|Gorizia / Gurize / Gorica / Gorizia|
|region||Friuli Venezia Giulia|
|Residents||34,034 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||830 inhabitants / km²|
|Popular name||Goriziani / Gorizia|
|Patron saint||Santi Ilario and Taziano|
Gorizia and the castle of the Counts of Gorizia
Gorizia ( German Görz , Slovenian Gorica , Furlanisch Gurize ) is an Italian town on the Isonzo in northeastern Italy in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, right on the border with Slovenia ( Nova Gorica ). Gorizia has 34,034 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) and was the capital of the province of Gorizia until 2017 , which was dissolved this year. It is also the seat of the Archdiocese of Gorizia .
When speaking of the entire city as it existed as a political unit until 1947, the name Gorizia is mostly used in German-speaking countries .
The city was first mentioned in 1001 when Emperor Otto III. gave the castle and the associated place to the Patriarchate of Aquileja and the Count Werichen of Friuli , from whom ownership passed to the Counts of Eppenstein .
The city had been the seat of the Counts of Gorizia , who had made themselves independent from the Patriarchate of Aquileia , since the late Middle Ages . After the count family died out, their territory came to the Habsburgs around 1500 . Gorizia was now the capital of the Prince Counties of Gorizia and Gradisca . The Archdiocese of Gorizia was established in 1751 after the dissolution of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. From 1809 to 1814 Gorizia belonged to France's Illyrian Provinces , then until 1815 to the Kingdom of Illyria .
From 1815 to 1918 the area belonged again to Austria, until 1849 it remained in the Kingdom of Illyria. From 1849–1861 the Austrian coastal land was crown land in the Austrian Empire . In 1861 the princes of Gorizia and Gradisca, like Trieste and Istria, became an independent crown land (and Austrian (-Illirisch) es coastal land only used as a summary name for these three cisleithan crown lands of Austria-Hungary from 1867 ). The kk governor for Gorizia resided in Trieste. Until 1866 the neighboring Veneto belonged to Austria. In the east, the county bordered the also Austrian duchy of Carniola . At the end of the First World War, Gorizia was occupied by the victorious Kingdom of Italy in early November 1918, like the western edge of Carniola, Trieste and Istria , and annexed in 1919.
The city has always been trilingual (Italian, Slovenian, German). In 1900 Gorizia, including the garrison, had 25,432 inhabitants, including 16,112 Italians, 4,754 Slovenes and 2,760 Germans. Gorizia is situated on the railway line Udine-Trieste , to here since 1906, from the Julian Alps coming Bohinj railway strikes, part of the then-new transalpine rail link Salzburg - Trieste ( New Alpine railway or Transalpina ).
Gorizia was the seat of a prince archbishop, the state parliament and the state committee of the duchy of Gorizia and Gradisca, a district administration and a district court. Around 1900 Gorizia was a popular winter health resort because the average winter temperature was + 3.5 degrees.
After Italy entered the war against Austria-Hungary in May 1915, the declared aim of the Italian army command was to advance on the Isonzo . In the summer of 1916 Italy succeeded in conquering Gorizia, and in the autumn of 1917 the city was regained by Austria-Hungary in the twelfth battle of the Isonzo .
After the First World War, in the Treaty of Saint-Germain, the entire area of the city previously called Gorizia , along with Istria and the western part of today's Slovenia, came to Italy. Gorizia was officially renamed Gorizia . The area contractually awarded to Italy in 1919, in which Gorizia is also located, was named Julisch Venetien (Italian: Venezia Giulia).
For fallen in World War Italian soldiers also architecturally remarkable ossuary was in the interwar period, on a hill in the northern suburb Oslavia (Ossario) built. A stele in front of the entrance commemorates some of the citizens of Old Austria who took part in the war on the Italian side.
Slovenian Nova Gorica
On May 1, 1945, Josip Broz Tito , leader of the Yugoslav partisans, announced that his troops had advanced to the Isonzo and that he was now u. a. Claim to the urban areas of Gorizia east of the Isonzo. Yugoslav troops stayed in Gorizia for 40 days. When the victorious powers redrawn the state border between Italy and Yugoslavia with the Peace of Paris (1947), the division of the city was set hard west of the Jesenice – Trieste railway line (Wocheiner Bahn). Thus only the smaller eastern part of Gorizia was slammed into Yugoslavia. After the republic of Yugoslavia was dissolved in 1991, the town called Nova Gorica east of the border is part of Slovenia .
In return for the huge tricolor that the Italians had set up on Gorizia Castle Hill, the Yugoslavs honored their then President Josip Broz Tito with a huge stone lettering TITO on a hill near Nova Gorica, which is still visible throughout Gorizia to this day.
Character of the border between Gorizia and Nova Gorica
On March 5, 1946, Winston Churchill spoke of the fact that "[from] Stettin on the Baltic Sea to Trieste on the Adriatic [...] an iron curtain had come down on Europe ". Obviously Churchill, in his speech in Fulton, Missouri , viewed Yugoslavia as part of the nascent Eastern Bloc and the borders between Yugoslavia on the one hand and Italy and Austria on the other as the southern section of this “iron curtain”. In fact, the border (with the express approval of the Western Allies of World War II, who were instrumental in defining the border) runs across the station forecourt of Gorizia (on the Italian side Piazza Transalpina , on the Slovenian side called Trg Evrope ). The border dividing Gorizia was marked and secured by an ordinary metal fence, sometimes barbed wire or other obstacles. In contrast to Berlin, for example, the border was never insurmountably sealed off.
When Slovenia joined the EU on April 30, 2004, the city's border installations and fences were dismantled in many places. Since joining the Schengen area on December 21, 2007, there have been no border controls. The Italian and Slovenian districts grew together. At the station square, flower pots and a plaque in the middle of the square mark the border. An open-air museum provides information about former barriers.
Gorizia is connected to the Italian motorway network via the A34 motorway, and the SS55 state road connects the city with Trieste . Gorizia Centrale station is on the Udine – Trieste railway line . Nova Gorica train station with connections to Ljubljana and Zagreb is four kilometers away. Gorizia has an airfield for general aviation .
- Church of St. Ignatius in the Piazza della Vittoria: built
by the Jesuits in 1654–1747 . The single-nave hall church is decorated with marble, inlays and wood carvings that date from the 17th century. Noteworthy is an altar by the Venetian painter Gregorio Lazzarini (dated 1716) and the 18th century fresco by Christoph Tausch on the pulpit The Glory of St. Ignatius .
- Palazzo Attems Petzenstein with the Pinakothek and changing painting exhibitions
- Synagogue , built in 1756
- Castle and museum of the First World War
- Piazza della Vittoria
- Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Gorizia ( Cattedrale dei Santi Ilario e Taziano )
- Trgovski Dom (also known as House of the Slovenes), built in the style of the Vienna Secession 1903–05 by Max Fabiani
- Villa Coronini with garden
- Piuma Park on the Isonzo
- town hall
- Corso Italia-Verdi
- Verdi theater
- Piazza della Transalpina in front of the train station on which the border between Italy and Slovenia runs
The main language in Gorizia is Italian, along with Slovenian and Friulian.
Sister cities of Gorizia are
- Klagenfurt am Wörthersee , (Austria), since 1965
- Grosseto in Tuscany , (Italy), since 1981
- Sassari in Sardinia , (Italy), since 1983
- Lienz ( East Tyrol ), since 1997
sons and daughters of the town
- Johann Ludwig Hektor von Isolani (1586–1640), Imperial Austrian general
- Johann Nepomuk von Edling (1747–1793), Austrian administrative lawyer and Slovenian school reformer
- Franz Caucig (1755–1828), neoclassical painter and draftsman of Slovenian origin
- Isaak Samuel Reggio (1784–1855), Italian-Jewish scholar and rabbi
- Giuseppe Tominz (1790–1866), painter
- Reichsgraf Johann Baptist Alexius Graf Coronini-Cronberg (1794–1880), Austrian Feldzeugmeister
- Andreas Freiherr von Winkler (1825–1916), Austrian lawyer and state president of Krain
- Graziadio Isaia Ascoli (1829–1907), linguist and orientalist
- Anton Battig (1832–1896), bridge construction technician
- Eduard Nittner (1885–1913), aviation pioneer
- Carlo Michelstaedter (1887–1910), writer, philosopher and painter
- Rodolfo Lipizer (1895–1974), violinist
- Nora Gregor (1901–1949), actress
- Zoran Mušič (1909–2005), Italian-Slovenian painter
- Boris Pilato (1914–1997), dancer, choreographer and ballet director
- Vladimir Jurko Glaser (1924–1984), Croatian theoretical physicist at CERN
- Carlo Rubbia (* 1934), physicist and Nobel Prize winner
- Giorgio Puia (* 1938), football player
- Paolo Maurensig (* 1943), writer
- Edoardo Reja (* 1945), football player and coach
- Fausto Romitelli (1963-2004), composer
- Paolo Vidoz (* 1970), boxer
- Elisa Togut (* 1978), volleyball player
- Jacopo Petriccione (* 1995), football player
- Wilhelm Baum: The Counts of Görz in the European Politics of the Middle Ages , Klagenfurt 2000; Italian: I Conti di Gorizia , Gorizia 2001
- Kurt F. Strasser, Harald Waitzbauer : Across the borders to Trieste. Hikes between the Carnic Alps and the Adriatic Sea. Vienna-Cologne-Weimar 1999
- Putzger-Bruckmüller: Historical World Atlas pp. 60/61, 62 and 64
- Hans Goebl : Conflicts in a pluriethnic state. Selected case studies from Austria-Hungary (1848-1918). Section 3.1: Potential for conflict with names: the case of the choronym Venezia Giulia . In: Linguistic Approaches to Conflicts in European Language Areas. Corpus - pragmatics - controversial (Eds .: Friedemann Vogel, Janine Luth and Stefaniya Ptashnyk). University Press Winter. Heidelberg. 2016, pp. 211 - 214 online
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- KK Statistische Central-Commission, Special-Orts-Repertorien of the kingdoms and countries represented in the Oesterreichischen Reichsrathe. Volume VII Coastal Land (Vienna 1883) p. 8.
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 5th edition, 7th volume. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1895, p. 774.
- Why is Trieste not Slovenian and how Tito forfeited Gorizia in addition to the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region? . primorska24.si. 18th January 2019
- Alessandro Cattunar: La liberazione di Gorizia: 1 maggio 1945. Identità di confine e memorie divise: le videointerviste ai testimoni . storicamente.org (University of Bologna). 2009
- Tito had demanded that all formerly Italian areas east of the Isonzo up to its confluence with the Adriatic should become part of Yugoslavia
- The Sinews of Peace. In: NATO.int (English)
- Gorizia - the once divided city. In: ktnv1.orf.at. Kärnten-Magazin, accessed on April 20, 2020 .
- Peter Miroschnikoff: Slovenia: Farewell to the Iron Curtain. Tagesschau archive , April 25, 2004, accessed on April 20, 2020 .
- Paolo Rumiz: Gorizia cade l 'ultimo muro d' Europa. In: La Repubblica . April 28, 2004, accessed April 20, 2020 (Italian).
- Arcturus doo Trg Evrope - Europe Square. In: novagorica-turizem.com. Retrieved April 20, 2020 .
- Gorizia-Nova Gorica e il confine che non c'è più. Corriere della Serassprache = it, accessed on April 20, 2020 .
- Church of Sant 'Ignazio (German)
- Comune di Gorizia - Gemellaggi e collaborazioni , accessed on January 6, 2019