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Amur Amur
, Heilong Jiang
Amur with headwaters and catchment area (yellow)

Amur with headwaters and catchment area (yellow)

Water code RU20030300112118100000012
location Transbaikalia , Khabarovsk , Amur Oblast , Jewish Autonomous Oblast ( Russia ),
Heilongjiang ( PR China )
River system Amur
Confluence of Argun and Schilka
53 ° 19 ′ 58 ″  N , 121 ° 28 ′ 49 ″  E
Source height 305  m above sea level Baltic Sea
muzzle in the Tatar Sound near Nikolayevsk on the Amur Coordinates: 52 ° 59 ′ 31 "  N , 140 ° 58 ′ 4"  E 52 ° 59 ′ 31 "  N , 140 ° 58 ′ 4"  E
Mouth height m
Height difference 305 m
Bottom slope 0.11 ‰
length 2824 km
Catchment area 1,855,000 km²
Drain MQ
11,400 m³ / s
Left tributaries Amasar , Urka , Uruscha , Oldoi , Olga , Bolshoi Newer , Seja , Bureja , Bira , Tunguska , Gorin , Amgun
Right tributaries Huma He , Songhua Jiang , Ussuri , Anjui , Gur
Big cities Blagoveshchensk , Khabarovsk , Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Medium-sized cities Mohe
Small towns Nikolayevsk on the Amur
Navigable 2824 km (total length)
The Amur at Heihe

The Amur at Heihe

The Amur near the settlement of Verkhnyaya Ekon in the Khabarovsk region, Russia

The Amur near the settlement of Verkhnyaya Ekon in the Khabarovsk region , Russia

One of the columns from the Ming period on the Tyr rock above the Amur, not far from Nikolayevsk (around 1860; the columns were brought to a museum in Vladivostok around 1900)

One of the pillars from the Ming period on the Tyr rock above the Amur, not far from Nikolaevsk (around 1860; the pillars were brought to a museum in Vladivostok around 1900 )

The Amur [ aˈmuːɐ̯ ] or Heilong Jiang ( Russian Аму́р , Chinese  黑龙江 , Pinyin Hēilóng Jiāng ) is a 2824 kilometer long river in China and Russia that flows into the northern Pacific .


Amur from Ewenisch Tamur for Great River ; Heilong Jiang from Chinese  黑龍江 , Pinyin Hēilóng Jiāng for Black Dragon River .


The river is created 61 kilometers west of Mohe by the confluence of the Argun and the Schilka .

After this river wedding, the Amur flows almost 2000 kilometers as a border river to the southeast. He takes the water from Bureja , Huma He , Seja and Songhua Jiang (Sungari). In front of the Sichote-Alin ("coastal mountains") it bends northeast in the Sino-Russian lowlands. The Ussuri flows in above Khabarovsk , and the Amur now flows to the mouth on Russian territory. Flowing further northeast, it absorbs the water of the Amgun .

The Amur flows slightly east of Nikolayevsk into the Tatar Sound , a strait between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of ​​Japan on the northwestern edge of the Pacific . The estuary is further east across the northern end of the Sakhalin Island .


The Amur is navigable along its entire length .

The water volumes measured at Komsomolsk (in March an average of 984 m³ / s, in September, however, 20,702 m³ / s; long-term average 9,819 m³ / s) come from a catchment area of ​​1,730,000 km².

Amur river system

Together with the left source river of the Amur, the Schilka, and its right source river, the Onon , the 4411 kilometer long river Onon-Schilka-Amur is created ; together with the right-hand Amur source river, the Argun, forms the 4444 kilometer long Argun-Amur river . On the Argun lies Hailar (today: municipality of Hulun Buir ) and about 150 kilometers to the west of it is the Hulun Lake (Hulun Nur), which actually has no contact with the Argun, which flows further east from it. In years with particularly high levels of rainfall, this lake, which is normally without any drainage, overflows on its north bank and flows into the Argun after about 30 kilometers. This gives the Cherlen (Kerulen), which flows into this lake, a connection to the Argun, which from there forms the Sino-Russian border in its lower reaches for 944 kilometers and then merges into the Amur, so that the 5052 kilometer-long Kerulen- Argun-Amur is born.

The pure Amur River is about as long as the Danube . The Kerulen-Argun-Amur river is the seventh longest on earth .

Places on the river


In the first agreement between China and a European power , the Treaty of Nerchinsk , Russia recognized the area on both sides of the Amur as Chinese territory on September 6, 1689. In 1858, with the Treaty of Aigun , the Amur became the border between the two states. However, there have been several border conflicts on this section of the border in the (recent) past.


The Amur Basin, in which the coniferous forests of the taiga meet the bush and swamp landscape of the tundra , is a region with great biodiversity . Here are Siberian tiger , wolf , lynx , brown bear and moose same procedure as for deer , Amur Leopard , Asiatic , mandarin duck and Indian Paradise Flycatcher . It is also an essential area for the Asiatic crane , and every year six different species of crane stop in the region. The red-necked crane and the white-naped crane also breed here .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Amur  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Amur  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Amur in the State Water Register of the Russian Federation (Russian)
  2. Amur Basin, Komsomolsk Station at University of New Hampshire - Global Runoff Data Center , accessed January 24, 2013
  3. Peter Matthiessen : The Kings of the Skies - Traveling with Cranes , Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-596-18195-7 , p. 18