|List of cities in Russia|
Kazan ( Russian Каза́нь ; Tatar Казан ) is the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia . With 1.24 million inhabitants (as of 2018) Kazan is the sixth largest city in Russia . The city on the Volga is about 720 km east of Moscow as the crow flies , is an important cultural, scientific and economic location and transport hub as well as an important center of Islam in Russia .
The city of Kazan was founded by the Volga Bulgarians around the year 1005. With the invasion of the Golden Horde , the Volga Bulgarians lost their independence in the 13th century. The decline of Mongolian rule led to the formation of the Kazan Khanate in 1393 (approx. 1437–1552). As the capital of the Islamic khanate, Kazan developed into an important center of trade and handicrafts in the middle of the 15th century. The city, located on trade routes, was known for its magnificent palaces and mosques, leather goods and goldsmith's work.
The decades-long Moscow-Kazan Wars ended in 1552 with the capture of the city by Ivan IV's Russian troops . Kazan became the first non-Russian city to be incorporated into the Russian Empire . This makes Kazan the starting point of the Russian multi-ethnic state . Kazan burned down completely as a result of the fighting, but was rebuilt and developed into an economic center. Ivan IV had the Kazan Kremlin built and expanded the city into a fortress against attacks from the east. The city had about 15,000 inhabitants, including the garrison. The Tatar population was only 6,000, not all of whom were fully sedentary.
From the 17th century
Based on the 1630s, there are written testimonials about Kazan from a travel description in German, which also contains images. Fires in 1672 and 1684 depopulated entire streets of Kazan. The reconstruction of the city was completed by the end of the century. In 1708 Peter I declared Kazan the capital of the Kazan Governorate .
In the 1770s, Kazan became a center of the Pugachev uprising (1773–75). A conflagration destroyed large parts of the mostly wooden city for the third time. The reconstruction of Kazan took place according to a general plan authorized by Catherine II . In a mixture of Eastern and Western architecture, the city center was rebuilt in stone and the streets straightened. Kazan quickly developed again into a trading center for porcelain , ceramics , spices, fabrics, leather goods, wine and fruits. Trade brought prosperity to the city. In 1791 the first permanent theater opened.
In the first half of the 19th century, Kazan had developed into the industrial, commercial and cultural center of the Volga region . Public and religious Islamic schools were built. Tatar publishers in Kazan, who sold their publications in large numbers to Muslims in different parts of Russia, made it easier to disseminate Islamic literature.
The Kazan University is one of the oldest in Russia. It is worth noting that Kazan was a center for oriental studies between 1807 and 1854. Here you could study Turkish, Persian and Arabic as well as Mongolian since 1844. There were German lecturers who did not speak Russian and who taught in Latin. From 1826 the young scholar Mirza Kazem-Bek, who had Persian roots, worked at the University of Kazan. In 1843 a bilingual edition with classical Persian literature was published here for the first time (Persian-German), namely a partial edition of Nezāmi's Seven Beauties (around 1200). From 1844 Tolstoy studied oriental studies in Kazan. In 1870 the first printed version of the book Frankish Tales of a Russian Pilgrim , a classic of Eastern Church spirituality , which has made the Jesus prayer known worldwide, was published in Kazan . Law student Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, later known as Lenin , took part in student protests here in 1887 due to his brother's influence in Kazan.
After the October Revolution of 1917 began Russian Civil War , during which Kazan after long struggles on August 6, 1918 by troops on the side of the White Army standing Czechoslovak legions was taken. On September 10, 1918, the Red Army recaptured the city.
On May 27, 1920, Kazan became its capital with the establishment of the Tatar ASSR .
As part of the German-Soviet military cooperation under the Treaty of Rapallo , the German Reichswehr (Inspection 6 Kraftfahrwesen) and the Red Army secretly tested tanks in the nearby Kama tank school from 1926 to 1933 , trained them and developed new tank tactics. Among other things, the large tractor was subjected to extensive tests there. The exercises formed the basis for the Blitzkrieg concept, which was later successfully applied . The collaboration ended when the National Socialist government came to power . In terms of numbers, only 30 tank specialists were trained.
coat of arms
The first official coat of arms of Kazan was approved on October 18, 1781. The coat of arms and flag were modernized in 2005.
According to the 2010 Russian census, the population consists of 48.6% Russians and 47.6% Tatars . In addition, numerous other, smaller minorities live in Kazan, such as Chuvashes , Ukrainians , Mari , Russian Germans , Jews and others.
The most strongly represented religions are Christianity with the Russian Orthodox Church and Islam . In 1898 the Russian Orthodox Church opened its first institute for the training of missionaries in Kazan.
The Sultanovskaya Mosque has existed since 1868.
During the Soviet period there was only one open mosque in Kazan, namely the Mardjani Mosque . It was maintained by mullahs who had some theological training. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, numerous new mosques were built in Kazan. In the early summer of 2005, the Kul Sharif Mosque, Europe's largest mosque , opened in Kazan.
The " Spiritual Administration of the Muslims of the Republic of Tatarstan " ( Dukhovnoe upravlenie musul'man Respubliki Tatarstan ; DUMRT) has been based in Kazan since 1992. In addition, several Islamic magazines in the Tatar language appear in Kazan, DUMRT-Organ vä ädäp and Islam nurï, Din vä maghyishät and the women's magazine Muslima .
Of the eight officially recognized Islamic educational institutions of the Republic of Tatarstan, three are located in Kazan, namely the Islamic University of the Russian Federation , the “Muhammadiyya Madrasa” and the “Madrasa for the Millennium of Islam”. The Islamic University, which was founded in 1998 by DUMRT in cooperation with the Russian Mufti Council and the Institute of History of the Tatar Academy of Sciences, has a teaching staff of 25 lecturers and has had the right to award Islamic theological degrees since 2003. The Muhammadiyya Madrasa, which was founded in 1881, closed under the Soviets after 1918 and reopened in 1993, is a madrasa that boys and girls aged 14 and over can study at. The "Madrasa for the Millennium of Islam" was only founded outside of Kazan in 1990 and moved to the city in 1991. It offers a four-year Islamic education and has 12 lecturers.
Among the religious minorities, Catholics , Protestants , Jews , Baha'i and Krishna are represented with their own houses of prayer, with the Evangelical Lutheran parish of Kazan maintaining its own chamber orchestra .
Note: census data
The city is considered a pearl of architecture that unites the Orient and Occident . The Kazan Kremlin ( ) is considered to be one of the most beautiful of its kind and for this reason has been included in the list of world cultural heritage . There is also the former governor's palace, which was built from 1843 to 1853 in place of the Khan palace by the Russian architect Konstantin Thon . In addition, Thon built the castle church standing next to it.
On the occasion of the successful campaign to Kazan, Ivan IV had a cathedral built in Moscow: St. Basil's Cathedral on Red Square . At the same time, on the orders of the tsar, a small wooden church was built in the Kazan Kremlin, which was ready after three days. This church was later rebuilt, and since probably 1556 there has been a magnificent Orthodox cathedral in the Kazan Kremlin: the Cathedral of the Annunciation . This cathedral is the oldest architectural monument of the Kazan Kremlin.
There is a red brick tower near the Cathedral of the Annunciation: the Sujumbike Tower . The tower named after the last regent of the Kazan Khanate was built in the 18th century. Behind the tower is a mausoleum with the sarcophagi of the Tatar khans.
On the occasion of the 1000th anniversary in 2005, the Kremlin and other buildings were renovated.
The main tower of the Kazan Kremlin is the Spassky Tower or the Savior Tower. This tower was built in the 19th century. But according to some well-known architects, the first floor of the tower dates from the 16th century and was built by the Russian builders Postnik Jakowlew and Ivan Schirjajew . Up until the October Revolution of 1917 there was a chapel on the top floor and the outlines of the church windows can still be seen there today. At the top of the tower is a star that was erected in the 1930s. Today there is often a dispute about whether the star is appropriate here. But the government believes that a cross could offend the Tatars and a crescent moon could offend the Russians.
- Buildings in Kazan
- Burnayevskaya Mosque
- Iske Tash Mosque
- Sujumbike tower
- Cathedral of the Annunciation
- Kul Sharif Mosque
- Kazan Metro
- Kazan State University
- St. Catherine Church
- Peter and Paul Church
- Apanayevskaya Mosque
- Nurulla mosque
- Temple of all religions
- The ice hockey club Ak Bars Kazan plays in the Continental Hockey League .
- The Rubin Kazan football club represents the city in the Premjer League . In 2008, the club became Russian football champions for the first time . The success was repeated in 2009.
- The basketball club UNICS Kazan plays in the Superleague Russia .
- The volleyball clubs VK Zenit-Kazan (men) and VK Dynamo Kazan (women) play in the volleyball super league.
- The city is represented in the field of hockey by the club HC Dinamo Kazan .
- The city is home to the bandy club HK Dynamo Kazan .
In 2011 the European Weightlifting Championships were held in Kazan, in 2013 the city hosted the Summer Universiade and in 2014 the World Fencing Championships . In 2015 the World Swimming Championships were held in Kazan. The city hosted the World Bandy Championships in 2005 and 2011 .
Kazan was one of the venues for the 2018 World Cup . The Kazan Arena , which was already used for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup , was built for this purpose. The German national team played their last World Cup group game against South Korea in the Kazan stadium. After the German team left the World Cup tournament, Christof Kneer of the Süddeutsche Zeitung wrote : “From now on, 'Kazan' is in a row with 'Córdoba' and 'Gijón': as a code for one of these darkest hours, which also those children will say something whose parents don't even know each other today. "
The transport network is well developed, including shipping on several rivers, including the Volga and Kama, and the international airport.
In 2005 the Kazan Metro was opened on the occasion of the 1000th anniversary of the city . It currently comprises a line with ten stations and is to be expanded further in the coming years. Currently (2013) it carries 31.3 million passengers per year. Other public transport options in the city include trams, buses, trolley buses and marshrutkas . The city also has a long-distance train station , an inland port and an international airport .
There are two large aircraft factories in Kazan : The Kazan Aircraft Production Association (KAPO), known for aircraft such as the Pe-8 , IL-62 , Tu-104 or Tu-160 , the OAO Kazan Helicopters , known for the Mil Mi-8- and Mil Mi-17 helicopters, also OAO Kazan Motor-Building Production Association , a manufacturer of aircraft and gas turbines, and OO MVEN Company , an aircraft equipment supplier and parachute manufacturer. Companies in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries as well as a production of medical devices are also located in Kazan. Based on the oil industry of Tatarstan, on the growing manufacturing industry, on the construction industry, tourism and trade - u. a. with Turkish importers and exporters - Kazan has developed into a flourishing center with supraregional importance.
Education and universities
Kazan is home to a variety of universities and higher education institutions. Of particular importance is the Kazan State University , the second oldest university in Russia. Numerous important personalities in Russian history, including Lenin and Tolstoy, studied at it .
- Branch of the Military Artillery University
- Branch of the Moscow State Trade University
- Branch of the Moscow Consumer Cooperation University
- Branch of the Legal Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia
- Branch of the Moscow Energy Institute
- Branch of the Institute of Armored Forces Chelyabinsk
- Institute for Economics and Law
- Institute for Economics and Administration
- Institute of Economy, Administration and Law Kazan
- Institute for Social and Humanities Knowledge
- Kazan Institute of Business and Administration
- Kazan Institute of Finance and Economics
- Kazan Command Engineering University
- Kazan State Academy of Architecture and Construction
- Kazan State Academy of Culture and Art
- Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine
- Kazan State Agricultural Academy
- Kazan State Medical University
- Kazan State Pedagogical University
- Kazan A.N. Tupolev State Technical University
- Kazan State Technological University , (Казанский национальный исследовательский технологический университет, КНИТУ - KGTU)
- Kazan State University
- Kazan State Energy Institute
- Kazan State Conservatory
- Social Law Institute
- Tatar-American Regional College
- Tatar Institute for Business Cooperation
Kazan has a temperate continental climate with cold winters (temperatures sometimes dropping below −30 ° C) and mild summers, with average temperatures of 20 ° C.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Kazan
German House of the Republic of Tatarstan
The German House of the Republic of Tatarstan was founded in 2000. Today it is a center for Russian Germans as well as a center for German language and culture. Victor Dietz has been the director since 2008.
The "Kazan phenomenon"
At the end of the 1960s, Kazan was one of the first cities in the Soviet Union in which criminal youth gangs came together, which later also founded branches in Leningrad and Moscow . This development, which escalated in Kazan from around 100 small occasional criminal peer groups to around 20 mafia-like large gangs that controlled the small business, was called the "Kazan phenomenon". The term found its way into the English language as the "Kazan phenomenon" and drew some sociological research. Due to the positive economic development after 2005, crime has decreased significantly.
Kazan maintains the following city partnerships (as of 2005):
- Almaty , Kazakhstan , since 1996
- Ankara , Turkey
- Antalya , Turkey
- Balikesir , Turkey
- Braunschweig , Germany , since 1988
- Bryan and College Station , Texas , United States
- Eskişehir , Turkey
- Hangzhou , People's Republic of China
- Harare , Zimbabwe
- Hyderabad , India
- Istanbul , Turkey
- Jeddah , Saudi Arabia
- Jūrmala , Latvia
- al-Minufiyya and al-Qalyubiyya (governorates), Egypt
- Nur-Sultan , Kazakhstan , since 2004
- Shumen , Bulgaria
- Shenzhen , People's Republic of China
- Tabriz , Iran
- Urbino , Italy
- Verona , Italy
sons and daughters of the town
The sons and daughters of the city of Kazan include: a. the Russian poet Gawriil Derschawin (1743–1816), the Austrian astronomer Karl Ludwig von Littrow (1811–1877), the famous Russian opera singer Fyodor Chaliapin (1873–1938), the Russian-American painter Nikolai Ivanovich Feschin (1881–1955), the German pianist Georg von Albrecht (1891–1976), the composer Sofia Gubaidulina (* 1931), the highest Islamic dignitary ( Grand Mufti ) in the Russian Federation Talgat Tajuddin (* 1948), the chief of staff of the Russian Armed Forces Valeri Gerasimow (* 1955) , Russian actress Tschulpan Khamatova (* 1975) and Russian ice hockey player Dmitri Obuchow (* 1983).
Celebrities who lived and worked in Kazan
- Maxim Gorki lived here from 1884 and 1888 and worked at times as a baker's journeyman.
- Vladimir Ilyich Lenin studied here in 1887 and was later exiled to Kokushkino near Kazan.
- Lev Tolstoy studied oriental languages here from 1841 to 1847 and then law.
- Alexander Pushkin visited Kazan in 1833 for 55 hours to research the background to the Pugachev uprising .
- Gabdulla Tukaj (1886–1913), Tatar folk poet, lived and died in Kazan.
- Musa Cälil (1906–1944), Tatar poet and Soviet officer, was executed while in German captivity.
- Karl Fuchs (medic) (1776–1846), German-Russian physician and botanist, honorary citizen of Kazan.
- Joseph Johann von Littrow (1781–1840), Austrian astronomer, founded an experimental observatory in Kazan, father of the astronomer Karl Ludwig von Littrow (1811–1877)
- Nikolai Lobachevsky (1792-1856), mathematician
- Ğabdulla Tuqay (1886–1913), Tatar folk poet, literary critic, essayist and translator
- Yevgeny Sawoiski (1907–1976), physicist
- Dilyara Usmanova, Ilnur Minnulin, Rafik Mikhametshin: Islamic Education in Soviet and post-Soviet Tatarstan . In: Michael Kemper, Raoul Motika, Stefan Reichmuth (Eds.): Islamic Education in the Soviet Union and Its Successor States . Routledge, London 2010, ISBN 0-415-36815-4 , pp. 21-66 .
- 200th anniversary of the Kazan State University Article by Sören Urbansky in the NZZ
- Kazan on mojgorod.ru
- 1000 years of Kazan
- Student project on the history of the city of Kazan by uni-tuebingen.de (keywords: memory, memory, religion)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Russia - Biggest Cities 2018. Accessed December 1, 2019 .
- Adam Olearius (1656): Increased Newe Description of the Muscowitischen and Persischen Reyse: So happened by the opportunity of a Holstein embassy to the Russian Tsar and King in Persia; In what the opportunity of those places and countries / through which the Reyse passed / as Liffland / Russia / Tartaria / Medes and Persia / sampt the inhabitants nature / life / customs / house, world and spiritual status / carefully recorded / and with many mostly after adorned / to be located in figures placed in life. Which at the other time publishes Adam Olearius Ascanius / the Princely Governing Lords of Schleßwig Holstein Bibliothecarius and Hoff Mathematicus. (or urn : nbn: de: gbv: 23-drucke / 263-2-hist-2f1 ). Catalog entry Wolfenbütteler Digitale Bibliothek (WDB)
- See Michael Kemper, Raoul Motika, Stefan Reichmuth (eds.): Islamic Education in the Soviet Union and Its Successor States. Routledge, London 2010, p. 4.
- David Schimmelpenninck van der Oye: Mirza Kazem-Bek and the Kazan School of Russian Orientology. In: Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Volume 28, No. 3, 2008, muse.jhu.edu [accessed September 15, 2018]). , pp. 443-458 (
- Renate Würsch: Niẓāmīs treasury of secrets. An investigation into 'Maẖzan ul-asrār'. Reichert, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-89500-462-6 , p. 25 f.
- Walter Görlitz : Brief history of the German general staff. Haude and Spener, Berlin 1967, , p. 251.
- Erich Maschke (Hrsg.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977, .
- Национальный состав населения Республики Татарстан. In: tatstat.ru. July 10, 2012, accessed on September 14, 2018 (PDF; 208 kB).
- Joseph Schmidlin : Catholic mission history. Missionsdruckerei, Steyl 1924, , p. 532.
- Cf. Usmanova u. a .: Islamic Education in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tatarstan. 2010.
- Greg Stutchbury: Swimming-Celebrations as Kazan awarded 2015 worlds. In: Reuters . July 15, 2011, accessed June 21, 2020 .
- 2018 FIFA World Cup in eleven venues. In: fifa.com. September 29, 2012, archived from the original on November 6, 2012 ; accessed on June 21, 2020 .
- Christof Kneer: German WM-Aus: Löw exemplified the nonchalance. In: sueddeutsche.de . June 27, 2018, accessed June 21, 2020 .
- С казанского электротранспорта сняли «ценовую дискриминацию». In: business-gazeta.ru. January 29, 2014, accessed September 14, 2018.
- Ramon Schack : The Tatar model. (No longer available online.) In: zenithonline.de. August 5, 2014, archived from the original on August 20, 2014 ; accessed on September 14, 2018 .
- Herbert C. Covey: Street Gangs Throughout the World. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Ill. 2010, ISBN 978-0-398-07906-2 , p. 172 ff.
- «Города-побратимы». (No longer available online.) In: kazan1000.ru. December 13, 2013, archived from the original on December 13, 2013 ; Retrieved September 14, 2018 (Russian, twin cities of Kazan on the official website 1000 Years of Kazan ).
- Comune di Verona - Grandi Eventi - Gemellaggi e Patti d'Amicizia . Retrieved April 24, 2018.