|List of cities in Russia|
Perm ( Russian Пермь ) is a city in Russia with 991,162 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010). The city is located in the Ural foothills on the Kama , about 1,150 kilometers as the crow flies northeast of Moscow .
The name of the city is of Finnish origin and was originally a landscape designation (cf. Greater Perm ). The etymology of the name must be viewed as unclear; Deductions from various Uralic languages (e.g. Finnish perämaa , distant land, hinterland ') are given as well as a possible connection to Bjarmaland, which is known from the Nordic sagas .
Perm goes back to a predecessor settlement Jegoschicha, first mentioned in 1647, which was located on the river of the same name near the confluence with the Kama . After the discovery of copper ore in 1723 by Vasily Tatishchev , a copper smelter was founded next to the village, from which an ever larger settlement developed. The settlement benefited in particular from its location on the Siberian tract , which was laid out in 1763 , one of the first major east-west axes in Russia, which led from Moscow via Perm to Siberia . In 1780 Perm was granted city rights ; In 1781 it became the capital of a governorate, later Perm Governorate . From 1781–98 and 1807–31 the main seat of the Urals iron and steel industry was located here.
From the middle of the 19th century, Perm was the most important trading center in the Urals. This development was made possible by the expansion of the transport infrastructure. Due to the ore deposits, the heavy and armaments industries developed. Since 1846 there have been regular shipping connections between the center of the country and Perm, the largest Kama port. A rail link to Yekaterinburg had existed since 1878, and to St. Petersburg since 1905 . Perm was also known as the gateway to the Urals and Siberia. A famous visitor to the city in the 19th century was Alexander von Humboldt . At that time, Perm had a notable German-speaking minority. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, built in 1864, is a holdover. In the 19th century the city was also a place of exile for political prisoners such as B. the statesman Michail Speranski (1812-14) and the writers Alexander Herzen (1835) and Wladimir Korolenko (1880-81). In 1916 the first university in the Urals was founded here.
After the outbreak of the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War , the city was occupied by Admiral Kolchak's White Guards . It was not until July 1, 1919 that the Red Army managed to recapture the city.
In the 20th century, Perm developed into an important industrial center, primarily heavy industry, while the rest of the urban development was neglected. After the incorporation (1938) of Molotov, as today's Motovilicha district was called since it was granted its independent town charter in 1931, the entire city was also called Molotov between 1940 and 1957 ( Молотов ; after Vyacheslav Molotov ).
The POW camp 207, Molotow , was located in Perm for German POWs of the Second World War . Later in the post-war period there was a large gulag camp. The Molotow ITL (corrective labor camp) existed from October 1950 to April 1953. The maximum number of inmates in the camp was 12,300 people who were used in the construction of an oil-processing plant, in road, industrial and civil construction.
With the political and economic transformations since the beginning of the 1990s, a functional specialization of the large centers took place in the Urals - as in other polycentric densely populated areas. In this context, Perm was able to slightly expand its position as an industrial center.
A criminological study from 2008 found that Perm had the highest crime rate in Russia.
Note: census data,
The winters in Perm are mostly cold and frosty, the average temperatures are between −15 degrees and −20 degrees Celsius. On average there is 55 centimeters of snow.
In summer the average temperatures are between 18 and 23 degrees Celsius; However, due to the prevailing continental climate, on some days it can reach temperatures of up to 35 degrees Celsius.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Perm
January 1, 2004
January 1, 2009
|Dzerzhinsky||Дзержинский район||Felix Dzerzhinsky||152,500||149,559|
|Industrialny||Индустриальный район||Industrialization of the Soviet Union||159,700||160.403|
|Kirowski||Кировский район||Sergei Kirov||123.105||125,338|
|Leninsky||Ленинский район||Vladimir Lenin||56,400||50,670|
|Motowilichinski||Мотовилихинский район||Motowilicha River , tributary of the Kama||176,000||179.117|
|Ordzhonikidsewski||Орджоникидзевский район||Grigory Ordzhonikidze||111,300||112,274|
|Sverdlovsky||Свердловский район||Yakov Sverdlov||212,600||210,666|
Lukoil , currently Russia's largest oil company , is based in Perm. Aircraft turbines are produced in the city , as well as telephones , textiles , bicycles and power saws . There are also large industrial companies in the chemical , wood processing and electronics sectors .
The major companies in the region include the Permskie Motory engine building factory (formerly Perm engine building complex ) and the Motowilichinskije zavody armaments group , one of the most important manufacturers of artillery and tank cannons . The largest Russian bicycle manufacturer Forward also operates a plant in Perm. In addition, several large companies with foreign participation have their headquarters in the Permian. a. the cleaning agent manufacturer Henkel , the confectionery manufacturer Nestlé and the Russian plants of the largest brewery group in the world AB InBev . The IT industry, which now employs around 18,000 people, is also becoming increasingly important. a. in high-tech startups such as the manufacturer of service robots Prombot . The telecommunications group ERTelecom , which ranks second in Russia for Internet connections, also has its headquarters in Perm.
Perm is connected to the Trans-Siberian Railway and has its own airport . The 354 km long federal trunk road R242 connects Perm with Yekaterinburg , the center of Sverdlovsk Oblast . Other important highways lead from here to Kazan and via Kirow to Kostroma ( R243 ). The city's local public transport is carried out by the Permawtotrans . It operates tram , trolleybus and bus lines in the city.
The Perm Mosque was built between 1902 and 1903.
Education and culture
The city has an opera , a theater and a famous puppet theater . Other cultural institutions in the city are the Gorki - Library (about two million books), the state Perm circus (with 2,000 seats), a planetarium and a zoological garden.
The Perm Academic Opera and Ballet Theater PI Tchaikovsky, which is one of the most important in Russia alongside the Bolshoi Theater and the Mariinsky Theater as well as the Academic Opera and Ballet Theater Novosibirsk , is home to an internationally important ballet troupe , in which numerous Dancers known to Russia have been trained or are teaching. Very extravagant and modern dance theater was created here. Since 2011 Teodor Currentzis has been the music director of the Perm Opera House, which he has given an international reputation.
Perm State Art Gallery
Furthermore, the State Art Gallery Perm has existed in the former cathedral of the city since 1922 , in which mainly valuable wooden sculptures, but also paintings from the 15th to 18th centuries are exhibited (including pictures by the painters Ilya Repin , Ivan Schischkin and Ivan Kramskoi ).
Perm State Art Gallery has exceptional collections, including Perm wooden sculptures.
In a large local museum there are 360,000 exhibits from the history of the city of Perm, mainly documents from the 16th and 17th centuries.
Doctor Zhivago House
A rural property near the city served as a model for an important plot in the novel Doctor Schiwago by Boris Pasternak . Because of the virtually identical appearance and popularity of the novel, it is now a well-known tourist attraction.
Museum of Contemporary Art PERM
From 2008 to 2013, the Moscow gallery owner Marat Gelman headed the city's Museum of Contemporary Art (Музей современного искусства). The works of art exhibited there, and in particular the sculptures displayed in the city's public space, at times led to very controversial debates.
Open-air museum for wooden architecture
Further educational institutions
- Faculty of the Legal Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia Perm
- Branch of the Russian Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture
- Humanities Institute of the Urals
- Institute for Economics and Law of the Western Urals
- Perm branch of the Academy of State Service of the Urals
- Perm Military Institute for Missile Forces
- Perm State Trade Institute of Moscow State Trade University
- Perm State Agricultural Academy (renamed Perm State Agricultural and Technological University )
- Perm State Medical Academy (renamed Perm State Medical University )
- Perm State Pedagogical University
- Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy
- National Polytechnic Research University of Perm
- Perm State University
- Perm State Institute of Art and Culture
- Perm campus of the National Higher School of Economics Research University
Established in 1916, Perm State University is the oldest university in the Urals region. However, the largest educational institution in the city is the Technical University with over 11,000 students.
The basketball club Ural Great Perm played in the top Russian league until it was dissolved after the 2008/09 season due to financial problems. His greatest successes were winning the Russian basketball championship in 2001 and 2002, winning the Russian basketball cup in 2004 and winning the FIBA EuroCup Challenge 2006. Home venue was the 7,000-seat Universal Sports Palace Molot.
The young women's soccer team Zvezda 2005 Perm , which was founded in 2005, played in the UEFA Women's Cup just three years after it was founded and reached the final in spring 2009 . The football club Amkar Perm , founded in 1993, took part in the Russian premier league from 2003 to 2018 .
Furthermore, the Latin dance formation Duet Perm established itself among the world's best. At the World Championships on December 14, 2013 in Bremen, they achieved fifth place with their choreography "High School". At the world championships on December 6, 2014 in Bremen and December 12, 2015 in Vienna, they each secured the vice-world title. On December 10, 2017, they won the world championship title for the first time, after the Grün-Gold-Club Bremen had previously held the title five times in a row.
Perm lists the following twin cities :
|Louisville , Kentucky ( USA ), since 1994|
|Oxford , England ( UK ), since 1995|
|Duisburg ( Germany ), since 2007|
|Agrigento ( Italy ), since 2005|
|Qingdao ( China ), since 2003|
|Chernihiv ( Ukraine ), since 2003|
sons and daughters of the town
The sons and daughters of the city of Perm include a. the composer Ivan Larionov (1830–1889), last governor of the Russian-American company Dmitri Maksutow (1832–1889), the economist and philosopher Peter Struve (1870–1944), the radio chemist Vitaly Chlopin (1890–1950), the actress Vera Kálmán (1907–1999), the world champion in correspondence chess Lora Jakowlewa (* 1932), the actor Georgi Burkow (1933–1990), the head of the Russian domestic secret service FSB Alexander Bortnikow (* 1951), the wrestler in Greco-Roman style and world champion from 1998 Alexander Tretyakov (* 1972), soccer player Konstantin Syrjanow (* 1977), figure skaters Maxim Trankow (* 1983) and Andrei Grjasew (* 1985), model Natasha Poly (* 1985), tennis player Marina Melnikova (* 1989 ) and the ice hockey players Albert Malgin (* 1966), Alexander Gulyawzew (* 1973), Nikolai Bardin (* 1976), Vyacheslav Below (* 1983) and Alexander Berkutow (* 1986).
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Erich Maschke (Hrsg.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- Molotow-ITL in the GULAG internet portal of Memorial Deutschland e. V. .
- That's not Russian, get rid of it! Article from Die Zeit on June 28, 2012
- Perm State Agricultural and Technological University. Retrieved April 11, 2018 (Russian).
- Perm State Medical University. Retrieved April 11, 2018 (Russian).
- Interview with association president Andrei Agischew (Russian) ( Memento from March 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- revenge: Green-Gold for the 9th time world champion in dancing Article by buten un within December 2, 2018.
- City website ( Russian / English / Chinese )
- Official Perms Travel Portal
- Pictures of Perm (Russian, English)