of the lower nobility settled in Lienz, especially noble middle-class families. While the nobility with the clergy and the highest officials belonged to the upper class, the traders and artisans formed the middle class. This was followed by the lower officials and servants, followed by wage workers and day laborers. The population was also divided into “citizens” and “residents”. The prerequisites for citizenship included a solid professional training, the payment of a large sum of money to the city and the possession of a castle loan, whereby the citizenship was hereditary. The residents also enjoyed the protection of the Lienz community and had the same duties as the citizens, but were excluded from the city's active and passive voting rights. In return, resident rights were less expensive to obtain.
While the town houses were concentrated within the city wall and in the suburbs, the so-called “Sollhäuser” of the lower classes were mainly in the Rotte Kalkgrube / Forchach and at the Rindermarkt. The city's artisan quarter was again on Schweizergasse, while the Messingasse with the brass factory founded around 1564 had an industrial character. In its heyday, the brass factory offered work for up to 100 people. Nevertheless, even after the Gorizia counts died out, trade remained the economic basis of the Lienz population. As a part-time job, citizens, residents and target houses mostly also ran agriculture for self-sufficiency. The number of houses rose sharply in the 16th and 17th centuries, with the Pustertal description in 1545 counting 136 houses, while in 1609 the city, without the cattle market, already housed 184 residential buildings.
Josephinism and the French Wars
In the course of the Josephine reforms on June 12, 1783, the Haller Damenstift was abolished. The rule of Lienz passed into the state administration and Lienz became an imperial-royal city. Numerous properties were subsequently auctioned, but Schloss Bruck and the Liebburg initially remain in state ownership and were used for military purposes and as a hospital. In 1785 the Carmelite monastery was abolished , and in the same year it was taken over by the Franciscans from Innsbruck. In addition to pastoral care, the Franciscans also continued the Carmelite School. In 1788, the church of St. Michael, the Antoniuskirchlein and the Liebburg chapel, which were deemed superfluous, were also closed by decree. After the death of Joseph II in February 1790, the city administration managed to reopen the Michael Church by Emperor Leopold II in the same year . The Antonius Church was also reopened in 1794.
During Napoleon Bonaparte's Italian campaign , French troops advanced from Carinthia to Lienz in April 1797. On the same day, the troops were driven out by the Tiroler Landsturm . A few days later, the French army made another advance through the Puster Valley to Lienz, with the troops demanding 100,000 guilders as a contribution to the expulsion of the French that had previously taken place in Lienz . Since the Lienzers could only raise 24,000 guilders, the French took hostages with them when they withdrew to Carinthia and plundered. After the presence of the French had already caused great economic damage, a serious cattle epidemic broke out that same year. A major fire in 1798 destroyed 151 houses, three churches and the two monasteries. Furthermore, the people of Lienz suffered from billeting by the imperial army. Austria's defeats against Napoleon in the coalition wars finally led to the cession of Tyrol to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805 . The Bavarian administration subsequently united the Lienz city court with the regional court , closed the grammar school and had a citizen's military set up. In the fifth coalition war in April 1809, Lienz was liberated by the Austrian troops, and the Bavarian counterattack was subsequently repulsed by the Tiroler Landsturm under Andreas Hofer . In August, however, the French general Jean-Baptiste Dominique Rusca succeeded in reoccupying Lienz via the Drau valley. In retaliation for resistance, Rusca set the surrounding villages on fire, but Lienz was spared. After the final occupation of East Tyrol by French troops in December 1809, Lienz was incorporated with the rest of East Tyrol into the province of Upper Carinthia of the Illyrian provinces and was the center of the canton of Lienz. Foreign rule ended as early as 1813 when, under Emperor Franz I, the administrative structure of the Illyrian provinces was abolished and the area around Lienz was reintegrated into the state of Tyrol.
Vormärz and economic change
In 1813 the closure of the brass works meant a major economic setback. In addition, the trade route shifted from Trieste to Germany and no longer passed through Lienz. Inspired by the struggle for freedom, the first foreigners, especially the English, came to Tyrol. The baths in the Lienz area, such as those in Tristach and Patriasdorf, initially served as modest tourist facilities . In the middle of the 19th century there was also the emergence of mountaineering , with Lienz initially serving primarily as a transit station for tours to the Großglockner or Großvenediger . The Lienz Dolomites were not developed until the second half of the 19th century, with numerous first ascents being made in the 1880s in particular. The construction of the Drautalbahn between Villach and Lienz by the Südbahn-Gesellschaft provided a special economic boost . The line through the Drautal to Lienz was opened in 1871, with the railway line being continued through the Pustertal to Franzensfeste . For Lienz, the railway created not only a number of jobs, but also better access for tourists.
The cityscape of Lienz had changed before. The fire ruins of St. John's Church, which burned down in 1798, were finally demolished in 1815. Large parts of the city wall, especially the city gates, were also demolished one after the other. A major fire in 1825 destroyed most of Schweizergasse, including 39 residential buildings. The Drau flood in 1827 also caused damage in the southeast of the city. As a result, the district office decided to regulate the Drau between Leisach and Lienz.
Population and urban growth around 1900
With the construction of the Drautalbahn, a strong population growth began in Lienz, whereby the stationing of railway personnel and the military also played a role. The massive increase in population subsequently led to a housing shortage and a rise in house prices. The construction of the four Südbahn houses in the Rindermarkt district brought some relief. The houses, popularly known as "barracks", offered space for around 200 people from 1886 onwards. In addition, numerous historic villas were built in the area of today's Franz-von-Deferegger-Strasse, Adolf-Purtscher-Strasse, Alleestrasse, Albin-Egger-Strasse and Schloßgasse. Other parts of the city were also built around the turn of the century or underwent a change through renovations and new buildings. The most important large-scale projects between 1900 and 1910 included the construction of the boys' school, the feudal Lienzerhof hotel and the Kaiser-Franz-Joseph barracks .
Although tourism experienced an upswing at the end of the 19th century, small businesses continued to form the backbone of Lienz's economy. At the turn of the century, however, larger companies also established themselves, such as the “Spirit, Rum, Liquer, Rosoglio and Brandy Factory” opened in 1879, which in 1908 became supplier to the Imperial and Royal Court . In 1902, the Falkenstein brewery was also the first large brewery in the Lienz area.
As the city grew, massive investments were made in urban infrastructure. The water supply was expanded, sidewalks were built and the streets were regulated. The ritsch system, the forerunner of modern sewerage, has also been improved. In 1891 Lienz got a public swimming pool, in 1901 a new cemetery and in 1909 a modern slaughterhouse. The Lienz hospital was also greatly expanded at the turn of the century. Lienz was also supplied with electricity for the first time in 1909 when a power station was built on the Debantbach .
Lienz from the beginning of the First to the end of the Second World War
After the outbreak of the First World War , the soldiers of the Lienz barracks were quickly transferred to the front. After Italy entered the war on the side of the Allies, soldiers from Lienz also fought on the Dolomite front , although an Italian advance into the city was initially expected in Lienz. While the advance of the Italian army failed to materialize, shortly before the end of the war there was an air raid by Italian planes on the Lienz train station . A total of 127 people from Lienz and 21 people from Patriasdorf fell victim to the First World War.
In the interwar period, population growth stagnated and economic development stalled. Due to the loss of the South Tyrolean sales area and the effects of the economic crisis, the number of unemployed rose massively in Lienz as well. It was not until 1937 that an improvement in the employment figures could be observed. Modest growth in tourism was slowed down by the imposition of the thousand-mark ban , and as a result, major investments in tourism were not made in Lienz. With the opening of the new district hospital in 1931, however, an important infrastructure project was realized. In addition, the Lienz garrison was increased in 1936 and the implementation of a modern local sewer system began in the 1920s. Lienz was spared the February fighting in the course of the Austrian Civil War in 1934, but the Lienz garrison was used to put down the fighting in neighboring Carinthia. In contrast, the NSDAP managed to gain a foothold in East Tyrol from the 1930s onwards, albeit only to a modest extent. In 1933 150 Lienz were members of the NSDAP.
After the " annexation of Austria " to the German Empire, Lienz and Patriasdorf were brought into line and the population was integrated into the National Socialist organizations. The four believing Jews were expelled from Lienz in 1938, and according to the racist classification of the National Socialists, two families with “full or half Jews ” lived in Lienz . Two of them are said to have been deported to a labor camp in Dachau for several weeks, but these families survived the National Socialist persecution. The persecution of political opposition that began after 1938 cost at least twelve lives in Lienz. They died in concentration camps or were executed.
From an administrative point of view, East Tyrol was annexed to the Gau Carinthia in October 1938 , and on April 1, 1939, numerous municipalities were merged, as a result of which Patriasdorf with 700 inhabitants was united with Lienz. In addition, several hundred South Tyroleans moved into Lienz who had decided in the course of the " option " to relocate to the German Empire. A South Tyrolean settlement was built for the newcomers, "stylishly adapted to the landscape character of our homeland".
Towards the end of the war there were several bombing raids on Lienz, the first attack on June 13, 1944 in the Peggetz district. As a result, the population was worn down several times by smaller and larger bombing attacks, the most severe on February 5 and April 26, 1945. A total of around 1000 bombs were dropped on Lienz, killing 13 people and 19 buildings, including the train station, completely were destroyed. 30 buildings were also badly damaged, twelve medium and 41 lightly damaged. In total, around 360 Lienz residents lost their lives as a result of the war.
Another tragedy occurred after the war ended. Cossack associations that had fought on the side of the German Reich initially escaped from the Soviet troops on British-controlled territory at the end of the war. However, the Cossacks were handed over to Soviet units by the British Army in June 1945, with hundreds of Cossacks killed in the “ Tragedy on the Drava ” in Lienz alone , many of them by suicide.
Lienz from 1945
While on the political level the reunification of East Tyrol with North Tyrol on October 19, 1947 made headlines, at the local level the improvement of the supply situation and the reconstruction of the destroyed buildings enjoyed top priority. Those voices prevailed who advocated a reconstruction of the main square, for example, as true to the original as possible. In addition to the restoration of the residential buildings, the completely destroyed train station was rebuilt in 1950. In addition, an office building was built for TIWAG in 1950 and the state office building was erected between 1951 and 1952. In addition, three reinforced concrete bridges were renewed between 1949 and 1953. The pressing housing shortage led to the construction of the parish settlement in 1950, and the Brennerle settlement was opened in 1951. Several churches were also repaired or rebuilt. By converting the “Oberschule für Junge” (high school for boys) into a state grammar school, Lienz was given a grammar school again after around 130 years.
In the years that followed, residential construction remained a key issue for the city government. Until 1960, Lienz experienced the strongest construction phase in its history, with the construction of Andreas-Hofer-Straße and Haspingerstraße, for example. In 1955 the groundbreaking for the construction of the peace settlement took place. In addition, several school buildings and public structures were built. Businesses were located in the Peggetz in particular, while the construction of the gondola lift on the Zettersfeld provided impetus for tourism.
From 1962, Mayor Hubert Huber (ÖVP) shaped the politics of the municipality. Under his aegis, the urban area only expanded slowly; for residential construction, the densification of the existing buildings was now being pushed. The Moarfeldsiedlung in the Patriasdorf area and the residential buildings on the Terlagofeld (Schloßgasse) were created as new settlements. Furthermore, during his term of office, which lasted until 1994, the development of the Zettersfeld and Hochstein ski areas, numerous investments in infrastructure (sewer construction, construction of the sewage treatment plant, construction of the public garbage disposal and water supply) and the expansion of the educational facilities and the district hospital. Furthermore, under Huber, the construction of the Dolomitenstadion , the Dolomitenbad and the purchase of the Tristacher See succeeded . Helga Machne (ÖVP) was elected as his successor in 1994 , who subsequently focused on, for example, traffic calming within the city and the expansion of cultural life. In 2004 Johannes Hibler took over the office of mayor, during whose term of office the discussion about the construction of a shopping center and a bypass of Lienz took place. After his re-election in 2010, which the Constitutional Court declared void at the end of 2010 due to incorrect issuance of voting cards, he was voted out of the repeated mayor run-off on February 6, 2011 and then replaced by his competitor Elisabeth Blanik (SPÖ), who has since Holds office.
In 2011, 11,966 people lived in Lienz. According to the 2001 census, 95.5% of the population were Austrian citizens (Tyrol: 90.6%); by the beginning of 2009 the value had fallen to 94.0%. Of the 718 people with foreign citizenship, 39% came from the former Yugoslavia (excluding Slovenia ) and 37% from the countries of the EU before the eastward expansion. In the 2001 census, 95.2% said German as the colloquial language. In addition, Croatian (1.4%) and Serbian (0.5%) were of particular importance.
As in the entire district area, the Roman Catholic religion is also dominant in Lienz. Since Lienz, in contrast to the other communities, has a higher proportion of foreigners and also houses the only Protestant parish in East Tyrol, the proportion of people with a Roman Catholic creed is significantly below the other communities in the district. In 2001, 88.0% of the population (Tyrol: 83.4%) supported the Roman Catholic Church, 2.5% were Protestant, 0.9% of the Islamic faith and 0.8% Orthodox . 3.3% of the population had no religious denomination .
The average age of the community population in 2001 was above the national average. 16% of the residents of Lienz were younger than 15 years (Tyrol: 18.4%), 61.2% between 15 and 59 years old (Tyrol: 63.0%). The proportion of residents over 59 years of age was 22.8% (Tyrol: 18.6%). By the beginning of 2009, the average age of the population of Lienz rose. While the proportion of those under 15 years of age fell to 13.4% and the population between the ages of 15 and 59 rose slightly to 66.5%, the proportion of residents over 59 years of age fell to 20.2%. According to marital status, in 2001 46.3% of the residents of Lienz were single, 39.5% married, 8.0% widowed and 3.6% divorced.
The population of Lienz has increased almost continuously since the middle of the 19th century, with Lienz showing the strongest growth in the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century. In 1869, 2484 people lived in Lienz, and in 1900 the number of residents had increased by 80% to 4549 people. The strong population growth was initially mainly due to the construction of the railway and the railway personnel that subsequently settled. At the end of the 19th century, Lienz was also given the status of a garrison town. Even after 1900 the population of Lienz increased sharply. Between 1900 and 1910 the population increased by 70% to 6532. As a result, the population development almost stagnated, and it was not until the 1930s that there was strong population growth again. Hundreds of South Tyroleans who were relocated to Lienz during the National Socialist era were partly responsible for this. In 1951 Lienz already had a population of 10,096, after which the population slowly rose to 11,741 by 1971. After the population had fallen slightly in the 1970s, the population rose again slightly by 2001. With 12,095 inhabitants, Lienz reached a peak in 2001, but since then the number of inhabitants has hardly changed and has always fluctuated slightly below the value of 2001, with the city showing a consistently negative birth balance since 2001 and a positive migration balance only at times .
Politics and administration
Local council, city council and mayor
The municipal council of Lienz has 21 seats and is elected every six years in the course of Tyrol-wide municipal council elections. At the same time, the mayor is determined in a direct election, with a runoff election if there is no absolute majority for a candidate. There is also a four-person city council. On February 6, 2011 Elisabeth Blanik was elected mayor (see elections ).
The budget approved by the city of Lienz for 2010 comprises 30.2 million euros in the regular budget and 4.7 million euros in the extraordinary budget. A loan of 1.3 million euros had to be taken out for 2010 to cover expenses. Mayor Hibler described the financial situation of the city of Lienz in the course of the budget decision as "serious, but not hopeless". The extraordinary budget of the budget year 2010 is the lowest of the last ten years due to the tight financial situation of the city of Lienz, whereby the average expenditure of the extraordinary budget was around 6.2 million euros. The average income in the regular budget was in the area of expenditure. In total, the city of Lienz generated around 19.4 million euros in income from taxes in 2008, the largest sources of income being revenue shares ( financial compensation ) at 57%, municipal taxes at 25% and property taxes at 5%. In total, the municipal tax in 2000 was 1,609 euros per capita, which corresponds to an increase of 17% over 2007. Lienz was also well above the Tyrolean average of 1292 euros per capita and above the value of comparable Tyrolean district capitals.
The ÖVP dominated the municipal council from 1945 to 2016, in which it consistently provided the relative majority. Due to the importance of industry and trade as well as the importance of the railway, the SPÖ also plays an important role in Lienz and in the last municipal council election in 2016 it was able to overtake the ÖVP for the first time and gain a relative majority. In 2010 the ÖVP still achieved 43.7% and eleven mandates, whereby the ÖVP gained 1.7% of the votes and one mandate. The SPÖ was able to increase its share of the vote from 24.9% to 30.7%, thus adding two to its previous five mandates. Third place went to LSL under Uwe Ladstädter, who achieved 9.9%. This meant a loss of 3.7% and one mandate for the LSL, which means that the LSL now has two mandataries on the municipal council. The Greens recorded the largest losses in the 2010 municipal council election with a minus of 5.8%. With only 3.7%, the Greens lost both mandates and are therefore no longer represented on the municipal council. The FPÖ also suffered losses, but with a share of the vote of 5.3% and a loss of 1.4%, the FPÖ was able to keep its mandate. The Union for Lienz and the Alliance Future Austria (BZÖ), on the other hand, failed with 3.0% and 3.6% when they entered the municipal council. In the direct mayor election 2010, the incumbent mayor Johannes Hibler (ÖVP) prevailed with only 14 votes ahead of his challenger, Elisabeth Blanik (SPÖ) , member of the state parliament . However, the election was overturned by the Constitutional Court on December 1, 2010. In the subsequent election on February 6, 2011, Elisabeth Blanik won the mayoral election by 713 votes.
In the 2016 municipal council elections, the SPÖ celebrated a major victory with the incumbent mayor Elisabeth Blanik. With 42.80% and ten local councils, the SPÖ was able to increase its result by 12.14% in 2010 and became the party with the highest number of votes in the Lienz council for the first time. The People's Party, on the other hand, lost 9.81 percent and took second place with 33.91% and seven seats. The Freedom Party gained around 5 percentage points and was able to win another mandate. Uwe Ladstädter's Independent List (LSL) suffered another loss of around four percentage points and lost another mandate. The Greens succeeded in returning to the local council with 6.61% and one mandate, whereby the SPÖ, the LSL and the Greens linked their lists. The BZÖ and the Union for Lienz did not stand for election this time. In the direct mayor election, the incumbent mayor Elisabeth Blanik was able to prevail in the first ballot with 62.34% against the ÖVP challenger Meinhard Pargger with 28.43 percentage points. The other two candidates together only achieved 9.23 percent. The turnout fell only slightly compared to the mayoral election in 2010, by 2.63% to 65.26% (6593 votes cast out of 10,102 eligible voters).
In the state elections in 2008, the ÖVP also took first place with 31.0%, followed by the SPÖ (24.7%), FPÖ (14.8%), the list FRITZ (14.3%) and the Greens (13.2%) %). The National Council election, which took place shortly afterwards, led to heavy losses, especially at the ÖVP. The ÖVP lost 11.7% and only reached 27.5%. The SPÖ reached 21.9% and thus took second place. With 14.9%, the BZÖ surprisingly took third place and was well ahead of the FPÖ (12.2%), the Greens (12.0%) and the list FRITZ (7.3%)
In the last state election on April 28, 2013, the ÖVP lost 2.42% and achieved 28.52 percentage points and thus did not take first place in a state election for the first time. The SPÖ was able to improve its result from 2008 by 5.72% to 30.42%. Like the ÖVP, the FPÖ (−4.94%) and the GRÜNE (−0.97%) had to cope with losses and achieved 9.83% and 12.19% respectively. The list of Fritz suffered the most obvious loss; it lost 11.44 percent and only reached 2.84%. The Vorwärts Tirol list increased the most, reaching 7.87% when it first appeared. Other parties received 8.28%. The turnout of 52.96% was around 7 percentage points lower than in the 2008 state elections.
In the 2013 National Council election , the SPÖ took first place with 26.35% (+ 4.45%) in Lienz, the only municipality in East Tyrol where the ÖVP was not the party with the highest number of votes. The ÖVP came in second with 25.55% (−1.98%). The FPÖ reached third place with 17.19% (+ 4.96%), followed by the Greens, who achieved 13.75% and an increase of 1.77 percentage points. The Stronach team and NEOS achieved 6.21 and 5.43 percent respectively when they first appeared. The other remaining parties account for 5.52%.
Lienz as the district capital and administrative center
As the district capital of the Lienz district, Lienz is home to a large number of authorities and offices of the district, state and federal administration. The district offices of the tax office, the labor market service (AMS), the Federal Office for Metrology and Surveying , the Austrian Chamber of Commerce , the Chamber of Agriculture (Austria) and the Chamber for Workers are located in Lienz . The office of the Tyrolean provincial government is also represented by the Office for Agriculture and the Building District Office in Lienz. Lienz is also the seat of the district authority , which performs federal and state tasks in the Lienz district. This includes, for example, areas of expertise such as official and official veterinarians, tasks of commercial, water, (road) traffic law, the operation of a social welfare office, security and foreign police tasks, forest and hunting management, community supervision and tasks in the area of administrative criminal matters. The jurisdiction in Lienz is exercised by the Lienz District Court.
Lienz has had a partnership with the US city of Jackson ( Wyoming ) since 1970 . In the same year, the town twinning with the Turkish city of Selçuk was concluded. In 2000, a town partnership was also entered into with the city of Gorizia (German: Görz ) in Italy.
coat of arms
The oldest evidence of the coat of arms of the city of Lienz dates back to 1277, here a certificate from the city judge of Count Ernst de Dobrawiz from Gorizia is shown. The seal includes the coat of arms of the Counts of Gorizia and has the inscription "SIGILLUM JUDICIS DE LUENTZ". The Görz coat of arms consists of a shield, divided diagonally to the right, with a golden lion walking to the right in a blue field. In addition, there was a field divided across six times by silver and red, which identifies the Gorizia as fiefdoms of Aquileia . In addition to the Görz coat of arms, a civil coat of arms existed early on, showing a mostly five-petalled rose in a white field. The “Lienz Rose” appeared on seals long after the Counts of Gorizia died out. From around 1900 the coat of arms was finally standardized and the second, silver bar from below was covered with the red Lienz rose.
Economy and Infrastructure
Workplaces and employees
A census of workplaces carried out in 2006 showed 1,206 workplaces with 9,847 employees in Lienz, 95.3 percent of which were employees. The number of workplaces and employees has risen sharply over the past 15 years. In 1991 there were only 750 workplaces with 7,530 employees; the 2001 census showed 920 workplaces with 9,048 employees (but not including farms, which were included in the 2006 figure). The most important branch of industry in the city of Lienz in terms of the number of employees in 2006 was the production of goods with 2,110 employees (21%) in 65 companies. A further 1,514 employees (15%) worked in trade, 1251 (13%) in health and social services and 1121 (11%) in education. In terms of the number of workplaces, however, trade was the most important sector with 327 companies (27%). It was followed by the “Real Estate and Business Services” sector with 176 companies (15%). Around 9% of the companies were also active in the fields of agriculture and forestry (113 companies), hotels and restaurants (111 companies) and health, veterinary and social services (108 companies).
The largest industrial company in the city of Lienz is Liebherr-Hausgeräte Lienz GmbH, founded in 1980 with around 1475 employees. The company primarily manufactures refrigerators and freezers that are sold worldwide. Another important employer with more than 500 employees is the Lienz district hospital . Lienz is also home to the Falkenstein brewery, the only brewery in the district.
In 2006 Lienz had a resident population of 12,062, 5,739 so-called economically active persons, of whom 5,257 (43.6%) were gainfully employed and 482 (4.0%) were unemployed. This meant an employment rate of 47.6%. Another 22.6% of the population received a pension, 13.7% were schoolchildren and 16.1% worked in the household or did not belong to any group. In 2001, around 71.8% of the working population were employed in Lienz, while 28.2% had to commute. For Lienz, this meant a very low commuter quota compared to other municipalities in the district. Around 50% of the commuters found work within the district area, with more than 200 people commuting to the neighboring municipality of Nussdorf-Debant . Another 16% worked in other districts of Tyrol, 11% in Carinthia. 8% of the commuters went abroad. As the economic center of East Tyrol, Lienz itself attracts a high number of employees, with 5851 people commuting to Lienz in 2001. In 2001, 10% of the commuters came from Nussdorf-Debant, 7% from Dölsach and 6% each from Matrei in East Tyrol and Oberlienz .
Agriculture plays a subordinate role in Lienz today and is only important in the cadastral community of Patriasdorf. In 1999 there were 43 agricultural and forestry holdings with agricultural land in Lienz, 19 of which were full-time and a further 19 were part-time. Another five companies were companies of legal entities. Compared to 1995, the number of farms had fallen by eleven units, with the decline almost exclusively affecting part-time farms. In 2009, the statistics of the district chamber of farmers showed only 31 farms, including one agricultural community. In livestock farming, cattle farming dominated with 704 animals, and the Lienz farmers also kept 144 pigs, 132 poultry, 63 sheep, twelve horses and eight goats. In 2009, the farmers had a total of 355.5 hectares of arable land, of which 119.4 hectares were used as arable land and 236.1 hectares as 236.07 grassland. In addition, there was 483.0 ha of alpine forage. In arable farming the cultivation of silage maize dominated (39.9 ha), and 14.1 ha of grain and 9.7 ha of potatoes were grown. 53.9 ha were also used for forage and other arable land, 1.8 ha for flowering areas.
Transport and infrastructure
Due to the central location of the city of Lienz at the intersection of three main valleys, the district's most important transport links run through Lienz. The intersection of the high-level Drautalstraße (B 100) and Felbertauern Straße (B 108) is in Lienz. The Drautalstraße connects Lienz via the Drautal, which continues south-east (from Lienz), with Carinthia and via the Hochpustertal, which runs to the west, with Italy. The Felbertauernstraße, which begins in Lienz, in turn connects Lienz to Salzburg via the Felbertunnel in the north. Due to the location of the traffic junction of the two streets near the city center, the local area is exposed to high traffic loads. A bypass for Lienz has therefore been discussed again and again, but has not yet been implemented. In addition to the Drautalstrasse and the Felbertauernstrasse, there is also a junction of the Großglocknerstrasse (B 107a) , which leads over the Iselsberg into the Mölltal (Carinthia) on the city limits of Nussdorf-Debant . In 2001, the city of Lienz had a total of 63.24 kilometers of roads and cycle paths, with Lienz also being the intersection of the Drau cycle path and the Iseltal cycle path.
Lienz is connected to the national rail network via the Drautalbahn , which opened on November 20, 1871 , with a direct pair of trains running daily between Lienz and Vienna. The Drautalbahn also connects Lienz to the Italian rail network via the San Candido / Innichen train station . In addition, two pairs of corridor trains ran daily between Lienz and Innsbruck via Italy and the Pustertalbahn , but these were discontinued on December 15, 2013 and replaced by a bus connection. Since the start of electrical operation on the Drautal route on December 4, 1988, Lienz station has also had a vehicle loading point for car trains .
Together with 14 surrounding communities, Lienz has merged to form the “Lienzer Talboden waste water association”. The municipal wastewater is treated in the Dölsach sewage treatment plant , with the Drau serving as a receiving water . At the beginning of the 21st century, the canalisation of the municipality was already 97% complete, only the areas of Pfister, left and right Drauweg and parts of Bürgerau and Minekugel had not yet been developed. The waste that arises in the community is disposed of by the Waste Management Association of East Tyrol (AWVO).
The first beginnings in tourism came from spa tourism, and early mountaineering was added in the first half of the 19th century . Lienz served as a transit station for tours on the Großglockner and Großvenediger . On the other hand, first ascents of the nearby Lienz Dolomites are mainly recorded in the second half of the 19th century. The establishment of the Lienz section of the Austrian Tourist Club in 1884 also ensured an upswing in tourism. Together with the section of the Alpine Club, the Laserz Group and the Spitzkofel Group of the Lienz Dolomites were subsequently developed with a network of paths and shelters . With the opening of the Villach – Lienz – Franzensfeste railway line , Lienz also became accessible to mass tourism .
In 1874 a beautification association was founded to develop tourism in Lienz; However, the number of overnight stays initially fell short of expectations. As a result, however, Lienz was able to record a positive development, with 3346 tourists in Lienz in the tourist year 1908/09. However, the positive development was interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War. After the tourism figures collapsed again in the interwar period as a result of the global economic crisis and subsequently as a result of the Second World War, Lienz began to invest increasingly in tourism, in particular winter tourism, in the 1950s. In 1953 the chair lift to the Hochstein was opened, and in 1958 the gondola lift to the Zettersfeld followed. While 158,715 overnight stays were counted in Lienz in 1966, the number of overnight stays rose to 226,499 by 1981, also boosted by the opening of Felbertauern Strasse in 1967.
As in numerous other East Tyrolean municipalities, the number of overnight stays fell as a result. At the turn of the millennium, only 153,350 overnight stays were counted. In contrast to most of the other tourist communities in East Tyrol, Lienz has been able to increase the number of overnight stays since the turn of the millennium. In the winter half of 2008/2009, Lienz counted 99,758 overnight stays, which meant an increase of 59% compared to the winter half of 1999/2000. In the summer of 2008, Lienz was able to achieve 107,851 overnight stays, which is an increase of 8% over the year 2000. Due to the strong growth figures, Lienz achieved the second-highest figures in the summer half-year and the third-highest figures in the winter half-year for a municipality in the Lienz district. Guests from abroad accounted for 62% of the overnight stays in the summer half of 2008 and winter half of 2008/09. Overnight stays by German guests formed the largest group with 46%, followed by overnight stays by Italian and Dutch tourists with 14% each.
While the winter sports areas of Hochstein and Zettersfeld led to strong growth in winter tourism, Lienz benefited in summer mainly from day tourists who use the Drau cycle path from Innichen to Lienz. The management of tourism is now the responsibility of the East Tyrol Tourist Association, with Lienz belonging to the Lienz Dolomites region.
The Lienzer Schlossberg offers Tyrol's largest climbing park in the area of the Moosalm and the Venedigerwarte observation tower, which was built in 1967, and the Osttirodler , a 2.7 km year-round toboggan run .
The first documentary mention of a school in Lienz comes from the year 1237, whereby the "parish school" is likely to have been a Latin school that taught almost exclusively religious education and Latin church singing. In the 14th century at the latest, a municipal school was founded, the costs of which were borne by the parish and the citizens. Originally school attendance was only allowed for boys, but in the 17th century the Dominican women made it possible for noble girls from abroad to attend school in a boarding school. After Maria Theresa introduced compulsory schooling in 1774 , the Carmelite Order took over the teaching of the boys, while the girls' school was run by the Dominican Sisters. After Joseph II repealed the Carmelite Order in 1785 , the Franciscans continued to run the boys' school. In 1777 a grammar school was opened in the Liebburg for the first time , but it was closed again by the Bavarian government in 1806. Attempts by the city government to re-establish a "secondary school" subsequently failed several times.
A significant turning point came in 1900, when the liberal city government decided to remove the Franciscans from teaching, as the state school law of 1892 prescribed certified teachers. As a result, a new boys' school was opened in Muchargasse in 1904. The teaching activities of the Dominicans, among whom were certified teachers, however, continued. Nevertheless, in 1911 the Lienz city government also had a secular girls 'school built above the gym of the boys' school. However, the secular girls' school could not prevail over the still existing school of the Dominican women and was closed again in 1933/34.
For a long time, the children of Patriasdorf attended schools in the surrounding communities. It was not until 1910 that an elementary school was founded in Patriasdorf, which was given its own school building in 1912.
After the founding of secular primary schools followed soon after the establishment of secondary civil schools . In 1915 the girls 'school opened, which was run by the Dominican women, followed in 1919 by a boys' school. Both public schools were converted into secondary schools in 1926 . The grammar school in Lienz today emerged from the high school founded in 1938.
Today there are three primary schools in Lienz. The elementary school North goes back to the "Boys' Elementary School Lienz North" and moved into its current building in the school year 1968/69. As early as 1966/67, the originally pure boys' school had mixed classes. In addition, there are primary schools Lienz Süd I and II in the south of Lienz. Both schools were built in 1956 due to lack of space, with Primary School South I originally being a girls 'school and Primary School South II originally being a boys' school. It was not until the 1980/81 school year that all classes at the Primary School South were run cooperatively. In addition to the three elementary schools, Lienz also has two secondary schools, the Egger-Lienz secondary school being housed in the building of the boys' school in Muchargasse, which opened in 1904, and the Lienz Nord secondary school, which dates back to the middle school founded in 1919. There is also a general special school and a polytechnic school in Lienz .
Lienz is of great importance for East Tyrol as the location of several higher education schools. Lienz is home to two grammar schools, the BG / BRG Lienz and the BORG Lienz . There is also a federal commercial academy with a federal commercial school, the Dominican women college for economic professions, a higher federal college for economic professions and hotel management school, an agricultural college , a private higher technical college for mechatronics, a school for general health and nursing as well as the Tyrolean vocational school in Lienz .
Security and Health
The Lienz volunteer fire brigade was founded in 1868 and was one of the first fire brigades in the whole of Tyrol. The Lienz fire brigade goes back to the kk construction adjunct Aegid Pegger, who carried out extinguishing exercises with the Lienz gymnastics team from 1865. With the amalgamation of the municipalities of Lienz and Patriasdorf, the two fire brigades were also merged, with the Lienz volunteer fire brigade now having a large fire station in Lienzer Dolomitenstraße , which was inaugurated in 1992, and a smaller fire station in Patriasdorf. In addition to the fire brigade, there are also district offices of the Red Cross and mountain rescue in Lienz . The police tasks are carried out by the district police command and the Lienz police station, both of which are located on the main square. In addition to Lienz, the Lienz Police Inspectorate also looks after numerous surrounding communities. As the seat of the Lienz District Hospital, Lienz plays an important role in the healthcare system for the entire district population. The district hospital goes back to the medieval citizen's hospital and now houses more than 300 beds.
Culture and sights
Lienz is a member of the Association of Small Historic Cities . The Liebburg on Lienzer Hauptplatz and the 13th century Bruck Castle on the Schlossberg are the city's landmarks. Bruck Castle served as the residence of the Counts of Görz until 1500; their successors, the Wolkenstein-Rodenegg family , had the Liebburg built at the beginning of the 17th century, which is used by the city of Lienz as the town hall. Bruck Castle now serves as a museum for the city of Lienz and has an art collection, an archaeological department, objects from East Tyrolean folklore and a natural history department. Schloss Bruck is best known for its collection of the East Tyrolean painters Albin Egger-Lienz and Franz Defregger . There is also a Phonomuseum in Lienz with an exhibition of old phonographs and gramophones .
The center of the old town is shaped by the Lienz main square, on which today's center of the city was founded at the end of the 12th century. In addition to the Liebburg, there is also the Antoniuskirchl , which was expanded into a large chapel in the 17th century on the basis of a medieval front box to store ore. Also in the city center are the Franciscan monastery and the former civic hospital with the now profaned St. Joseph's Church. In the north of the old town near the Isel and in the east in the area of the former citizens' hospital there are still remnants of the former Lienz city fortifications . Further remnants of the city wall exist in the area of Kreuz- and Mühlgasse in the southwest of the old town.
With the exception of the Franciscan Church of the Franciscan Monastery, the large church buildings of Lienz are located outside the old town. The parish church of St. Andrä in the Patriasdorf district goes back to an early medieval church and was expanded into a Gothic basilica in the 15th century. In the immediate vicinity there is also the essentially medieval dean's office, the district war memorial erected by Clemens Holzmeister with a cycle of pictures by Albin Egger-Lienz and the old cemetery. To the east of the parish church, in the Rindermarkt district, is the St. Michaels Church , whose Romanesque core from the 13th century was expanded into a Gothic long building in the 16th century. The St. Michaels Church was used as a burial place for the lords of Graben , former noblemen and ministers from Lienz. In the west of the city there is the Dominican convent , the so-called Klösterle, another monastery that was founded in the first half of the 13th century and, like the Franciscan monastery, has a monastery church. Also located at the infirmary of the oldest painted wayside shrine in Tyrol from the time of the plague around 1400. Modern churches are also the Parish Church of the Holy Family in the south of Lienz, who in 1962 opened evangelical church Martin Luther on the northern bank of the Drava and the 1950 consecrated heart Jesus Church in the Peggetz district. Also in the Peggetz district is the Cossack cemetery for the victims of the clearance of the Cossack camp in 1945.
As the district capital, Lienz is the cultural center of East Tyrol, with the cultural department of the municipality of Lienz (“Stadtkultur Lienz”) itself acting as the organizer of cultural events and regularly organizing the Fantasima puppet theater days. The city hall, the former hospital church and the Kolping Hall are available as event locations. Art exhibitions take place primarily in the Städtische Galerie, founded in 1964 on the initiative of Franz Walchegger , Josef Manfreda, Leopold Ganzer and Hermann Pedit , and at Bruck Castle. The association ummigummi was founded as an independent cultural organizer in 1978 and has been organizing the OLALA street theater festival since 1991. Another regular cultural event is the old town festival, which takes place every summer.
In addition to the cultural organizers, cultural life is mainly supported by the numerous associations in the city of Lienz, with the men's choir "Lienzer Sängerbund 1860" being the oldest still existing cultural association in Lienz. Lienz also has two brass bands , whereby the Lienz Railway City Band was founded in 1918 and the Lienz Town Music Group emerged in 1951 from the disbanded Grafendorf band (municipality of Gaimberg). The Stadtmusik Lienz is affiliated with the Lienz rifle company , the association of which was founded in 1898. Other music associations include, for example, the Lienz Workers' Choir and the Vokalissimo Chamber Choir . Carnival time is traditionally celebrated in Lienz with parades. The Lienz City Orchestra, founded in 1946/47, is also an important part of cultural life.
The most successful club team in Lienz was the SV Rapid Lienz soccer club , which played in the second highest Austrian soccer league for seven years in the 1970s and once reached the ÖFB Cup semifinals. After the sporting descent, the bankruptcy finally followed in the 1999/2000 season. The Rapid Lienz Tirol Milch football club was initiated as the successor club , whereby Rapid Lienz, like all football clubs in the Lienz district, is not part of the Tyrolean football association, but rather the Carinthian football association due to its geographical proximity. Rapid Lienz currently plays (as of the 2019/20 season) in the Lower League West (fifth highest division) and plays its home games in the Dolomitenstadion , which, in addition to its function as a home for Rapid Lienz, is also used as an athletics stadium for various clubs and schools. Other sports infrastructure includes the golf course, which was built in Lavant with the support of the city of Lienz, and the Dolomitenbad, a combined indoor and outdoor pool.
Lienz is also the venue for several regular major sporting events. Every year in January the Dolomitenlauf takes place, a popular cross-country run in which around 2,000 runners start. In 2011 the 37th Dolomite Run will take place. Also in January is the Laserzlauf , which has been held since 1983 by the “Alpine Society Alpenraute” and is a combination of mountain running, touring and downhill skiing. The KIOT climbing association in East Tyrol also organizes a climbing competition every year on the last weekend in August, the KIOT Bouldercup, which took place for the fourteenth time in 2013. Lienz also organizes regular snow kayak races, with the 2010 World Championship taking place in Lienz. The Lienz chess club holds its chess open every two years, and in June the Dolomites cycle tour takes place, which will be held for the 23rd time in 2010. The Red Bull Dolomitenmann is also held regularly , in which teams of four people compete against each other in the disciplines of mountain running, paragliding, white water kayaking and mountain biking. Another major event is the Alpine Ski World Cup , which takes place in Lienz in December every two years. The women's giant slalom is held on the Lienz Schlossberg.
The painter Albin Egger-Lienz , who was born in Stribach and who attended elementary school in Lienz and created the cycle of paintings for the district war memorial , is one of the most famous personalities in the city of Lienz . His works are one of the focal points in the Museum of the City of Lienz at Schloss Bruck. The painter Franz Walchegger , on the other hand, was also born in Lienz and was one of the pioneers of modern painting in Tyrol. Albert Muchar spent his childhood and adolescence in Lienz before moving to Styria, where he was promoted to librarian, historian, writer and rector of the Karl-Franzens University in Graz. Beda Weber was also born in Lienz and, in addition to his literary and theological work, was also an active member of the Frankfurt National Assembly. The theologian and later Archbishop of Salzburg Andreas Rohracher and the zoologist and forest scientist Karl E. Schedl , who was considered one of the leading specialists in bark beetles, were also born in Lienz .
In the political field, the mayor Hubert Huber , who was in office between 1962 and 1994, and his successor, the first female mayor of Tyrol, Helga Machne (both ÖVP), made it to the national council. The current mayor Elisabeth Blanik (SPÖ) is active as a member of the state parliament. In the sporting field, personalities from Lienz celebrated successes, especially in skiing. The 1964 Olympic and world champion Josef Stiegler comes from Lienz, as does the bronze medalist from 1978 and organizer of the Dolomitenmann Werner Grissmann . The former skiers Anton Steiner and Fritz Strobl as well as the track and field athlete and decathlete Roland Schwarzl were also born in Lienz.
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