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Minsk, Mensk | Minsk
Мінск, Mенск | Минск
( Belarus. ) | ( Russian )
coat of arms
coat of arms
State : BelarusBelarus Belarus
Established : 1067
Coordinates : 53 ° 54 '  N , 27 ° 33'  E Coordinates: 53 ° 54 '  N , 27 ° 33'  E
Height : 280  m
Area : 348.85  km²
Residents : 2,020,600 (2020)
Population density : 5,792 inhabitants per km²
Time zone : Moscow time ( UTC + 3 )
Telephone code : (+375) 17th
Postal code : 220000
License plate : 7th
Mayor : Anatoly Siwak
Web presence :
Minsk, Mensk (Belarus)
Minsk, Mensk (53 ° 54 ′ 0 ″ N, 27 ° 33 ′ 0 ″ E)
Minsk, Mensk
Independence Square in the center of Minsk

Minsk ( Belarusian Мінск , older also Менск , Russian Минск ) is the capital and at the same time the largest city of Belarus with around 1.981 million inhabitants (as of 2018) . It is also the capital of Minskaya Woblasz and seat of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as well as the political, economic and cultural center of Belarus with universities and technical schools as well as numerous churches, theaters and museums.


Position and extent

Minsk lies on the Swislatsch , a tributary of the Bjaresina . The area of ​​the city is 348.45 km².

City structure

City districts of Minsk

The city is divided into nine administrative / urban districts: Zentralny (1), Sawezki (2), Perschamajski (3), Partysanski (4), Sawodski (5), Leninski (6), Kastrytschnizki (7), Maskouski (8) and Frunsenski (9). The village settlements and one urban settlement were subordinated to the city council.

River Svislach River in Minsk

Etymology of the name

Mensk, the medieval name of the city, is derived from the former Menka (Menja) river, a tributary of the Swislatsch. In all likelihood, the name of the stream goes back to the Slavic root * men- , which means "small".

The underlying Indo-European root * mei- can also be found in words such as reduce or minimal or Menshevik .

Woblas coat of arms on the flag of Minskaya Woblasz

coat of arms

The coat of arms shows in blue, facing the viewer, the praying Holy Mother of God in a blue dress and red cloak, cap and shoes standing on a silver cloud , on each side of which a silver-clad and winged angel with a golden nimbus kneels facing and above all floating two cherub heads of the same color .

In addition, representations with a golden halo of the central figure are known. The coat of arms has also been adopted in the flag . In a golden Wobla coat of arms with a golden wall crown and three wavy beams , the city coat of arms is inserted in the upper left quarter.

Climate table

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: WMO ; wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Minsk
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) −4.2 −2.5 2.4 10.9 18.4 21.3 23.6 21.7 16.5 9.9 3.1 −1.2 O 10.1
Min. Temperature (° C) −9.8 −8.9 −4.8 1.8 7.6 11.1 12.6 11.7 7.8 3.3 −1.3 −6.2 O 2.1
Precipitation ( mm ) 40 34 42 42 62 83 88 72 60 49 52 53 Σ 677
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 1.3 2.6 4.1 5.8 7.8 8.8 8.4 7.5 5.1 3.3 1.1 0.9 O 4.7
Rainy days ( d ) 10 9 10 9 9 11 11 9 9 9 11 12th Σ 119
Humidity ( % ) 87 84 79 73 67 67 71 74 77 83 88 89 O 78.2
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: WMO ; wetterkontor.de


Middle Ages and early modern times

At the beginning of 1067 Minsk was first mentioned as Menesk or Mensk, a city in the Principality of Polotsk in the Association of the Kievan Rus . The first mention in the Primary Chronicle (russ. Повесть временных лет ) was the battle on the Nemiga in connection with the Kievan princes brothers Izyaslav I. , Svyatoslav II. And Vsevolod I. against the Polotsk prince Vseslav attracted to the field, and in the process also looted the city of Minsk. From 1101 it became the capital of an independent principality of Minsk . As a result of ongoing disputes between the various princely families, there were repeated campaigns to which Minsk fell victim. The city was first besieged in 1116 by the troops of the Kiev prince Vladimir Monomakh and in 1119 it was finally added to the Grand Duchy of Kiev . Although the Polotsk princes tried again several times between 1159 and 1161 to conquer Minsk, the city initially still belonged to Kiev. Due to the general political situation, but also because of the favorable geographical location of the city, Minsk developed into an important trade and handicraft center between the 11th and 13th centuries, as extensive archaeological finds from this period prove.

Since the beginning of the 14th century it has belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania . Minsk initially belonged to the Lithuanian Grand Duke and King of Poland , Jogaila , who ceded the city of Minsk with all of the lands and residents belonging to it to his brother Skirgaila (Polish. Skirgiełło, Belarus. Skirhajla). From 1413 to 1565 the city was part of the Vilnius Voivodeship, but changed hands several times during this time. B. 1418 to the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas .

As early as 1444, the city was in the list of the 15 most developed cities of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania . In 1499 Minsk received Magdeburg city rights and all the privileges resulting from it. From then on it was ruled by a magistrate. During this time the construction of the town hall began.

Minsk has belonged to Poland-Lithuania since the Union of Lublin in 1569 . The Polish language became very important in the city. In the 16th century, Minsk became an important city of handicrafts and trade. As part of an administrative reform, Minsk became the center of the Minsk Voivodeship from 1565 to 1566, which included 60 towns and cities. In the 1560s, a number of monasteries of different orders (including Franciscans , Dominicans , Carmelites , Cistercians , Benedictines ), whose various buildings were to shape the cityscape for a long time, were founded.

Over time, an impressive baroque architectural ensemble developed, especially on the Upper Market, the remains of which can still be seen today on the later Cathedral Square and today's Freedom Square.

As a result of the Russo-Polish War 1654–1667 , the city was partly badly affected. After the city was occupied by units of the Russian army in 1655, large parts of the predominantly Polish-Lithuanian and Jewish population fled Minsk and only gradually returned later. In 1707, the city was part of the Northern War (1700–1721) by the Swedish army of Charles XII. conquered.

Tsar times

The reconstructed Minsk Old Town Hall
Classicist street in Minsk, today the seat of the KGB-RB building

Around 1790 the population of the city was 6500-7000. The majority of the population were Jews and Poles, with a small Belarusian minority. In 1793, Minsk came to Russia as a result of the second Polish partition. In the same year the city became the center of the Minsk Orthodox Eparchy (today the center of the Belarusian Orthodox Church ). In 1798 the Roman Catholic diocese of Minsk was also founded. Minsk became the capital of the governorate of the same name as early as 1796 and received a new city coat of arms in December of the same year: the Holy Virgin in a blue field, surrounded by four angels. The city's former lingua franca , Polish, has been increasingly replaced by the Russian language since Minsk became part of the Russian Empire .

During the " Patriotic War " that Russia waged against the Napoleonic troops, Mikołaj Oppeln-Bronikowski was appointed governor in July. The city's population fell from 9,000 to just 3,048, and the economy was also badly damaged. During the time of occupation, the French established and led a “transitional government of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania”. Their main task was to collect natural produce and recruit soldiers for the Grande Armée . The period of French occupation ended with the reconquest of the city by Russian troops in November 1812. During the January uprising , the imperial government introduced martial law in Minsk.

View of Minsk around 1870
Minsk around 1912

By the middle of the 19th century, the city's economy had largely recovered. The population grew steadily, and cultural life flourished. During this time, several works by the famous Polish composer Stanisław Moniuszko (1819–1872), who was born near the city and lived there for a long time, were performed in Minsk.

With the increasing population and the new cultural opportunities, the diversity of beliefs arose, which was to remain characteristic of Minsk into the 20th century. The numerically most important denominations or religious communities were the Jewish, Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic. According to the 1897 census, the city population was just under 91,000 people. The Jewish share of the city's population was 51.2%. Russians made up almost 26%, Poles 11.4%, Belarusians only made up around 9%. It should be noted, however, that in the census numerous Belarusians indicated “Russian” as their origin.

In 1898 the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party was founded in Minsk. From this party later the Communist Party of the Soviet Union developed .

During the First World War , Minsk was the seat of the Russian High Command in 1914 and 1915. On February 21, 1918, Minsk was captured by German troops as part of Operation Faustschlag . The rapid advance of the Central Powers led to the signing of the Brest-Litovsk dictated peace by the Bolsheviks on March 3, 1918.

Soviet Union

From 1922 to 1941

Center of Minsk, 1939

In 1918 Minsk became the capital of the short-lived “ Belarusian People's Republic ”. In 1922 Minsk became the capital of the newly formed Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR), a republic of the Soviet Union . The population rose to almost 240,000 by 1939, with the Belarusians now also representing the largest population group.

German occupation

German troops in Minsk in August 1941, the propaganda company joined
Two men and a woman (with a sign hung around his neck, “We are partisans and shot at German soldiers”) before their public execution (October 26, 1941; photo from the Federal Archives)
Departure of people marked as “Jews according to race” in Minsk, photo by Ernst Herrmann from the Federal Archives
Destruction in Minsk, 1941

In 1941, Minsk was badly destroyed in the battle of the Kessel near Minsk during World War II. On June 28, 1941, six days after the outbreak of war, the city was largely captured by German troops. The Red Army was able to evacuate several thousand residents of the city into the safe hinterland, but the majority of the residents remained in the badly destroyed city. After the conquest of the city, the Germans began the hunt for the Jewish population as well as all communists and their sympathizers, whom one could get hold of. In December 1941, Wazlau Iwanouski was appointed mayor of the city by the German occupiers.

Several houses that had not been destroyed by then were burned down by the Wehrmacht and their residents were expelled. Tens of thousands of Minsk people were murdered or deported to Germany for forced labor until the liberation on July 3, 1944 , many starved to death because the residents only received 30 percent of their food rations. Several hospitals were destroyed and should not be rebuilt. Most of the city's residents were hostile to the German occupation forces, but many also collaborated with them, which was often the only chance of survival. The forests around Minsk were a center of the partisan movement . Partisans were regularly executed in the city and left hanging visibly for days and sometimes for weeks as a deterrent.

Before the German invasion, Minsk was one of the largest Jewish communities in the Soviet Union in terms of both percentage and absolute numbers. Around 30% of the approximately 240,000 inhabitants were Jews . Most of them were abducted and murdered during the German occupation. With the Minsk ghetto , one of the largest assembly camps / ghettos in Europe was established in those years . Starting in July 1941, around 60,000 Jews were concentrated there in a two-square-kilometer district in the northeast, of which only a few survived. By the time the ghetto was dissolved in October 1943, tens of thousands were shot in so-called “actions”, and many hundreds died of diseases and malnutrition as well as individual attacks by the guards. The Maly Trostinez extermination camp was located near Minsk .

Reconstruction from 1944

During Operation Bagration , the Soviet Union recaptured Minsk in June and July 1944. After the liberation, the city only had about 50,000 inhabitants. For her defense, she was given the honorary title of Hero City in the Soviet Union . In Minsk there was a POW camp 168 for German prisoners of war of the Second World War . It developed from Camp 183, Borisow, and existed until 1953. Seriously ill people were cared for in the prisoner-of-war hospital in 2035 .

Victory Square in Minsk

After the war, a rapid reconstruction took place with wide streets and large parks. In the city center, the street network was completely redesigned in favor of a chessboard layout, and new representative buildings were created, primarily for the administration. In the course of the redevelopment of the city center, larger parts of the still preserved old town were demolished, especially in the area of ​​the Nemiga quarter (between ul. Nemiga street and the former Mascherow Prospect, today's Prospectus of the Victors).

As early as 1959, Minsk had over 500,000 inhabitants, significantly more than before the war. In the 1970s, Minsk became a city of millions. In 1984 the Minsk Metro was opened. Of the two lines that cross in the center, line 2 in a north-south direction has already been completed. The expansion of line 1 (in an east-west direction) continues. The first four stations of the third line were opened in November 2020.

Republic of Belarus (since 1991)

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Republic of Belarus became independent with Minsk as its capital. Since then, Minsk has also been the seat of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). As a result of its status as the Belarusian capital, numerous embassies were also established in Minsk, and the population rose to over 1.9 million by 2012.

In 2014 and 2015, the city was the scene of negotiations and namesake of two agreements to pacify and de- escalate the war, which has been escalating in Ukraine since 2014 : the Minsk Protocol ("Minsk I") and Minsk II .

Protests in Minsk 2020

During the mass protests in 2020 after the presidential election , Minsk was a major main stage of the protest movement in the country. On August 10, 2020, the unarmed protester Aljaksandr Tarajkouski was shot dead by security forces. On August 16, 2020, around 200,000 demonstrators gathered in the capital. When hundreds of thousands of demonstrators wanted to march past the Palace of Independence , the residence of Aljaksandr Lukashenkas, on August 23, 2020 , they were blocked by security forces.

Population development

Source: pop-stat.mashke.org


Minsk is the main industrial center of Belarus. There are more than 250 factories and factories in the city. The city's industrial development began in the 1860s and was facilitated by the railroad built in the 1870s. However, much of the industrial infrastructure was destroyed in the First World War, and especially in the Second World War. After the last war, the development of the economy was strongly linked to urban development. Above all, research-intensive industries were settled by the Soviet leadership. Minsk became a manufacturing base for trucks, tractors, transmissions, optical equipment, refrigerators, televisions and radios, bicycles, motorcycles, and metalworking equipment. In addition to the electrical and mechanical engineering industries, the city had factories for building materials and the food, textile and printing industries. During the time of the Soviet Union, all industries, suppliers and markets within the Union were linked and coordinated with one another. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , economic relations broke off and sales markets disappeared. Minsk, for example, as well as all cities in the former Soviet Union, had to contend with a massive decline in economic output between 1991 and 1994.

However, from 1995 under Alexander Lukashenko's government, much of the heavy industry was regained. The economic downturn in Minsk was much weaker than in many other Eastern European cities. Even today, 40% of workers are employed in the manufacturing sector. More than 70% of the goods produced in Belarus are exported, especially to Russia and other CIS countries . However, large parts of the local industry are not internationally competitive, as many production facilities have so far only been inadequately modernized. The city's largest employers are the Minsk Tractor Plant (20,000 employees) and the Minsk Automobile Plant . There is also a large factory for refrigerators "Atlant". Other important companies in the city of Minsk include the semiconductor manufacturer Integral , the tram and bus manufacturer Belkommunmasch , the software developer Wargaming.net , the watch manufacturer Lutsch and the telecommunications company Beltelecom . The headquarters of the state industrial group Belnaftachim and the manufacturer of alcoholic beverages Minsk Kristall are also located in Minsk.

education and Science

Building of the Belarusian National Library on the eastern outskirts of Minsk

In Minsk there are twelve state universities, including a former medical institute, today's Minsk State Medical University , five academies, including the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus, as well as an administrative academy under the President of the Republic of Belarus , an institute, four colleges (one type higher technical school, roughly comparable to the German grammar school or the French lyceum) as well as nine private universities. The National Library of Belarus has been completed since 2006 .


Theater, Opera and Ballet Minsk


In Minsk there are the following museums: the National Art Museum , the Museum of War History  / the History of the Great Patriotic War , the Museum of the History and Culture of Belarus, the Literature and Memorial Museum Janka Kupala , the Maksim Bahdanovich Literature Museum , the Pyatrus Brouka Museum , Sair Asgur Museum, Museum of Theater and Music History, Museum of Belarusian Literary History, Museum of Contemporary Fine Art, Museum of History of National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus , Museum of Medical History, the Nature and Environment Museum, the Vankowitschy Museum , the house in honor of the first Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party assembly and the Park of Stones .


Minsk also has 19 theaters such as the Janka Kupala Theater (the oldest in Belarus), the State Music Theater, the State Puppet Theater, the Minsk Small Theater, the New Playhouse , the Chrystafor Satire and Humor Theater , the Theater of Belarusian Dramaturgy, the Theater of the Cinema Actor, the Youth Small Art Theater , the Poetic Drama Znich and the Theater of the Belarusian Army. The Maxim Gorky National Theater primarily offers a repertoire of Russian-language plays, while the Janka Kupala Theater focuses on dramas in the Belarusian language, including translations. The young spectator's theater mainly performs plays for children and young people.

Circus, film and more

The Belarusian state circus goes back to the tradition of the Soviet era and, housed in a permanent circus building, has a program all year round. The National Opera Theater and the National Ballet Theater, both of which are located in the same building and are popularly referred to as the Opera and Ballet Theater, also date back to this period. Minsk is also home to the Minsk State Philharmonic . It is under the direction of Vyachaslau Bolitsch (as of the end of 2018).

The state cinema studio Belarusfilm in Minsk is the only film production company in Belarus.

Minsk has a small zoo , eleven houses of culture and nine palaces of culture, including the Palace of the Republic on October Square .

sightseeing features

Nesaleschnaszi prospect in the center
Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Particularly worth seeing in Minsk are the old town, the formerly so-called "Upper Town" (Russian Верхний город ) around the Orthodox Holy Spirit Cathedral , the old Bernardine convent from 1628 and the town hall, which was rebuilt according to historical plans. Diagonally opposite the Old Town Hall of Minsk , on Lenin Street, is the Catholic Cathedral of the Names of the Virgin Mary , which is part of the former complex of the former Jesuit monastery. Below the old town, directly on the banks of the Swislatsch, is the Traezkae-Vorstadt (German: Trinity suburb, a reconstructed old-town quarter from the 19th century). In front of this quarter, a memorial in the form of a small chapel dedicated to the victims of the war in Afghanistan was erected on an artificial island in the Swislatsch.

In 2006, the Memorial Church of All Saints was completed with government support , a national memorial for all fallen and murdered Belarusian soldiers and civilians of the Napoleonic Russian campaign in 1812 and the German conquests of the First and Second World Wars. Also below the old town, on Nemiga Street, is the small church of Saints Peter and Paul from 1613, which, however, looks rather tiny against the background of huge new buildings.

National Memorial Church of
All Saints of the Russian Orthodox Church

The former Skaryna Boulevard (see: Francysk Skaryna ), a splendid inner city boulevard that is now called “ Independence Boulevard ” and provides impressive examples of Soviet architecture, is undoubtedly one of the most important inner-city traffic arteries . A river promenade along the Swislatsch leads through several inner-city parks (e.g. Janka-Kupala-Park and the children's park named after Maxim Gorki ).

Central squares are Independence Square (the former Lenin Square), Jakub Kolas Square and Victory Square (Belarus. Плошча Перамогі , Russian Площадь Победы ), the appearance of which is mainly due to a widely visible obelisk and the oval on its northeast side Building complexes is shaped in the Soviet Empire style. Not least by the events following the presidential elections in March 2006 is also the October Square (white soot. Плошча Кастрычніцкая , Russ. Октябрская площадь ) now well known that as a central space serves for rallies and its formative architectural element of the built in the 1980s Palace of Republic (Belarus. Палац Рэспублікі , Russian Дворец Республики ) is.

Another important architectural monument is the brick Catholic Church of St. Simon and St. Helena , commonly known as the “red church” (Russian Красный костёл ). Because of its design, the opera house is also one of the important architectural monuments of the early Soviet period. In front of the opera house there is a monument to the Belarusian national poet Maksim Bahdanovich .

About five kilometers northwest of the city limits is the Saslaujer reservoir , which was created in 1956 and is mainly known as the "Minsk Sea" and has a total of around ten kilometers of beachfront. It is a popular leisure and holiday destination, especially among locals, and is also used extensively for water sports activities.


City bus on the Minsk station square
On November 7, 2005, the Spartyunaja (Спартыўная) station was opened.

Minsk has an important function as an international transport hub in Eastern Europe . In Minsk the routes for rail and road traffic from Paris to Moscow and from Northern Europe to Ukraine cross .


In the center of the city is the main train station Minsk Passaschyrski , the central passenger station of the national railway company Belaruskaja Tschyhunka , from which numerous direct connections - for example to Moscow or Saint Petersburg - are offered. The Minsk-Sartaval'ny marshalling yard , located southwest of it on the route to Brest , is used for freight traffic .


Around Minsk runs along the outskirts of the highway-like -developed Quick road ring MKAD , out from which important highways of the country. Only the M 1 runs completely past the city. Road connections from Minsk exist to Brest , Hrodna , Vilnius , Mjadsel , Vitebsk , Worscha , Mahiljou and Homel .

air traffic

Minsk had two airports: Minsk-1 Airport , located within the city, was closed on December 23, 2015. Today only the international Minsk National Airport (formerly Minsk-2 Airport ), which opened in 1982 and is located about 40 kilometers outside the city, is in operation. It is the only international airport in the country and the hub of the Belavia airline .

Local transport

The public transport is by the public company Minsktrans managed. This operates the Minsk metro with three lines, the Minsk tram with ten lines and the 64 trolleybus and 100 omnibus lines. There are more than 800 buses in the network of trolleybus routes, more than 160 of which can cover shorter distances without an overhead contact line, as they are equipped with an appropriate battery. All public transport runs between 5:30 am and 1:00 am.


Minsk Arena (2014)

Town twinning

Minsk lists the following twin cities : Bengaluru ( India ) Bishkek ( Kyrgyzstan ) Bryansk ( Russia ) (since 2014) Detroit ( USA , Michigan ) Eindhoven ( Netherlands ) Kaluga ( Russia ) (since 2015) Lyon ( France ) Nizhny Novgorod ( Russia ) ( since 2007) Nottingham ( United Kingdom ) Novosibirsk ( Russia ) (since 2012) Sendai ( Japan ) Shanghai ( China ) Tehran ( Iran ) Bonn ( Germany ) The Minsk districts "Partisan" and "Oktjabr" maintain partnerships with the Berlin district of Marzahn-Hellersdorf .
United StatesUnited States 
United KingdomUnited Kingdom 
China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China 



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Web links

Wiktionary: Minsk  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Minsk  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Population as of January 1, 2020. In: belstat.gov.by,
  2. Численность населения на 1 января 2018 г. и среднегодовая численность населения за 2017 год по Республике Беларусь в разрезе оибленность населения за. In: belstat.gov.by, March 29, 2018, accessed on April 11, 2019 (PDF; 0.1 MB).
  3. Государственный комитет по имуществу Республики Беларусь. Национальное кадастровое агентство: Сайт содержит. In: ate.nca.by, accessed on September 22, 2018.
  4. Положение о гербе города минска
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  7. ^ Anton Pelinka: After the calm. A political autobiography. Lesethek-Verlag, Braumüller GmbH, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-99100-006-8 , p. 145.
  8. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 г. Распределение городского и сельского населения областей союзных республик по национальности и поности и поюзных In: demoscope.ru. No. 781-782, 10-23 September 2018, accessed September 22, 2018.
  9. ^ Wojciech Roszkowski, Jan Kofman: Biographical Dictionary of Central and Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. Routledge, July 8, 2016. p. 380.
  10. Maschke, Erich (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
  11. See comprehensively Thomas M. Bohn: Minsk - model city of socialism . Urban planning and urbanization in the Soviet Union after 1945 (= Andreas Eckert, Joachim Rückert, Working Group for Modern Social History [Hrsg.]: Industrielle Welt. Series of publications by the Working Group for Modern Social History . Volume 74 ). Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-412-20071-8 .
  12. http://urbanrail.net/eu/by/minsk/minsk.htm
  13. Опубликовано видео, как в Минске погиб Александр Тарайковский. У него ничего не было в руках - МВД утверждало, что он бросал бомбу . In: www.meduza.io . Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  14. Alexander Lukashenko armed himself and his son. zeit.de, August 23, 2020, accessed on August 23, 2020 .
  15. https://www.cs-dopravak.cz/minsk-ma-uz-pres-800-trolejbusu/ cs-dopravak from June 25, 2021 (Czech), accessed on June 26, 2021