Josip Broz Tito

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Josip Broz Tito (1961)
Tito signature.svg

Josip Broz , called (Josip Broz) Tito ['jɔsip' brɔz 'tito] Pronunciation ? / i ( Serbian - Cyrillic Јосип Броз Тито ; * May 7, 1892 in Kumrovec , Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia , Austria-Hungary ; †  May 4, 1980 in Ljubljana , Yugoslavia ) was a Yugoslav communist politician and as General Secretary of the Union of Communists of Yugoslavia , Marshal of Yugoslavia , Prime Minister and President of the Republic from 1945 to 1980, the long-time dictatorial head of state of Yugoslavia. Audio file / audio sample

Josip Broz adopted the pseudonym Tito in 1934 when he became a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia , which had been banned since 1921 , and went into political underground.

As Marshal , Tito led the communist partisans in the Second World War in the fight against the German and Italian occupiers of Yugoslavia, the fascist Ustaša and the Chetniks loyal to the king . After the war he was first Prime Minister (1945–53) and finally President (1953–80) of his country; an office he held until his death. After breaking with Stalin in 1948, he pursued a policy that was independent of the Soviet Union and has been one of the leading statesmen of the movement of the non-aligned states since the 1950s . An intense personality cult was practiced around him .


Youth and First World War

Tito's birth house in Kumrovec
Josip Broz (1911)

Josip Broz came from a small farming family in Kumrovec, Croatia , which was part of Austria-Hungary at the time of his birth. His exact date of birth is unknown and there are up to 15 different dates in the literature, with more recent publications mostly quoting May 7, 1892. Josip Broz's birthplace is now part of the Etno-selo Kumrovec open -air museum . His father Franjo was a Croat , whose ancestors immigrated from Welschtirol (now Trentino , Italy ), which was also part of Austria at the time, before the mid-16th century . His mother Marija was Slovenian . He was the seventh child in the family.

He completed an apprenticeship as a locksmith in Sisak and joined the Social Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia in 1910 . He worked as a metal worker in Zagreb , Kamnik , in the Laurin & Klement car factory in Mladá Boleslav and in Germany , around 1911 at Benz & Cie. in Mannheim . Later Tito worked as a driver at Daimler in Wiener Neustadt and lived with his brother in Neudörfl .

In autumn 1913 Broz was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army . When the First World War began the following year , he first came to the front against Serbia as an artillery sergeant . In 1914 he was promoted to sergeant . In 1915 he ran as the Habsburg sergeant on the Eastern Front in Russian captivity . He was wounded in Bukovina and taken prisoner with his entire battalion. The silver medal for bravery awarded to him for the capture of eleven Russian soldiers could no longer be presented to him.

He was then until March 1916 in an improvised hospital of the Uspensky monastery in Svyashsk in the Kazan governorate . He was then taken to a camp near the town of Altair on the Sura River . He volunteered to work for a large farmer in the village of Kalasejewo in the Simbirsk governorate , where he worked as a mechanic in a steam mill. In the autumn of 1916 Broz was transferred to the city of Kungur in Perm Governorate , where he worked as a translator and overseer on a railway line. In May 1917 he was transferred to the small Ergatsch train station near Perm .

During the February Revolution of 1917 Broz was released from captivity and came to Petrograd in June , where he was politically active. Broz witnessed the October Revolution and in those days joined the Red Guard ( Red Army ) and fought on the side of the Bolsheviks in the civil war.

In the interwar period (1920 to 1940)

Police photos of Tito during his imprisonment in Lepoglava (1928)

In 1920 Broz returned to his homeland, which was now part of the newly created Kingdom of Yugoslavia .

Broz joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPJ) on his return home . In 1927 he was elected Secretary of the Metalworkers' Union. Since the CPJ was banned at the time, he was arrested several times for political agitation , the last time from 1928 to 1934. After his release, he was elected to the Central Committee of the Politburo of the CPJ that same year .

In the years from 1936 to 1938 Tito (as he called himself from 1934) was involved in the Republican Civil War , where he was responsible for the smuggling of volunteers in Paris.

After bloody party purges, to which the General Secretary of the CPY Milan Gorkić fell victim, Tito was appointed his successor by the Comintern in 1937 , as he was considered a reliable supporter of Stalin . In 1940 he was confirmed in this function by a conspiratorial national conference of his party in Zagreb.

Partisan leader in World War II

Tito (left) with Moša Pijade in Foča (1942)
Tito's profile, published together with Draža Mihailović 's profile in the Serbian newspaper Novo vreme (July 21, 1943).

On March 25, 1941, the Cvetković government signed the accession to the Tripartite Pact . The second night that followed, the coup took place in Belgrade under the leadership of General Dušan Simović , who sympathized with the Western powers . After Germany invaded Yugoslavia in April 1941 ( Balkan campaign ), Tito initially continued to live in Belgrade's villa district, unmolested by the Germans. Only after the German attack on the Soviet Union did he have to go into hiding and organized the armed resistance of the Yugoslav communists against the German and Italian occupiers in the form of partisan war .

During the war, the communist partisans of Yugoslavia under the leadership of Tito succeeded in asserting themselves against the occupiers and the fascist Ustaša movement from Croatia, allied with them . He was only supported by the Allies after the Tehran Conference . Especially in Serbia they fought against the initially collaborating Chetnik - irregulars . The People's Liberation Army ( Narodnooslobodilačka vojska / armija ), as the partisans called themselves, was able to establish itself as the politically most influential group. During the resistance struggle , Tito was appointed marshal and from November 29, 1943 headed the Anti-Fascist Council for National Liberation (AVNOJ), which formed a provisional government and controlled large parts of the occupied country.

Tito and Churchill in Naples (1944)

From the end of 1944 the Anti-Fascist Council exercised power in all of Yugoslavia. He was also recognized by the Allies and, above all, supported by the British Prime Minister Churchill . Even during the war, Tito's diplomacy was aimed at maintaining a balance between the Western powers and the Soviet Union.

The post-war head of state

Tito on his state visit to India (1954)
After the 1963 earthquake with Nikita Khrushchev in Skopje

After the end of the war, Tito had his retention of power confirmed in a referendum. On November 29, 1945 he became Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Yugoslavia. Until 1953, with the help of the National People's Liberation Front and the CPY, he worked to transform Yugoslavia into a socialist state.

He also used repression . Contrary to his instruction not to execute prisoners of war but to bring them before a military court, the Bleiburg massacre happened in the immediate post-war period . Numerous political opponents, mainly Stalinists after 1948, were persecuted, imprisoned and tortured by the UDBA secret police , especially on the prison island of Goli Otok .

Few troops from the Soviet Union were stationed in Yugoslavia, mainly in Belgrade itself and Vojvodina. This enabled Tito to pursue a foreign policy based on independence and equality , which also included independent relations with the West.

In addition, he claimed for Yugoslavia to go its own way to socialism , which essentially provided for a certain degree of self-administration of the companies. This so-called Titoism brought the country into opposition to the Soviet hegemony and in 1948 led to the break between Tito and Stalin . The dispute was fought with bitter severity. Stalin tried in vain to incite the Yugoslav party against Tito and publicly threatened him with murder in Pravda ; “ Trotsky's fate is instructive”, one could read there in relation to Tito. Tito consequently refused Stalin's invitation to “amicably” discuss the differences in Moscow. On November 29, 1949, the Cominform members openly called for the overthrow of Tito and the fight against Titoism. In the course of the de-Stalinization after Stalin's death under Nikita Khrushchev (1956) and the dissolution of the Cominform, relations with the Soviet Union normalized again.

After the adoption of a new constitution in 1953, Tito was elected President on January 14, 1953, which he held for life from 1963. He campaigned for equality between states, the peaceful coexistence of blocs and for the developing countries . Together with the Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser , the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the Indonesian President Sukarno , he was one of the protagonists of a policy of non-alignment . This was institutionalized with the establishment of the Movement of Non-Aligned States . Through his charisma and his policy aimed at balancing out, he also earned a special reputation outside of Yugoslavia. He was one of the most respected representatives of the non-aligned states , whose inhabitants made up about two thirds of humanity. In 1967, after the Six Day War , Tito froze diplomatic relations with Israel .

Josip Broz Tito (1971)

Domestically, Tito continued to pursue an authoritarian style of government, although after the dismissal of the security chief Aleksandar Ranković in 1966 there was a significant liberalization of Yugoslav society. B. expressed in a relative freedom of art and culture. Tito strongly condemned the invasion of the Warsaw Pact troops in the Czechoslovakia in 1968, which further improved his image in western countries. According to his biographer Pirjevec, the relationship “with Bonn ”, especially Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt but also other Social Democrats , is said to have been significantly better than “with Pankow ” (the GDR government in Berlin around Walter Ulbricht ). In 1971 he turned against nationalist demonstrations in Croatia. Tito reacted to this so-called Croatian Spring with mass arrests because he saw the core of Yugoslav socialism, “brotherhood and unity” ( Bratstvo i Jedinstvo ), attacked. The events led to Yugoslavia receiving a new constitution in 1974 at the initiative of Tito, which emphasized federalism more strongly. In addition to a new division of the generated foreign exchange, this was one of the demands of the Croatian Spring . At the same time, the constitution of 1974 strengthened the position of the president, as Tito was granted unrestricted powers as head of state for life. The new constitution explicitly stated that the president was not politically or legally responsible to any other state body.

Personality cult

Pictures of Tito were present in all business premises and public institutions in Yugoslavia.

Tito's regime was characterized by a strong personality cult , which was initially based on Stalinism . Tito was celebrated and revered in state-controlled rituals as the hero of a national myth . May 25th, on which Tito narrowly escaped the attack of German paratroopers in his shelter near Drvar, played a special role . This day was celebrated until 1988 as the alleged birthday of the marshal, as a day of victory for the partisans and as day of youth (until 1987 with a nationwide relay race called Stafette der Jugend ). Until Tito's death he ended in Belgrade with the handover of artistically designed relays to him.

In Yugoslavia, eight cities (in each republic and autonomous region) and a mountain were named after Tito:

After the fall of Yugoslavia , all cities were given their old names again.

Death and burial

Cover plate from Tito's sarcophagus

After an acute worsening of his PAD ("smoker's leg") as part of an arterial thrombosis , the 87-year-old Tito was admitted to the University Clinic in Ljubljana ( Univerzitetni klinični center Ljubljana) on January 3, 1980 . The team treating there consisted of 8 Yugoslav doctors, the US cardiac surgeon Michael Ellis De Bakey and his colleague Marat Knjasew from the Soviet Union. These are the indication for an arterial bypass in order to ensure the vascular supply of the leg. The operation carried out in the night of January 12th to January 13th, 1980 did not bring the desired success, so that part of the left leg had to be amputated on January 20th due to progressive necrosis and the development of a life-threatening gangrene . Subsequently, his health briefly improved so that he could meet his obligations as head of state. Due to a further deterioration in health, he was admitted to the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in Ljubljana, where he died three days before his 88th birthday on May 4, 1980 at 3:05 p.m. A memorial plaque was installed in the hospital saying: "The struggle for the liberation of mankind will be a long one, but it would be longer if Tito hadn't lived" (Pot do osvoboditve človeka bo še dolga, a bila bi daljša da ni živel Tito). The board was later removed.

Many presidents and high-ranking politicians paid their last respects to him at his funeral on May 8, 1980. Measured by the number of condoling politicians and states that sent delegations, the funeral with four kings, 31 presidents, 6 princes, 22 prime ministers and 47 foreign ministers was the largest in the world to date. Among them were Leonid Brezhnev , Andrej Gromiko , Erich Honecker , Margaret Thatcher , Helmut Schmidt , Francesco Cossiga , Nicolae Ceaușescu , Kim Il Sung , Saddam Hussein , Jassir Arafat and Felipe González . He was buried in the Belgrade mausoleum "Kuća cveća" (" House of Flowers "). His sarcophagus is visited by up to 20,000 people annually. The mausoleum is now part of the Museum of the History of Yugoslavia .

Overview of the origin of the mourners: Blue : States that sent official guests
Orange : No official guests, but participating organizations from these countries
Yellow : No guests

Private life

Marriages and offspring

  • Pelagija Belousova (Russian, 1904–1960), 1st wife.
  • Herta Haas ( Slovenian German , 1914–2010), 2nd wife, lived in Belgrade until her death in early March 2010.
    • Mišo Broz (* 1941), Croatian ambassador to Indonesia from 2004 to 2009 , lives in Zagreb .
      • Saša Broz (* 1969), director, former theater director in Pula
      • Andreja Broz (* 1971), company owner (Combis) in Zagreb
  • Davorjanka Paunović (Serbian, 1921–1946), 3rd wife, died of tuberculosis. The marriage remained childless.
Tito and Jovanka with Sukarno (right) at the Postojna Caves (1960)
  • Jovanka Budisavljević-Broz (Serbian, 1924–2013), 4th wife, the marriage remained childless. The former “First Lady” of Yugoslavia had not appeared in public since 1977, presumably at the instigation of a group of Slovene party officials around Stane Dolanc and Mitja Ribičič until Tito's funeral. After that, she was under house arrest for years and her property was confiscated. She lived in seclusion and poor conditions in Belgrade until her death.

Extra-marital relationships

Tito's relationship life was characterized by frequent changes of partners. He promised marriage to several women. However, he did not keep the first wedding date and left his first fiancée on the wedding day before the marriage. Tito had several illegitimate children from several women. Tito's second illegitimate son, Hans Studer , died as a soldier in the German Wehrmacht while fighting Tito's partisans.


There are countless legends about Tito. Among other things, in his autobiography Between the Times , Bruno Kreisky tells of Tito's steadfastness to drink, but also of the fact that, apart from the protocol, he is said to have maintained personal connections to Austria for half a century after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. According to Kreisky, after the official part of a state banquet, Tito is said to have sent his interpreters to the hotel and then chatted with Kreisky in Austrian German in a relaxed atmosphere.

With regard to Tito's language skills, Milovan Đilas remarks that he learned foreign languages ​​easily despite his poor schooling. He learned Russian during the First World War and English after breaking with the Soviet Union in 1948 . He also mentions Tito's good knowledge of German. In Croatian, however, he had problems with spelling for a long time and mixed up Serbian and Croatian expressions. Above all, however, he used foreign Russian words in his speeches, "and since he made the words long , as is the way of the people from the Zagorje , he aroused the suspicion in those who did not know him that none of our people, but to be a Russian. "

Tito had the Adriatic island of Brijuni - mostly cited by its Italian name Brioni - converted into a presidential residence and a second seat of government. For a time it was customary on state visits to bring animals to Tito as gifts for his private zoo. Some descendants of these favors now populate the nature reserve on the island of Brijuni. He also had a residence near Bled in what was then the Republic of Slovenia: Egg Castle in Brdo pri Kranju .

Tito's blue special train (2013)

Special locomotives were kept for Tito's special train consisting of blue cars, initially three express train steam locomotives of the Yugoslav class 11 painted blue (replicas of the MÁV class 424 ). In the 1960s, the Yugoslav State Railways bought this three blue diesel locomotives of the type ML 2200 . Tito also had two diesel-mechanical saloon railcars made by the Italian company Breda from the pre-war period. In the spring of 1961, Tito received the modern, highly motorized MOT 410 saloon railcar . Since 1952 he used the Galeb as a state yacht.

When Tito's life was to be filmed, Richard Burton, a top Western actor, was hired. During the shooting of the film (original title: The Battle of Sutjeska , later renamed The Fifth Offensive ), there was an encounter with the actor, who - like Tito - had a reputation for being a good drinker.

Tito continues to be worshiped in parts of the population of the former Yugoslav republics. In his place of birth, Kumrovec in Croatia, a Tito Museum with an attached education center was set up.

After most of the streets and squares previously named after Tito had been renamed in the successor states of Yugoslavia at the beginning of the 1990s , a street in Ljubljana was named after Tito again in 2009 , which was approved by 60% of the population in an opinion poll. However, following a lawsuit by the youth organization of the conservative New Slovenia party , the Constitutional Court of Slovenia banned the renaming of streets after Tito, as this could be understood as an endorsement of his totalitarian regime. The verdict was criticized by members of the Socialni Demokrati , the partisan association and the historian Jože Pirjevec , for ignoring Tito's role in the liberation of Slovenia from fascism.

In September 2017, the "Marshal Tito" Square in the Croatian capital Zagreb was renamed "Square of the Republic of Croatia ", which had previously been discussed controversially. In the city council, 29 members voted for the renaming and 20 against. This action was initiated by the party of the former Minister of Culture Zlatko Hasanbegović . The debate about Tito's historical role regularly leads to political clashes in Croatia.

Origin of the name affix "Tito"

The origin of the “Tito” suffix is ​​still unclear. According to a popular explanation, the addition was created by combining two words: ti (German “you”) and to (German “dies” or “das”). In popular tradition it is mentioned that Josip Broz is said to have used these words frequently in his commands during the hectic war years. He should first have pointed to the person in question and then to the specific task. Translated, the command would read as follows: “You are doing this and you are doing that!” This thesis is mentioned in the 1949 work Eastern Approaches by Fitzroy Maclean .

Tito is also an old, but nowadays rather unusual name of Croatian origin, which refers to the former Roman emperor Titus . Tito's biographer Vladimir Dedijer claimed that this name can be traced back to the Croatian romantic writer Tituš Brezovački . However, the name was common in Tito's area of ​​origin, the Croatian Zagorje . Josip Broz himself confirmed in a handwritten note that this name was very typical for his region and added that this was also the main reason why he adopted this name between 1934 and 1936; the said document is in the archives of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. Josip Broz previously used the nickname "Rudi" in documents with domestic reference, and again the nickname "Walter" in international affairs. Rodoljub Čolaković, on the other hand, was already using the nickname "Rudi" at that time. Therefore, Tito is said to have replaced this with "Tito".

A current theory was suggested by the Croatian journalist Denis Kuljiš (journalist for the weekly Globus ). He is said to have received information from a descendant of Baturin, a Comintern spy who is said to have operated in Istanbul in the 1930s. Baturin is said to have reported on a code system that is said to have been used by Josip Broz. Josip Broz is said to have been one of his agents, whose secret nicknames are supposedly always based on pistol names. Broz himself is said to have confirmed that he had used the nickname "Walter", which is probably due to the German Walther PPK pistol . According to Baturin, one of his last nicknames was "TT", which was derived from the Soviet TT-33 pistol . Allegedly after Broz's return to Yugoslavia, numerous Communist Party documents were signed with this pseudonym . According to Kuljiš, the term “TT” ( pronounced “te te” in Croatian ) is said to have changed to “Tito” after a few years.

Awards (excerpt)

In terms of domestic and foreign policy, collecting medals for Tito was part of Yugoslav state policy. Domestically, the state was able to celebrate achievements and anniversaries in which Tito played the main role, because this might not have existed without him. Shortly before Tito's death , the Socialist League of the Working People of Yugoslavia (SSRNJ) made the (secret) proposal to award him a fourth Order of the People's Hero because of his "successfully survived operation". In terms of foreign policy, the exchange of medals at state visits or receptions was usually an agreed duty. This practice made Tito the statesman with the most medals.

In 2011, the Federal Association of the Landsmannschaft der Donauschwaben and the Donauschwäbische Kulturstiftung applied to Federal President Christian Wulff to remove the Grand Cross of the Federal Order of Merit from Tito . The background to the application was the internment of around 200,000 Danube Swabians at the end of the Second World War . According to FAZ.NET, more than 50,000 Danube Swabian civilians perished in Tito's mass camps between 1944 and 1948 . The application failed.



  • Selected speeches . Dietz-Verlag, Berlin 1976.
  • Selected speeches and writings . tape III / 2 . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-608-91132-4 (Volumes I – II not published).


Broadcast reports

Web links

Commons : Josip Broz Tito  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Pero Simić: TITO - Fenomen stoljeća. Prva politička biografija 2009. p. 29.
  2. Ulla Hoffmann: Where Yugoslavia's head of state stood at the vice. In: IHK - Rhein-Neckar business magazine. 7/8. 2008, pp. 41-42.
  3. M. Roth: Tito's apprenticeship as a locksmith at Benz. ( Memento from February 5, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: Bergsträßer Anzeiger. January 28, 2011.
  4. Josip Broz Tito. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
  5. ^ Adam Bruno Ulam : Tito, Titoism. In: Soviet system and democratic society. A comparative encyclopedia. Volume VI. Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 1972, column 451 f.
  6. Jacques Sémelin: Cleaning and Destroying . The political dimension of massacres and genocides. Hamburg 2007, p. 24.
  7. ^ Sabrina P. Ramet, Davorka Matić: Democratic transition in Croatia: value transformation, education & media . Texas A&M University Press, 2007, pp. 274 .
  8. Bosko S. Vukcevich: Tito. Architect of Yugoslav disintegration . Rivercross Publications, New York 1994, ISBN 0-944957-46-3 , pp. 331 ff. (Chapter The Role of UDBA and KOS in 1948 and Afterwards ).
  9. Tito's Gulag. Retrieved April 20, 2020 (German).
  10. ^ Teddy Preuss: Alliance of the victims . In: Die Zeit , No. 25/1994.
  11. ^ Jože Pirjevec: Tito and his comrades . The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin 2018, ISBN 978-0-299-31773-7 , pp. 358 .
  12. Petra Bock, Edgar Wolfrum: Contested Past. Images of history, memory and politics of the past in an international comparison . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999, p. 216.
  13. Elmir Camic: Tito as a political hero. In: Peter Tepe, Thorsten Bachmann et al. (Eds.): Myth No. 2. Political Myths . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2006, pp. 194–213.
  14. White Giant . In: Der Spiegel . No. 21 , 1984 ( online ).
  15. Specialist consults on Tito. In: Lodi News. January 7, 1980, accessed July 15, 2020 .
  16. Tito surgery succesuful. In: Beaver County Times. January 14, 1980, accessed July 15, 2020 .
  17. Josip Vidmar, Rajko Bobot, Miodrag Vartabedijan, Branibor Debeljaković, Živojin Janković, Ksenija Dolinar: Josip Broz Tito - Ilustrirani življenjepis . Jugoslovenska revija, 1981, p. 166 .
  18. Jasper Ridley: Tito: A Biography . Constable, 1996, ISBN 0-09-475610-4 , pp. 19 .
  19. The grave of Josip Broz Tito
  20. Tito's grandson wants to unite communists in Serbia ( Memento from September 5, 2012 in the web archive ) Message on, accessed on November 26, 2009.
  21. Former wife Titos died in Belgrade. In: The Standard . March 9, 2010.
  22. Poor and miserable . In: Der Spiegel . No. 45 , 1977 ( online ). ( Memento from December 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) ( Memento from June 19, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Milovan Đilas : Tito. P. 271. R. West: Tito. P. 329 f.
  23. ^ Obituary
  24. ( Memento from March 12, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  25. Martin Rath: Parliamentarians are not monkeys & other normative ideas . In: Legal Tribune. 3rd February 2013.
  26. Milovan Đilas : Tito. A critical biography . 1980, pp. 15-18. For the dialect of the Zagorje see Kajkavisch .
  27. ^ Frank Partridge: Inside Tito's luxury playground . BBC Radio 4, August 8, 2009.
  28. ^ The Constitutional Court forbids Tito Strasse ., October 5, 2011; Retrieved October 8, 2011.
  29. ^ Adelheid Wölfl: Tito is being dismantled in Zagreb. In: Retrieved October 15, 2017 . }
  30. Gerhard Herm : The Balkans. The powder keg of Europe . Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf / Vienna / New York / Moscow 1993, ISBN 978-3-430-14445-2 , p. 315.
  31. Male Novine: Titovim Stazama Revolucije. Special edition, 1977, p. 96.
  32. missing source.
  33. In the German translation of Đilas' book, translated as "Socialist Federation of the National Front Organization".
  34. Milovan Đilas : Tito: A critical biography . Molden, Vienna 1980, ISBN 3-217-01158-9 , p. 209.
  35. Jean Schoos : The medals and decorations of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the former Duchy of Nassau in the past and present. Verlag der Sankt-Paulus Druckerei, Luxembourg 1990, ISBN 2-87963-048-7 , p. 344.
  36. Berislav Badurina, Sead Saračević, Valent Grobenski, Ivo Eterović, Mladen Tudor: Bilo je časno živjeti s Titom . Vjesnik, 1980, p. 102.
  37. Domestic in brief. In: FAZ.NET. from February 1, 2011.